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Nature contents: 01 November 2018

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Nature Volume 563 Issue 7729
This Week  
US proposal for defining gender has no basis in science
Brazil's new president adds to global threat to science
Paralysed people walk again after spinal-cord stimulation
World View  
Tear down visa barriers that block scholarship
Connie Nshemereirwe
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Brazil's controversial new president, academic freedom in Hungary and Australia, and name change for Hubble law
Current bulk NGS methods are inadequate to fully characterize cancer. Targeted single-cell DNA analysis resolves genetic heterogeneity, which has critical implications in understanding tumor evolution and the acquisition of therapeutic resistance. Read our spotlight and learn how you can use Tapestri to move precision medicine forward.
News in Focus
Rare genetic sequences illuminate early humans' history in Africa
Amy Maxmen
Europe shows first cards in €1-billion quantum bet
Davide Castelvecchi
Strict EU ruling on gene-edited crops squeezes science
Andrew J. Wight
'Why didn't we think to do this earlier?' Chemists thrilled by speedy atomic structures
Matthew Warren
Mothballed Mount Everest climate observatory could reopen by early next year
Lou Del Bello
Mars scientists edge closer to solving methane mystery
Alexandra Witze
Happy with a 20% chance of sadness
Matt Kaplan
The world's strongest MRI machines are pushing human imaging to new limits
Anna Nowogrodzki
Nature Podcast 01 November 2018
This week, the role that mood forecasting technology may play in suicide prevention, and a 'crisis' in dark matter research.
Protect the last of the wild
James E. M. Watson, Oscar Venter, Jasmine Lee et al.
Books and Arts  
There's a jungle in your bed
William Foster
The covert politics of cold-war science
Ann Finkbeiner
A call for a rational future, 100 million years of European history, and the hidden horror of the dairy trade: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser
Make better use of UN food and agriculture stats
Francesco N. Tubiello
WHO's embrace of traditional oriental medicines puts health and wildlife at risk
Andreas Bietz
Savvy leadership promotes ethical science
Elizabeth A. Luckman
Brighten outlook for long-term seabird monitoring
Tim R. Birkhead
Indian researchers must resist predatory open-access journals
Jagadeesh Bayry
Thomas A. Steitz (1940–2018)
Georgina Ferry
Web service makes big data available to neuroscientists
Jeffrey M. Perkel
Why Jupyter is data scientists' computational notebook of choice
Jeffrey M. Perkel
Technology Feature  
Tapping into the brain's star power
Esther Landhuis
Hungarian association wins prize for promoting participation of women in science
Amber Dance
Meet the space researcher smoothing the path for women in science across Africa
Amber Dance
Contagion in tranquil shades of grey
Deborah Walker
Distinct proteostasis circuits cooperate in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein quality control
Ubiquitin chains linked to cytoplasmic misfolded proteins are different from those linked to nuclear misfolded proteins, each requiring a distinct combination of molecular chaperones and ubiquitination circuitries.
Rahul S. Samant, Christine M. Livingston, Emily M. Sontag et al.
Emergence of multi-body interactions in a fermionic lattice clock
Clock spectroscopy of ultracold strontium atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice is used to observe the onset of multi-body interactions that result from the underlying pairwise interactions between atoms.
A. Goban, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti et al.
Cellular stretch reveals superelastic powers
External forces can make cells undergo large, irreversible deformations. It emerges that stretched mammalian cells grown in vitro can enter a state called superelasticity, in which large, reversible deformations occur.
Manuel Théry, Atef Asnacios
Deconstructive diversification of cyclic amines
Jose B. Roque, Yusuke Kuroda, Lucas T. Göttemann et al.
Active superelasticity in three-dimensional epithelia of controlled shape
Theoretical modelling in combination with measurements of tension and shape in epithelial domes of controlled geometry reveals a plateau of tension in tissue that is maintained by heterogeneous strain across cells.
Ernest Latorre, Sohan Kale, Laura Casares et al.
Three-dimensional collective charge excitations in electron-doped copper oxide superconductors
Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering on electron-doped copper oxide superconductors reveals a three-dimensional charge collective mode, which has properties suggestive of the long-sought acoustic plasmon.
