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donderdag 25 oktober 2018

Nature contents: 25 October 2018

  journal cover  
Nature Volume 562 Issue 7728
This Week  
Survey reveals highs and lows of a life in science
Back the idea of human capital with solid research
Matters Arising: a venue for scientific comments
World View  
Look to Africa to advance artificial intelligence
Moustapha Cisse
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Medical chimps' retirement, Nobel laureates' Brexit warning and science mega-prizes
Current bulk NGS methods are inadequate to fully characterize cancer. Targeted single-cell DNA analysis resolves genetic heterogeneity, which has critical implications in understanding tumor evolution and the acquisition of therapeutic resistance. Read our spotlight and learn how you can use Tapestri to move precision medicine forward.
News in Focus
British universities set up European outposts as Brexit looms
Quirin Schiermeier
Double the fun: Mars scientists push NASA to send rock-harvesting rover to two sites
Alexandra Witze
Self-driving car dilemmas reveal that moral choices are not universal
Amy Maxmen
Italian earthquake data hint at possibility of forecasting one type of quake
Kate Ravilious
China awaits controversial blacklist of 'poor quality' journals
David Cyranoski
Virus detectives test whole-body scans in search of HIV's hiding places
Sara Reardon
How to build a Moon base
Elizabeth Gibney
No PhDs needed: how citizen science is transforming research
Aisling Irwin
Do authors comply when funders enforce open access to research?
Vincent Larivière, Cassidy R. Sugimoto
Use the patent system to regulate gene editing
Shobita Parthasarathy
Books and Arts  
Rebels of art and science: the empirical drive of the Pre-Raphaelites
John Holmes
Ben Barres: neuroscience pioneer, gender champion
Marc Freeman
Europe's plan S could raise everyone else's publication paywall
John Measey
Debate on academic freedom and open access is healthy
J. Britt Holbrook, Stephen Curry, Shina C. L. Kamerlin
Improve reporting systems for academic bullying
Morteza Mahmoudi
Co-production to help charities and donors prioritize research topics
Stephen Bubb, Katherine Cowan, Caroline Fiennes
Co-producers help frame research questions, not answers
Peter Calow
Keep authorship for writers
Tobias I. Baskin
Satisfaction in science
Chris Woolston
C. L. Holland
Gut microbes alter the walking activity of fruit flies
A gut bacterium has been found to modulate locomotor activity in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This effect is mediated by the level of a sugar and the activity of neurons that produce the molecule octopamine.
Angela E. Douglas
Gene expression variability across cells and species shapes innate immunity
Comparison of transcriptomic data from immune-stimulated cells across different species sheds light on the architecture of the innate immune response.
Tzachi Hagai, Xi Chen, Ricardo J. Miragaia et al.
Increased synthesis of a coenzyme linked to longevity can combat disease
The coenzyme NAD+ can be produced from the amino acid tryptophan. It emerges that inhibiting an enzyme that degrades an intermediate in this pathway can help to combat kidney and liver diseases in mouse models.
Samir M. Parikh
De novo NAD+ synthesis enhances mitochondrial function and improves health
Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase increases NAD+ and improves mitochondrial function in nematodes and mice, and may have therapeutic potential in kidney and liver disease.
Elena Katsyuba, Adrienne Mottis, Marika Zietak et al.
Nuclear cGAS suppresses DNA repair and promotes tumorigenesis
DNA damage induces translocation of cyclic GMP–AMP synthase to the nucleus, where it suppresses homologous recombination by interfering with the formation of the PARP1–Timeless complex.
Haipeng Liu, Haiping Zhang, Xiangyang Wu et al.
Remarkable muscles, remarkable locomotion in desert-dwelling wildebeest
Wildebeest, particularly during their long migrations under hot arid conditions, gain a considerable increase in range as a result of having highly efficient muscles.
Nancy A. Curtin, Hattie L. A. Bartlam-Brooks, Tatjana Y. Hubel et al.
Mechanoresponsive stem cells acquire neural crest fate in jaw regeneration
Reversion of adult skeletal stem cells to a developmental state underlies the growth of new bone during jaw regeneration, in a process that relies on mechanotransduction via the focal adhesion kinase protein.
Ryan C. Ransom, Ava C. Carter, Ankit Salhotra et al.
A gut microbial factor modulates locomotor behaviour in Drosophila
Female Drosophila that lack a microbiota are hyperactive, and xylose isomerase from Lactobacillus brevis is sufficient to reverse this effect.
Catherine E. Schretter, Jost Vielmetter, Imre Bartos et al.
The Moral Machine experiment
Responses from more than two million people to an internet-based survey of attitudes towards moral dilemmas that might be faced by autonomous vehicles shed light on similarities and variations in ethical preferences among different populations.
