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donderdag 11 oktober 2018

Nature contents: 11 October 2018

  journal cover  
Nature Volume 562 Issue 7726
This Week  
Governments must take heed of latest IPCC assessment
UK Biobank data on 500,000 people paves way to precision medicine
Nobel committees must do more to achieve equality
World View  
Two Nobels for women — why so slow?
Virginia Valian
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Economics Nobel for climate change, Hubble trouble and open-access ups and downs

An alternative Japan experience
 - Meet the sides of Japanese cities that most international researchers never see
News in Focus
Brazil's presidential election could savage its science
Jeff Tollefson
IPCC says limiting global warming to 1.5 °C will require drastic action
Jeff Tollefson
Peer-reviewed homeopathy study sparks uproar in Italy
Giorgia Guglielmi
Architect of bold European open-access plan heads to Washington to garner US support
Holly Else
Science and the Supreme Court: Cases to watch in 2018
Sara Reardon
'Test-tube' evolution wins Chemistry Nobel Prize
Elizabeth Gibney, Richard Van Noorden, Heidi Ledford et al.
Europe eyes fleet of tiny CO2-monitoring satellites to track global emissions
Alexandra Witze
Fortresses of mud: how to protect the San Francisco Bay Area from rising seas
Erica Gies
The approach to predictive medicine that is taking genomics research by storm
Matthew Warren
Nature Podcast 11 October 2018
This week, what life is like when you've just won a Nobel prize, and how a vestigial organ helps ants get organised.
A growing school with big ambitions

Japan needs to embrace strategic research and globalization to remain at the forefront of innovation. Learn more about Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University's (OIST) rapid growth and what it means for science in Japan and beyond.