M. Hepting, L. Chaix, E. W. Huang et al.
Resting zone of the growth plate houses a unique class of skeletal stem cells
In a mouse model, PTHrP-positive chondrocytes in the resting zone of the growth plate constitute a unique stem-cell population, which is initially unipotent and makes columnar chondrocytes that later exhibit multipotency.
Koji Mizuhashi, Wanida Ono, Yuki Matsushita et al.
The SWI/SNF complex is a mechanoregulated inhibitor of YAP and TAZ
The ARID1A-containing SWI/SNF complex operates as an inhibitor of the pro-oncogenic transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ; this interaction is regulated by cellular mechanotransduction.
Lei Chang, Luca Azzolin, Daniele Di Biagio et al.
A new road to cancer-drug resistance
The discovery of a mechanism that leads to cancer-therapy resistance highlights the many ways that tumour cells can adapt to survive — and reveals the limitations of categorizing patients by their gene mutations.
Katharina Schlacher
Dinosaur egg colour had a single evolutionary origin
A phylogenetic assessment based on Raman microspectroscopy of pigment traces in fossilized eggshells from all major dinosaur clades reveals that eggshell coloration and pigment pattern originated in nonavian theropod dinosaurs.
Jasmina Wiemann, Tzu-Ruei Yang, Mark A. Norell
TDP-43 and RNA form amyloid-like myo-granules in regenerating muscle
Cytoplasmic, amyloid-like oligomeric assemblies that contain TDP-43 are increased in damaged tissues with elevated regeneration, thereby enhancing the possibility of amyloid fibre formation and/or aggregation of TDP-43 in disease.
Thomas O. Vogler, Joshua R. Wheeler, Eric D. Nguyen et al.
Metal-free ribonucleotide reduction powered by a DOPA radical in Mycoplasma pathogens
A subclass of ribonucleotide reductase in Mycoplasma pathogens contains a stable radical formed from a modified tyrosine residue, overturning the presumed requirement for a dinuclear metal site in aerobic ribonucleotide reductase.
Vivek Srinivas, Hugo Lebrette, Daniel Lundin et al.
Conformational transitions of the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor
Cryo-electron microscopy of the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor in complex with various ligands yields four distinct structures, capturing serotonin binding in detail and increasing understanding of the gating mechanism of the receptor.
Lucie Polovinkin, Ghérici Hassaine, Jonathan Perot et al.
Cryo-EM reveals two distinct serotonin-bound conformations of full-length 5-HT3A receptor
Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the serotonin-bound 5-HT3A serotonin receptor show the receptor populating two distinct states, characterized by twisting in the extracellular and transmembrane domains relative to the apo state, which creates pathways for ion permeation.
Sandip Basak, Yvonne Gicheru, Shanlin Rao et al.
The metabolite dimethylsulfoxonium propionate extends the marine organosulfur cycle
A structurally unusual zwitterionic metabolite, dimethylsulfoxonium propionate (DMSOP), is synthesized by several dimethylsulfoniopropionate-producing microalgae and marine bacteria and is readily metabolized into dimethylsulfoxide by marine bacteria, expanding our knowledge of the marine organosulfur cycle.
Kathleen Thume, Björn Gebser, Liang Chen et al.
A neurodegenerative-disease protein forms beneficial aggregates in healthy muscle
Protein aggregation is a characteristic of several neurodegenerative diseases. But disease-associated aggregates of the protein TDP-43 have now been shown to have a beneficial role in healthy muscle.
Lindsay A. Becker, Aaron D. Gitler
DYNLL1 binds to MRE11 to limit DNA end resection in BRCA1-deficient cells
DYNLL1 antagonizes end resection of DNA double-strand breaks, thereby inhibiting homologous repair, and the loss of DYNLL1 correlates with poor progression-free survival of patients with BRCA1-mutant ovarian cancer.
Yizhou Joseph He, Khyati Meghani, Marie-Christine Caron et al.
m6A facilitates hippocampus-dependent learning and memory through YTHDF1
Neuronal stimulation induces protein translation of m6A-methylated neuronal mRNAs facilitated by YTHDF1, and this process contributes to learning and memory.
