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Nature Neuroscience Contents: November 2018 Volume 21 Number 11

Nature Neuroscience


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

November 2018 Volume 21, Issue 11

News & Views
Review Articles
Brief Communications
Articles
Resources

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Focal Point on Kobe

A seismic shift - How Kobe rebuilt itself after a devastating earthquake and turned into a biotechnology hub
 

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Nature Outlook: Brain cancer

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News & Views

Are we of two minds?    pp1497 - 1499
Nathaniel D. Daw
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0258-2

Let it go: central neural control of urination    pp1499 - 1501
Zheyi Ni & Hailan Hu
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0259-1

Spoiled for choice, pressed for time    pp1501 - 1503
John Widloski & David J. Foster
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0260-8

Nature Neuroscience
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Neurodegenerative Diseases: Biology & Therapeutics
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Cold Spring Harbor, USA
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Review Articles

Somatic mosaicism and neurodevelopmental disease    pp1504 - 1514
Alissa M. D'Gama & Christopher A. Walsh
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0257-3

Somatic mutations occur after fertilization and are present in only some cells of an individual. Somatic mutations contribute to normal and abnormal brain development, including neurodevelopmental disorders like autism spectrum disorder.

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Brief Communications

A central amygdala to zona incerta projection is required for acquisition and remote recall of conditioned fear memory    pp1515 - 1519
Mu Zhou, Zhihui Liu, Maxwell D. Melin, Yi Han Ng, Wei Xu et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0248-4

Using genetic tools of neural circuit tracing and manipulation, we identify a novel projection from the amygdala to the zona incerta—a nucleus not previously implicated in fear memory—that is essential for recent and remote fear memories.

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Articles

Volitional social interaction prevents drug addiction in rat models    pp1520 - 1529
Marco Venniro, Michelle Zhang, Daniele Caprioli, Jennifer K. Hoots, Sam A. Golden et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0246-6

Venniro et al. report that drug-addicted rats reliably choose contact with another rat over drugs, even when group-housed between tests. They also do not show the increase in drug craving that normally occurs during forced abstinence.

Brs3 neurons in the mouse dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate body temperature, energy expenditure, and heart rate, but not food intake    pp1530 - 1540
Ramón A. Piñol, Sebastian H. Zahler, Chia Li, Atreyi Saha, Brandon K. Tan et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0249-3

BRS3 is a receptor regulating energy metabolism. The authors find that DMH Brs3 neurons control body temperature, energy expenditure, and heart rate, but not food intake. In contrast, PVH Brs3 neurons regulate food intake but not energy expenditure.

A corticopontine circuit for initiation of urination    pp1541 - 1550
Jiwei Yao, Quanchao Zhang, Xiang Liao, Qianwei Li, Shanshan Liang et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0256-4

A small cluster of brainstem-projecting layer 5 neurons in primary motor cortex elicit contraction of the bladder muscle and trigger urination. These findings open new directions for treating urination-related disorders.

A highly collateralized thalamic cell type with arousal-predicting activity serves as a key hub for graded state transitions in the forebrain    pp1551 - 1562
Ferenc Mátyás, Gergely Komlósi, Ákos Babiczky, Kinga Kocsis, Péter Barthó et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0251-9

Mátyás, Komlósi, et al. describe a highly specialized, calretinin-containing cell population in the dorsal medial thalamus. Connectivity, activity, and optogenetic manipulations identify these neurons as key mediators of forebrain arousal.

The timing of action determines reward prediction signals in identified midbrain dopamine neurons    pp1563 - 1573
Luke T. Coddington & Joshua T. Dudman
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0245-7

As naive mice learn a stimulus–reward association, DA neuron activity first reflects the timing of reward-seeking actions relative to predictable stimuli & rewards. As actions are refined by learning, DA neuron activity can reflect prediction errors.

Evidence for a subcircuit in medial entorhinal cortex representing elapsed time during immobility    pp1574 - 1582
James G. Heys & Daniel A. Dombeck
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0252-8

Imaging during a virtual 'Door Stop' task shows that medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) represents elapsed time in immobile mice, suggesting there are largely distinct MEC subcircuits that encode either time during immobility or space during locomotion.

Active dendritic integration and mixed neocortical network representations during an adaptive sensing behavior    pp1583 - 1590
Gayathri N. Ranganathan, Pierre F. Apostolides, Mark T. Harnett, Ning-Long Xu, Shaul Druckmann et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0254-6

The authors investigated the neocortical representations that mediate sensory–motor transformations in active sensing behavior. Layer 5 of vibrissae cortex generates a diverse, distributed network representation via active dendritic integration.

Natural image and receptive field statistics predict saccade sizes    pp1591 - 1599
Jason M. Samonds, Wilson S. Geisler & Nicholas J. Priebe
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0255-5

Saccadic eye movements during free viewing exhibit patterns that reflect a strategy to increase neural responses by matching motor behavior with the statistics of the natural world and with the processing limitations of sensory systems.

Distributed network interactions and their emergence in developing neocortex    pp1600 - 1608
Gordon B. Smith, Bettina Hein, David E. Whitney, David Fitzpatrick & Matthias Kaschube
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0247-5

Distributed networks in visual cortex precisely link the fine-scale functional architecture with distant network elements and appear early in development, when heterogeneous local connections may seed long-range network interactions.

Prioritized memory access explains planning and hippocampal replay    pp1609 - 1617
Marcelo G. Mattar & Nathaniel D. Daw
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0232-z

Mattar and Daw propose a normative theory predicting which memories should be accessed at each moment to optimize future decisions. This theory offers a simple explanation for numerous findings about hippocampal replay, bridging planning and learning.

A histone acetylome-wide association study of Alzheimer's disease identifies disease-associated H3K27ac differences in the entorhinal cortex    pp1618 - 1627
Sarah J. Marzi, Szi Kay Leung, Teodora Ribarska, Eilis Hannon, Adam R. Smith et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0253-7

Widespread differences in H3K27ac, a key histone modification, are associated with Alzheimer's disease. H3K27ac differences were enriched in genomic regions containing loci involved in the progression of Aβ and tau pathology.

Resources

Integration of gene expression and brain-wide connectivity reveals the multiscale organization of mouse hippocampal networks    pp1628 - 1643
Michael S. Bienkowski, Ian Bowman, Monica Y. Song, Lin Gou, Tyler Ard et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0241-y

Bienkowski et al. have created a new subregional atlas of the mouse hippocampus that integrates gene expression with anatomical connectivity to reveal the multiscale organization of the hippocampus and its connections throughout the brain.

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