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donderdag 4 oktober 2018

Nature contents: 04 October 2018

 
  journal cover  
Nature Volume 562 Issue 7725
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorial  
 
 
 
The best research is produced when researchers and communities work together
US Supreme Court should prevent execution of murderer who no longer remembers his crime
Super-tomato shows what plant scientists can do
 
World View  
 
 
 
Farmers transformed how we investigate climate
Carolina Vera
Research Highlights  
 
 
 
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
 
 
 
CERN's physics uproar, quantum-satellite plans and Yellowstone grizzly protections
 
 
 
How Kobe rebuilt itself after a devastating earthquake and turned into a biotechnology hub
 
 
 
News in Focus
 
News  
 
 
 
China to train African scientists as part of $60-billion development plan
David Cyranoski
Trump administration launches sweeping review of fetal-tissue research
Sara Reardon
South Africa's largest dinosaur upends theories of how four-legged walking began
Sarah Wild
Peru's oldest and largest Amazonian oil field poised for clean up
Barbara Fraser
What the Nobels are — and aren't — doing to encourage diversity
Elizabeth Gibney
Physics Nobel won by laser wizardry — laureates include first woman in 55 years
Davide Castelvecchi, Elizabeth Gibney, Matthew Warren
Cancer immunologists scoop medicine Nobel prize
Heidi Ledford, Holly Else, Matthew Warren
Features  
 
 
 
Science shared
How three research groups are tearing down the ivory tower
Cassandra Willyard, Megan Scudellari, Linda Nordling
 
 
Multimedia  
 
 
Nature Podcast 04 October 2018
This week, targeting latent HIV, the breeding behaviour of bold birds, and an update on a near-Earth asteroid mission.
 
 
Comment
 
Comment  
 
 
 
Co-production from proposal to paper
Gary Hickey, Tessa Richards, Jeff Sheehy
Craft metrics to value co-production
Catherine Durose, Liz Richardson, Beth Perry
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
Reddit: the rancorous rise of a social-media phenomenon
Timo Hannay
An ode to female space trainees, the creeping cost of climate change, and the fabric of history: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser
The mineral frontier: inside the US agency chasing global resources
K. John Holmes
Open access — the movie
Richard Poynder
Correspondence  
 
 
 
Don't dismiss pet genomics — tests help breeders
Gregoire Leroy, Brenda N. Bonnett, Katariina Mäki
United Kingdom should learn from global body for biodiversity
Victor Anderson, Aled Jones, Rupert Read
New jargon seeping slowly into biodiversity world
Jim Harris, Janne S. Kotiaho
China's electricity switch won't be swift or painless
Jiang Lin
 
 
Technology
 
Toolbox  
 
 
 
Supercharge your data wrangling with a graphics card
David Matthews
 
 
Careers
 
News  
 
 
 
Why Canada's immigration regulations may be pushing postdocs out
Chris Woolston
Features  
 
 
 
On the record
Amber Dance
Career Briefs  
 
 
 