Hailing Shi, Xuliang Zhang, Yi-Lan Weng et al.
From the archive
What Nature was saying 50 and 100 years ago.
Definitions for adult stem cells debated
Adult tissues must maintain themselves and regenerate after damage. But are these crucial functions mediated by dedicated populations of stem cells, or do differentiated cells adopt stem-cell-like properties according to an organ's needs? Here, two scientists present evidence from both sides of the debate.
Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Meritxell Huch
Vowel recognition with four coupled spin-torque nano-oscillators
A network of four spin-torque nano-oscillators can be trained in real time to recognize spoken vowels, in a simple and scalable approach that could be exploited for large-scale neural networks.
Miguel Romera, Philippe Talatchian, Sumito Tsunegi et al.
Lineage tracking reveals dynamic relationships of T cells in colorectal cancer
Lei Zhang, Xin Yu, Liangtao Zheng et al.
News & Views  
Single-cell sequencing paints diverse pictures of the brain
Aparna Bhaduri, Tomasz J. Nowakowski
Mechanical quantum systems controlled
Michael R. Vanner
Chromatin clues to the trypanosome parasite's uniform coat
Steve Kelly, Mark Carrington

Scientific Reports
Open for submissions
Soft sensors and actuators
Guest editor: Il-Kwon Oh, KAIST, South Korea
This Collection will provide a platform for interdisciplinary studies of soft sensors and actuators, including their application in smart textiles, haptic electronics, biomedical devices and soft robotics.
A 'don't eat me' immune signal protects neuronal connections
Serge Rivest
Evidence of ancient Milky Way merger
Kim Venn
Absent forebrain replaced by embryonic stem cells
Jimena Andersen, Sergiu P. Pașca
Brief Communications Arising  
Assumptions for emergent constraints
Patrick T. Brown, Martin B. Stolpe, Ken Caldeira
Emergent constraints on climate sensitivity
Martin Rypdal, Hege-Beate Fredriksen, Kristoffer Rypdal et al.
Climate constraint reflects forced signal
Stephen Po-Chedley, Cristian Proistosescu, Kyle C. Armour et al.
Cox et al. reply
Peter M. Cox, Mark S. Williamson, Femke J. M. M. Nijsse et al.
Magnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals materials
Recent advances and future directions for the research of magnetic two-dimensional van der Waals materials are reviewed.
Kenneth S. Burch, David Mandrus, Je-Geun Park
Measurement-based quantum control of mechanical motion
The displacement of a mechanical resonator is measured to within 35% of the Heisenberg uncertainty limit, enabling feedback cooling to the quantum ground state, nine decibels below the quantum-backaction limit.
Massimiliano Rossi, David Mason, Junxin Chen et al.
The Moral Machine experiment
Responses from more than two million people to an internet-based survey of attitudes towards moral dilemmas that might be faced by autonomous vehicles shed light on similarities and variations in ethical preferences among different populations.
Edmond Awad, Sohan Dsouza, Richard Kim et al.
Targeted neurotechnology restores walking in humans with spinal cord injury
Spatially selective and temporally controlled stimulation of the spinal cord, together with rehabilitation, results in substantial restoration of locomotor function in humans with spinal cord injury.
Fabien B. Wagner, Jean-Baptiste Mignardot, Camille G. Le Goff-Mignardot et al.
Shared and distinct transcriptomic cell types across neocortical areas
Single-cell transcriptomics of more than 20,000 cells from two functionally distinct areas of the mouse neocortex identifies 133 transcriptomic types, and provides a foundation for understanding the diversity of cortical cell types.
Bosiljka Tasic, Zizhen Yao, Lucas T. Graybuck et al.
Distinct descending motor cortex pathways and their roles in movement
Transcriptional profiling and axonal reconstructions identify two types of pyramidal tract neuron in the motor cortex: one type projects to thalamic regions and produces early and persistent preparatory activity, and the other type projects to motor centres in the medulla and produces motor commands.
Michael N. Economo, Sarada Viswanathan, Bosiljka Tasic et al.
The merger that led to the formation of the Milky Way's inner stellar halo and thick disk
A galaxy slightly larger than the Small Magellanic Cloud merged with the Milky Way about 10 billion years ago, thickening the ancient disk and forging the Galaxy's inner halo.