Learn more >> 
Explore space using swarms of tiny satellites
Igor Levchenko, Michael Keidar, Jim Cantrell et al.
Books and Arts  
Trolling, hacking and the 2016 US presidential election
Alexander Klimburg
Beyond pulp: trailblazers of science fiction's golden age
Rob Latham
How seventeenth-century sisters broke the mould on scientific illustration
Beth Fowkes Tobin
Funding mechanisms risk promoting conscious bias
Wendy Bickmore, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Margaret Frame
Universities fund off-the-wall research from their own pockets
Don Braben
Protect Denmark's groundwater from pesticides
Christian Sonne, Martin Hansen, Aage K. Olsen Alstrup
Mouse avatars take off as cancer models
Jonas A. Nilsson, Roger Olofsson Bagge, Lars Ny
First report of antimicrobial resistance pre-dates penicillin
Dov Stekel
Technology Feature  
The clinical code-breakers
Michael Eisenstein
Why working as a travel guide or cruise lecturer can be an effective form of science outreach
Roberta Kwok
The best supervisor
Emma Kathryn White
Mobile hack
Zack Lux
Social regulation of a rudimentary organ generates complex worker-caste systems in ants
In the ant genus Pheidole the growth of rudimentary wing discs—which influence developmental allometry to produce castes with distinct morphologies—is socially regulated to determine the worker-to-soldier ratio in Pheidole colonies.
Rajendhran Rajakumar, Sophie Koch, Mélanie Couture et al.
Pathogen elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signalling interference
Lipopeptides secreted by Bacillus bacteria block quorum sensing by Staphylococcus aureus and thereby inhibit the growth of this opportunistic pathogen in the gut, suggesting why people in rural Thailand who are colonized by Bacillus are not also colonized by S. aureus.
Pipat Piewngam, Yue Zheng, Thuan H. Nguyen et al.
Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits
A global model finds that the environmental impacts of the food system could increase by 50–90% by 2050, and that dietary changes, improvements in technologies and management, and reductions in food loss and waste will all be needed to mitigate these impacts.
Marco Springmann, Michael Clark, Daniel Mason-D'Croz et al.
Trans-differentiation of outer hair cells into inner hair cells in the absence of INSM1
Conditional deletion of Insm1 in mice demonstrates that INSM1 is the key switch that causes the maturation of outer hair cells in the cochlea, with its absence resulting in an increase in inner hair cells instead.
Teerawat Wiwatpanit, Sarah M. Lorenzen, Jorge A. Cantú et al.
IRE1α–XBP1 controls T cell function in ovarian cancer by regulating mitochondrial activity
In human and mouse models of ovarian cancer, endoplasmic reticulum stress and the activation of the IRE1α–XBP1 pathway decreases the metabolic fitness of T cells and limits their anti-tumour functions.
Minkyung Song, Tito A. Sandoval, Chang-Suk Chae et al.
Absent forebrain replaced by embryonic stem cells
A new technique, in which forebrain-precursor cells are ablated from early-stage mouse embryos and replaced with embryonic stem cells, promises to facilitate our ability to study the central nervous system.
Jimena Andersen, Sergiu P. Pașca
The dispersion–brightness relation for fast radio bursts from a wide-field survey
A large-scale survey of fast radio bursts—short pulses of radio waves that seem to come from cosmological distances—finds 20 such events, including both the nearest and the most energetic bursts observed so far.
R. M. Shannon, J.-P. Macquart, K. W. Bannister et al.
Cervical excitatory neurons sustain breathing after spinal cord injury
A population of cervical interneurons is identified that can regulate diaphragm function by modulating phrenic motor neurons; targeting this small population of neurons may be a functional strategy to restore breathing after traumatic spinal cord injury.
Kajana Satkunendrarajah, Spyridon K. Karadimas, Alex M. Laliberte et al.
Neural blastocyst complementation enables mouse forebrain organogenesis
Neural blastocyst complementation creates a vacant forebrain niche in host embryos that can be populated by donor embryonic stem cell-derived dorsal telencephalic progenitors, resulting in a mouse brain organogenesis model.
Amelia N. Chang, Zhuoyi Liang, Hai-Qiang Dai et al.
Exciton-polariton topological insulator
A part-light, part-matter exciton-polariton topological insulator is created in an array of semiconductor microcavities.
S. Klembt, T. H. Harder, O. A. Egorov et al.
The war on fake graphene
The material graphene has a vast number of potential applications — but a survey of commercially available graphene samples reveals that research could be undermined by the poor quality of the available material.
Peter Bøggild
A cell identity switch allows residual BCC to survive Hedgehog pathway inhibition
When basal cell carcinoma is treated with a Smoothened inhibitor, a subset of cancer cells evades treatment by switching identity, allowing residual tumours to regrow when treatment is discontinued.
Brian Biehs, Gerrit J. P. Dijkgraaf, Robert Piskol et al.
Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator
Integrating an optical Kerr frequency comb source with an electronically excited laser pump produces a battery-powered comb generator that does not require external lasers, moveable optics or laboratory set-ups.
Brian Stern, Xingchen Ji, Yoshitomo Okawachi et al.
A slow-cycling LGR5 tumour population mediates basal cell carcinoma relapse after therapy
Treatment of basal cell carcinoma with Smoothened inhibitors leaves a small population of quiescent cells that can drive relapse but can be eliminated by additional treatment with a Wnt signalling inhibitor.
Adriana Sánchez-Danés, Jean-Christophe Larsimont, Mélanie Liagre et al.
News & Views  
UK Biobank shares the promise of big data
Nancy Cox
A dual origin for blood vessels
M. Luisa Iruela-Arispe
From the archive
Current bulk NGS methods are inadequate to fully characterize cancer. Targeted single-cell DNA analysis resolves genetic heterogeneity, which has critical implications in understanding tumor evolution and the acquisition of therapeutic resistance. Read our spotlight and learn how you can use Tapestri to move precision medicine forward.
LED technology breaks performance barrier
Paul Meredith, Ardalan Armin
Foraging skills develop over generations in the wild
Andrew Whiten
Unexpected noise from hot electrons
Elke Scheer, Wolfgang Belzig
Gene editing reveals the effect of thousands of variants in a key cancer gene
Stephen J. Chanock
The UK Biobank resource with deep phenotyping and genomic data