Edmond Awad, Sohan Dsouza, Richard Kim et al.
Transcriptional regulation of nitrogen-associated metabolism and growth
The yeast one-hybrid network for nitrogen-associated metabolism in Arabidopsis reveals the transcription factors that regulate the architecture of root and shoot systems under conditions of changing nitrogen availability.
Allison Gaudinier, Joel Rodriguez-Medina, Lifang Zhang et al.
Palladium-mediated enzyme activation suggests multiphase initiation of glycogenesis
The mechanism of glycogenesis, initiated by glycogenin, involves three distinct kinetic phases, with the final phase involving a refining process where only glucose is tolerated as a substrate.
Matthew K. Bilyard, Henry J. Bailey, Lluís Raich et al.
Base-free nickel-catalysed decarbonylative Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of acid fluorides
This nickel-catalysed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of aryl boronic acids with in-situ-generated acid fluorides does not require an exogenous base and is applicable to a range of base-sensitive boronic acids and bioactive carboxylic acids.
Christian A. Malapit, James R. Bour, Conor E. Brigham et al.
Credibility-enhancing displays promote the provision of non-normative public goods
A field study and three experiments demonstrate that people who engage in rare (non-normative) prosocial behaviours will be more effective advocates for those behaviours than people who merely praise the virtues of these prosocial behaviours.
Gordon T. Kraft-Todd, Bryan Bollinger, Kenneth Gillingham et al.
Gate-tunable room-temperature ferromagnetism in two-dimensional Fe3GeTe2
Monolayers of Fe3GeTe2 exhibit itinerant ferromagnetism with an out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy; ionic gating raises the ferromagnetic transition temperature of few-layer Fe3GeTe2 to room temperature.
Yujun Deng, Yijun Yu, Yichen Song et al.
Immune-cell crosstalk in multiple sclerosis
Interactions between the B and T cells of the human immune system are implicated in the brain disease multiple sclerosis. It emerges that B cells make a protein that is also made in the brain, and that T cells recognize this protein.
Richard M. Ransohoff
Catalytic enantioconvergent coupling of secondary and tertiary electrophiles with olefins
Nickel-catalysed coupling of racemic alkyl electrophiles and olefins in the presence of a hydrosilane is achieved with good enantioselectivity and yield under very mild reaction conditions.
Zhaobin Wang, Haolin Yin, Gregory C. Fu
News & Views  
Solar neutrinos reveal how the Sun shines
Aldo Serenelli
How to lose your inheritance
Diana J. Laird
Parrot patrol
Mary Abraham
Precise control of infrared polarization using crystal vibrations
Thomas G. Folland, Joshua D. Caldwell
From the archive
Transforming the global food system
Günther Fischer
The war on fake graphene
Peter Bøggild
Elimination of senescent cells prevents neurodegeneration in mice
Jay Penney, Li-Huei Tsai
Comprehensive measurement of pp-chain solar neutrinos
All components of the proton–proton nuclear fusion chain, in which hydrogen is converted into helium in the Sun, are described, with several implications for fundamental solar and particle physics.
The Borexino Collaboration
Rock fluidization during peak-ring formation of large impact structures
Catastrophic rock weakening upon impact of a meteorite, and hence flow, is shown to be followed by regained rock strength that enabled the formation of the peak ring during cratering.
Ulrich Riller, Michael H. Poelchau, Auriol S. P. Rae et al.
Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits
A global model finds that the environmental impacts of the food system could increase by 60–90% by 2050, and that dietary changes, improvements in technologies and management, and reductions in food loss and waste will all be needed to mitigate these impacts.
Marco Springmann, Michael Clark, Daniel Mason-D'Croz et al.
Functional genomic landscape of acute myeloid leukaemia
Analyses of samples from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia reveal that drug response is associated with mutational status and gene expression; the generated dataset provides a basis for future clinical and functional studies of this disease.
Jeffrey W. Tyner, Cristina E. Tognon, Daniel Bottomly et al.
Pathogen elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signalling interference
Lipopeptides secreted by Bacillus bacteria block quorum sensing by Staphylococcus aureus and thereby inhibit the growth of this opportunistic pathogen in the gut, suggesting why people in rural Thailand who are colonized by Bacillus are not also colonized by S. aureus.
Pipat Piewngam, Yue Zheng, Thuan H. Nguyen et al.
Transcription factor dimerization activates the p300 acetyltransferase
The activation of the histone acetyltransferase p300 depends on the activation and oligomerization status of transcription factor ligands.
Esther Ortega, Srinivasan Rengachari, Ziad Ibrahim et al.