Amina Helmi, Carine Babusiaux, Helmer H. Koppelman et al.
Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links
Contrary to current expectation, eavesdropping on terahertz wireless data links is shown to be easier than expected, by placing an object in the path of the signal that scatters part of it to a receiver located elsewhere.
Jianjun Ma, Rabi Shrestha, Jacob Adelberg et al.
Gate-tunable room-temperature ferromagnetism in two-dimensional Fe3GeTe2
Monolayers of Fe3GeTe2 exhibit itinerant ferromagnetism with an out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy; ionic gating raises the ferromagnetic transition temperature of few-layer Fe3GeTe2 to room temperature.
Yujun Deng, Yijun Yu, Yichen Song et al.
Base-free nickel-catalysed decarbonylative Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of acid fluorides
This nickel-catalysed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of aryl boronic acids with in-situ-generated acid fluorides does not require an exogenous base and is applicable to a range of base-sensitive boronic acids and bioactive carboxylic acids.
Christian A. Malapit, James R. Bour, Conor E. Brigham et al.
Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 composition
An independent estimate based on atmospheric O2 and CO2 measurements suggests that global oceans absorbed about 0.83 watts per square metre of heat over the past three decades—at the high end of previous estimates.
L. Resplandy, R. F. Keeling, Y. Eddebbar et al.
Biodiversity increases and decreases ecosystem stability
Species richness was found to increase temporal stability but decrease resistance to warming in an experiment involving 690 micro-ecosystems consisting of 1 to 6 species of bacterivorous ciliates that were sampled over 40 days.
Frank Pennekamp, Mikael Pontarp, Andrea Tabi et al.
A cortico-cerebellar loop for motor planning
The cerebellum is critical for the coding of future movement in the frontal cortex.
Zhenyu Gao, Courtney Davis, Alyse M. Thomas et al.
A mesocortical dopamine circuit enables the cultural transmission of vocal behaviour
A dopaminergic mesocortical circuit in juvenile zebra finches detects the presence of an adult zebra finch tutor and helps to encode the performance of the tutor, facilitating the cultural transmission of vocal behaviour.
Masashi Tanaka, Fangmiao Sun, Yulong Li et al.
Genome organization and DNA accessibility control antigenic variation in trypanosomes
Long-read sequencing allows the assembly of antigen-gene arrays in Trypanosoma brucei and, coupled with deletion experiments, demonstrates that histone variants act as a molecular link between genome architecture, chromatin conformation and antigen variation.
Laura S. M. Müller, Raúl O. Cosentino, Konrad U. Förstner et al.
Neural blastocyst complementation enables mouse forebrain organogenesis
Neural blastocyst complementation creates a vacant forebrain niche in host embryos that can be populated by donor embryonic stem cell-derived dorsal telencephalic progenitors, resulting in a mouse brain organogenesis model.
Amelia N. Chang, Zhuoyi Liang, Hai-Qiang Dai et al.
Nuclear cGAS suppresses DNA repair and promotes tumorigenesis
DNA damage induces translocation of cyclic GMP–AMP synthase to the nucleus, where it suppresses homologous recombination by interfering with the formation of the PARP1–Timeless complex.
Haipeng Liu, Haiping Zhang, Xiangyang Wu et al.
Cryo-EM structure of the Ebola virus nucleoprotein–RNA complex at 3.6 Å resolution
Near-atomic resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of the Zaire ebolavirus nucleoprotein indicate a complex transition from the RNA-free to RNA-bound forms of the protein, and reveal the mechanism of oligomer formation and helical assembly.
Yukihiko Sugita, Hideyuki Matsunami, Yoshihiro Kawaoka et al.
Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: 137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes
Peter de Barros Damgaard, Nina Marchi, Simon Rasmussen et al.
Publisher Correction: Photoswitching topology in polymer networks with metal–organic cages as crosslinks
Yuwei Gu, Eric A. Alt, Heng Wang et al.
Publisher Correction: The effect of hydration number on the interfacial transport of sodium ions
Jinbo Peng, Duanyun Cao, Zhili He et al.
Nature Index  
Nature Index Science Cities 2018

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