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woensdag 31 oktober 2018

The Lancet: [In Context] Stephen Waxman: pioneer in axons, their disorders, and pain

[In Context] Stephen Waxman: pioneer in axons, their disorders, and pain
The exciting career of Stephen Waxman is now well into its fifth decade—"I'm passionate about building upon the molecular revolution to make neurological diseases more treatable", he says. This passion has steered him towards working on how nerve fibres function, why they don't work in disease, and what can be done about it. He has been especially driven to focus on bench-to-bedside, first-in-human studies: "I tell younger neurologists to buckle their seatbelts for a long, bumpy ride, but to persevere since translation is achievable", he says.
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[Review] Circadian rhythm and epilepsy
Advances in diagnostic technology, including chronic intracranial EEG recordings, have confirmed the clinical observation of different temporal patterns of epileptic activity and seizure occurrence over a 24-h period. The rhythmic patterns in epileptic activity and seizure occurrence are probably related to vigilance states and circadian variation in excitatory and inhibitory balance. Core circadian genes BMAL1 and CLOCK, which code for transcription factors, have been shown to influence excitability and seizure threshold.
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[In Context] Bart de Strooper: views from the rooftop
By anyone's standards he's at the top: Director of the UK Dementia Research Institute (UK DRI; London, UK), Professor of Alzheimer's Disease at University College London (London, UK), Professor of Molecular Medicine at the University of Leuven (Leuven, Belgium), Group Leader (and former Director) at the Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie's Center for Brain & Disease Research (Leuven, Belgium), and with a Brain Prize (2018), a European Grand Prix for Research (2018), and a Potamkin Prize (2002), among many others, under his belt.
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[Corrections] Correction to Lancet Neurol 2018; published online Sept 28. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30319-3
Kasner SE, Swaminathan B, Lavados P, et al. Rivaroxaban or aspirin for patent foramen ovale and embolic stroke of undetermined source: a prespecified subgroup analysis from the NAVIGATE ESUS trial. Lancet Neurol 2018; published online Sept 28. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30319-3—In figure 1 of this Article, the scale of the y-axis was incorrect. This correction has been made to the online version as of Oct 23, 2018.
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[Review] Stroke–heart syndrome: clinical presentation and underlying mechanisms
Cardiac complications are a frequent medical problem during the first few days after an ischaemic stroke, and patients present with a broad range of symptoms including myocardial injury, cardiac dysfunction, and arrhythmia, with varying overlap between these three conditions. Evidence from clinical and neuroimaging studies and animal research suggests that these cardiac disturbances share the same underlying mechanisms. Although the exact cascade of events has yet to be elucidated, stroke-induced functional and structural alterations in the central autonomic network, with subsequent dysregulation of normal neural cardiac control, are the assumed pathophysiology.
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