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Nature Reviews Neuroscience contents November 2018 Volume 19 Number 11

Nature Reviews Neuroscience

Focal Point on Kobe 

A seismic shift - How Kobe rebuilt itself after a devastating earthquake and turned into a biotechnology hub

November 2018 Volume 19, Issue 11

Research Highlights

Imagine what you can do with a 360° view of locomotion A key endpoint to evaluate efficacy of Parkinson's disease therapies is changes in movement and balance. Typically, these endpoints are measured using established methods like rotarod tests that detect overt changes. At Charles River, we have developed a quantitative fine motor kinematics method to measure small changes in locomotor activity in rodent models of Parkinson's disease to develop a movement "signature".

Astrocyte Development & Function Poster

This new poster was developed in collaboration with Benjamin Deneen, PhD., Debosmita Sardar, PhD., and Yi-Ting Cheng, MS. at the Baylor College of Medicine. Explore the most current findings on astrocytes' development, subtype diversity, CNS function and role in disease. 

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Role for NaV1.3 in the developing cerebral cortex - Wednesday, 31 October 2018 

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Research Highlights

Rewarding gut feeling
Sian Lewis
p639 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0075-3
Vagal afferents projecting from the gut to the brainstem and then relayed on to the midbrain carry reward signals that trigger dopamine release in the dorsal striatum.

In or out of synch
Natasha Bray
pp640 - 641 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0074-4
In a genetic mouse model related to schizophrenia, restoring the excitability of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in hippocampal CA1 ameliorates network dysfunction and behavioural deficits.

It's about time
Katherine Whalley
pp640 - 641 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0066-4
Study shows that population activity in the rat lateral entorhinal cortex can encode the passage of time, which may contribute to temporal aspects of episodic memory.

Incidental associations
Sian Lewis
p641 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0069-1
Hippocampal cannabinoid 1 receptors are shown to be involved in the formation of incidental associations between pairs of low-salience sensory stimuli, which can then become indirectly associated with certain cues and thus influence behaviour.

A position on vision
Darran Yates
p642 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0076-2

Number crunching
Katherine Whalley
p642 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0073-5
Number neurons encoding symbolic and nonsymbolical representations of numerical value are identified in the human medial temporal lobe

Nature Reviews Neuroscience
Neurodegenerative Diseases: Biology & Therapeutics
Cold Spring Harbor, USA
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The neural mechanisms and circuitry of the pair bond   
Hasse Walum & Larry J. Young
pp643 - 654 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0072-6
Recent research advances have yielded fresh insights into the fundamental neural processes underlying pair bonding. In this Review, Walum and Young discuss how neural representations of a partner become inherently rewarding, providing intriguing insights into the neural origins of love.
Full Text | PDF

CNS infection and immune privilege   
John V. Forrester, Paul G. McMenamin & Samantha J. Dando
pp655 - 671 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0070-8
Traditionally, the CNS is described to have immune privilege, largely because of its immunological barriers. Here, Forrester, McMenamin and Dando describe how this immune privilege may sometimes not be beneficial, as it enables invading pathogens to exist as latent CNS infections.
Full Text | PDF

Imaging-based parcellations of the human brain   
Simon B. Eickhoff, B. T. Thomas Yeo & Sarah Genon
pp672 - 686 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0071-7
The brain can be parcellated into areas or networks with different structural or functional properties. Eickhoff, Yeo and Genon describe various imaging-based strategies to parcellate the human brain, including those based on local properties, such as cytoarchitecture, and global properties, such as connectivity.
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Imaging the evolution and pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease   
William Jagust
pp687 - 700 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0067-3
Various techniques can be used to image aspects of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease in humans, notably protein deposition and neurodegeneration. In this Review, William Jagust discusses how human neuroimaging studies have shaped our understanding of this disease.
Full Text | PDF

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Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing   
Roberto Cabeza, Marilyn Albert, Sylvie Belleville, Fergus I. M. Craik, Audrey Duarte et al.
pp701 - 710 | doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0068-2
Age-related changes in cognitive ability are the focus of a growing field of research. Cabeza, Rajah and colleagues aim to promote clarity in the field by agreeing upon consensual definitions for three widely discussed concepts: maintenance, compensation and reserve.
Full Text | PDF

Alzheimer's Disease Therapeutics: Alternatives to Amyloid

December 11, 2018, NYC

Featuring Rudolph Tanzi, PhD, of Harvard Medical School, this symposium will highlight non-amyloid mechanisms driving Alzheimer's disease including mitochondrial factors, the vasculature, and autophagy, and discuss strategies to identify new therapeutic targets. Abstracts Nov 2.

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