Deep phenotype and genome-wide genetic data from 500,000 individuals from the UK Biobank, describing population structure and relatedness in the cohort, and imputation to increase the number of testable variants to 96 million.
Clare Bycroft, Colin Freeman, Desislava Petkova et al.
Genome-wide association studies of brain imaging phenotypes in UK Biobank
Genome-wide association studies of brain imaging data from 8,428 individuals in UK Biobank show that many of the 3,144 traits studied are heritable, and genes associated with individual phenotypes are identified.
Lloyd T. Elliott, Kevin Sharp, Fidel Alfaro-Almagro et al.
Accurate classification of BRCA1 variants with saturation genome editing
Germline BRCA1 loss-of-function variants are associated with predisposition to early-onset breast and ovarian cancer; here the authors use CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to functionally assess thousands of BRCA1 variants in order to facilitate the clinical interpretation of these variants.
Gregory M. Findlay, Riza M. Daza, Beth Martin et al.
Erythro-myeloid progenitors contribute endothelial cells to blood vessels
New blood vessel endothelial cells arise from differentiation of erythro-myeloid progenitor cells to complement the proliferation of pre-existing endothelial cells.
Alice Plein, Alessandro Fantin, Laura Denti et al.
Nearly all the sky is covered by Lyman-α emission around high-redshift galaxies
Lyman-α emission from atomic hydrogen shows the location of warm gas and is ubiquitous around galaxies between redshifts of 3 and 6, thereby covering nearly all the sky.
L. Wisotzki, R. Bacon, J. Brinchmann et al.
An evolving jet from a strongly magnetized accreting X-ray pulsar
Observations of a jet from a strongly magnetized neutron star reveal that strong magnetic fields do not prevent jet formation and suggest that stellar properties influence jet power.
J. van den Eijnden, N. Degenaar, T. D. Russell et al.
Glider soaring via reinforcement learning in the field
A reinforcement learning approach allows a suitably equipped glider to navigate thermal plumes autonomously in an open field.
Gautam Reddy, Jerome Wong-Ng, Antonio Celani et al.
Electronic noise due to temperature differences in atomic-scale junctions
A fundamental electronic noise—beyond electronic thermal noise and voltage-activated shot noise—that is generated by temperature differences across nanoscale conductors is demonstrated, with possible implications for thermometry and electronics.
Ofir Shein Lumbroso, Lena Simine, Abraham Nitzan et al.
Perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 per cent
A strategy for managing the compositional distribution in metal halide perovskite light-emitting diodes enables them to surpass 20% external quantum efficiency—a step towards their practical application in lighting and displays.
Kebin Lin, Jun Xing, Li Na Quan et al.
Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures
The formation of submicrometre-scale structure in perovskite light-emitting diodes can raise their external quantum efficiency beyond 20%, suggesting the possibility of both high efficiency and high brightness.
Yu Cao, Nana Wang, He Tian et al.
Solution-processable 2D semiconductors for high-performance large-area electronics
By intercalating large ammonium molecules to exfoliate MoS2 with preservation of the 2H-phase, highly uniform solution-processable 2D semiconductor nanosheets are obtained for the scalable fabrication of large-area thin-film electronics.
Zhaoyang Lin, Yuan Liu, Udayabagya Halim et al.
Trade-offs in using European forests to meet climate objectives
Simulations of commonly proposed forest-management portfolios for Europe show that no single portfolio would meet all the requirements of the Paris Agreement, and climate benefits from forest management would be modest and local.
Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Guillaume Marie, Aude Valade et al.
Effects of climate warming on photosynthesis in boreal tree species depend on soil moisture
Low soil moisture may reduce, or even reverse, the potential benefits of climate warming on photosynthesis in mesic, seasonally cold environments, both during drought and in regularly occurring, modestly dry periods during the growing season.
Peter B. Reich, Kerrie M. Sendall, Artur Stefanski et al.
Common genetic variants contribute to risk of rare severe neurodevelopmental disorders
A genome-wide association study of approximately 7,000 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders demonstrates that overall risk and clinical presentation in putative monogenic disorders is also influenced by common genetic variants present in the general population.
Mari E. K. Niemi, Hilary C. Martin, Daniel L. Rice et al.
Multi-axial self-organization properties of mouse embryonic stem cells into gastruloids
Cultures grown from small aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells can be induced to organize spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression that parallel those of the early embryo, offering a potentially useful system for studying early development.
Leonardo Beccari, Naomi Moris, Mehmet Girgin et al.
Ring nucleases deactivate type III CRISPR ribonucleases by degrading cyclic oligoadenylate
In the CRISPR type III system, 'ring' nucleases possess a metal-independent mechanism that cleaves cyclic oligoadenylate ring molecules to switch off the antiviral state in cells.
Januka S. Athukoralage, Christophe Rouillon, Shirley Graham et al.
Principles of nucleosome organization revealed by single-cell micrococcal nuclease sequencing
Single-cell micrococcal nuclease sequencing simultaneously measures chromatin accessibility and genome-wide nucleosome positioning in single cells to reveal principles of nucleosome organization.
Binbin Lai, Weiwu Gao, Kairong Cui et al.
Crystal structure of a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase
Crystal structures of DltB, a bacterial membrane-bound O-acyltransferase, are reported both alone and in complex with the d-alanyl donor protein DltC.
Dan Ma, Zhizhi Wang, Christopher N. Merrikh et al.
Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period
Barbara Muhlemann, Terry C. Jones, Peter de Barros Damgaard et al.
Author Correction: Choosing the future of Antarctica
S. R. Rintoul, S. L. Chown, R. M. DeConto et al.
Author Correction: Observation of half-integer thermal Hall conductance
Mitali Banerjee, Moty Heiblum, Vladimir Umansky et al.
Publisher Correction: Self-assembly of highly symmetrical, ultrasmall inorganic cages directed by surfactant micelles

Kai Ma, Yunye Gong, Tangi Aubert et al.

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World Orphan Drug Congress 2018


06.11.18 Barcelona, Spain


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