A two per cent Hubble constant measurement from standard sirens within five years
Gravitational-wave observations of binary neutron-star mergers will enable precision measurements of the Hubble constant within five years.
Hsin-Yu Chen, Maya Fishbach, Daniel E. Holz
Device-independent quantum random-number generation
Genuine, unpredictable quantum random-number generation that is provably secure against quantum and classical adversaries is demonstrated, certified by the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality.
Yang Liu, Qi Zhao, Ming-Han Li et al.
Exciton-polariton topological insulator
A part-light, part-matter exciton-polariton topological insulator is created in an array of semiconductor microcavities.
S. Klembt, T. H. Harder, O. A. Egorov et al.
In-plane anisotropic and ultra-low-loss polaritons in a natural van der Waals crystal
Observation of the anisotropic propagation of polaritons along the surface of layered, semiconducting α-MoO3 confirms the existence of this phenomenon in natural materials.
Weiliang Ma, Pablo Alonso-González, Shaojuan Li et al.
A protein functionalization platform based on selective reactions at methionine residues
This methionine-selective functionalization strategy uses hypervalent iodine reagents to introduce new groups via the formation of a sulfonium intermediate, which can then undergo further visible-light-mediated reactions to form a diverse range of protein conjugates.
Michael T. Taylor, Jennifer E. Nelson, Marcos G. Suero et al.
CO2 storage and release in the deep Southern Ocean on millennial to centennial timescales
Analysis of deep-sea coral boron isotope data, as a proxy for pH and thus CO2 chemistry, provides evidence of CO2 storage in the deep Southern Ocean during the last ice age, and its rapid release on millennial to centennial timescales during deglaciation.
J. W. B. Rae, A. Burke, L. F. Robinson et al.
Social regulation of a rudimentary organ generates complex worker-caste systems in ants
In the ant genus Pheidole the growth of rudimentary wing discs—which influence developmental allometry to produce castes with distinct morphologies—is socially regulated to determine the worker-to-soldier ratio in Pheidole colonies.
Rajendhran Rajakumar, Sophie Koch, Mélanie Couture et al.
Clearance of senescent glial cells prevents tau-dependent pathology and cognitive decline
In a mouse model of tau-dependent neurodegenerative disease, the clearance of senescent glial cells prevents the degeneration of cortical and hippocampal neurons and preserves cognitive function.
Tyler J. Bussian, Asef Aziz, Charlton F. Meyer et al.
Temporal development of the gut microbiome in early childhood from the TEDDY study
Metagenomic sequencing analysis of stool samples from 903 children as part of the TEDDY study shows that breastfeeding was the most important factor associated with microbiome structure, and the cessation of breast milk resulted in faster maturation of the gut microbiome.
Christopher J. Stewart, Nadim J. Ajami, Jacqueline L. O'Brien et al.
The human gut microbiome in early-onset type 1 diabetes from the TEDDY study
An analysis of more than 10,000 metagenomes from the TEDDY study provides a detailed functional profile of the gut microbiome in relation to islet autoimmunity, and supports the protective effects of short-chain fatty acids in early-onset type 1 diabetes.
Tommi Vatanen, Eric A. Franzosa, Randall Schwager et al.
OTX2 restricts entry to the mouse germline
The transcription factor OTX2 ensures that germline induction is initially kept in check and only proceeds after OTX2 downregulation.
Jingchao Zhang, Man Zhang, Dario Acampora et al.
A metabolite-derived protein modification integrates glycolysis with KEAP1–NRF2 signalling
Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme PGK1 using a small molecular probe reveals a molecular link between glycolysis and the KEAP1–NRF2 signalling cascade.
Michael J. Bollong, Gihoon Lee, John S. Coukos et al.
LILRB4 signalling in leukaemia cells mediates T cell suppression and tumour infiltration
The receptor LILRB4 on monocytic leukaemia cells suppresses T cell activity and support the infiltration of tumour cells into tissues.
Mi Deng, Xun Gui, Jaehyup Kim et al.
Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: Enhancer decommissioning by LSD1 during embryonic stem cell differentiation
Warren A. Whyte, Steve Bilodeau, David A. Orlando et al.
Author Correction: Cryo-EM structure of a fungal mitochondrial calcium uniporter
Nam X. Nguyen, Jean-Paul Armache, Changkeun Lee et al.
Publisher Correction: Controlling an organic synthesis robot with machine learning to search for new reactivity
Jarosław M. Granda, Liva Donina, Vincenza Dragone et al.
Publisher Correction: Late-surviving stem mammal links the lowermost Cretaceous of North America and Gondwana
Adam K. Huttenlocker, David M. Grossnickle, James I. Kirkland et al.

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