Degree completion linked to peer support
 
 
Futures
 
Cerise sky memories

Wendy Nikel
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
Solution-processable 2D semiconductors for high-performance large-area electronics
By intercalating large ammonium molecules to exfoliate MoS2 with preservation of the 2H-phase, highly uniform solution-processable 2D semiconductor nanosheets are obtained for the scalable fabrication of large-area thin-film electronics.
Zhaoyang Lin, Yuan Liu, Udayabagya Halim et al.
The eukaryotic ancestor shapes up
Asgard archaea are the closest known relatives of nucleus-bearing organisms called eukaryotes. A study indicates that these archaea have a dynamic network of actin protein — a trait thought of as eukaryote-specific.
Laura Eme, Thijs J. G. Ettema
OTX2 restricts entry to the mouse germline
The transcription factor OTX2 ensures that germline induction is initially kept in check and proceeds only after OTX2 downregulation.
Jingchao Zhang, Man Zhang, Dario Acampora et al.
Crystal structure of a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase
Crystal structures of DltB, a bacterial membrane-bound O-acyltransferase, are reported both alone and in complex with the D-alanyl donor protein DltC.
Dan Ma, Zhizhi Wang, Christopher N. Merrikh et al.
CRISPR tool puts RNA on the record
The bacterial-defence system CRISPR–Cas can store DNA snippets that correspond to encountered viral RNA sequences. One such system has now been harnessed to record gene expression over time in bacteria.
Chase L. Beisel
Effects of climate warming on photosynthesis in boreal tree species depend on soil moisture
Low soil moisture may reduce, or even reverse, the potential benefits of climate warming on photosynthesis in mesic, seasonally cold environments, both during drought and in regularly occurring, modestly dry periods during the growing season.
Peter B. Reich, Kerrie M. Sendall, Artur Stefanski et al.
Handover mechanism of the growing pilus by the bacterial outer-membrane usher FimD
The structure of a pilus assembly intermediate reveals the timing of subunit polymerization and how chaperone–subunit complexes are transferred from N-terminal to C-terminal domains of the usher in the formation of bacterial pili.
Minge Du, Zuanning Yuan, Hongjun Yu et al.
Multi-axial self-organization properties of mouse embryonic stem cells into gastruloids
Cultures grown from small aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells can be induced to organize spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression that parallel those of the early embryo, offering a potentially useful system for studying early development.
Leonardo Beccari, Naomi Moris, Mehmet Girgin et al.
Transcriptional recording by CRISPR spacer acquisition from RNA
An RNA-adapting CRISPR–Cas system is coupled with amplification and sequencing steps to record, retrieve and analyse changes in the transcriptome of a bacterial cell over time.
Florian Schmidt, Mariia Y. Cherepkova, Randall J. Platt
Antibody and TLR7 agonist delay viral rebound in SHIV-infected monkeys
In monkeys infected with an AIDS-like virus, a combination of a broadly neutralizing antibody and an immune stimulator during antiretroviral therapy suppressed viral rebound after antiretroviral drug discontinuation.
Erica N. Borducchi, Jinyan Liu, Joseph P. Nkolola et al.
Combination treatment prevents HIV re-emergence in monkeys
Antiviral drugs prevent HIV from replicating, but the virus can hide in the cells of infected individuals in a non-replicating, latent form. A two-pronged approach to target this latent virus shows promise in monkeys.
Sharon R. Lewin
Single-cell transcriptomics of 20 mouse organs creates a Tabula Muris
A 'mouse atlas', comprising single-cell transcriptomic data from more than 100,000 cells from 20 organs and tissues, has been created as a resource for cell biology.
The Tabula Muris Consortium
Genomes of Asgard archaea encode profilins that regulate actin
Asgard archaea encode functional profilins that can interact with mammalian actin, which suggests that—similar to eukaryotic cells—they possess a regulated actin cytoskeleton.
Caner Akıl, Robert C. Robinson
How to lose your inheritance
In developing embryos, molecular and physical differences divide the cells that will form eggs or sperm and those that will form the body. The mouse protein OTX2 directs this decision by blocking reproductive-cell fate.
Diana J. Laird
Foraging skills develop over generations in the wild
The movements of relocated wild animals reveal that a lost migratory skill was regained over successive generations. This suggests that skill improvements can occur over time as animals learn expertise from each other.
Andrew Whiten
Nearly all the sky is covered by Lyman-α emission around high-redshift galaxies
Lyman-α emission from atomic hydrogen shows the location of warm gas and is ubiquitous around galaxies between redshifts of 3 and 6, thereby covering nearly all of the sky.
L. Wisotzki, R. Bacon, J. Brinchmann et al.
 
News & Views  
 
 
 
Blood flow forces liver growth
Sina Y. Rabbany, Shahin Rafii
The electrifying energy of gut microbes
Laty A. Cahoon, Nancy E. Freitag
Neighbourhood deaths cause a switch in cancer subtype
Eli Pikarsky
 
Put to sleep by immune cells
Roland S. Liblau
From the archive
Ferroelectric polymers morph into action
Ronald E. Cohen
Review  
 
 
 
A new era in the search for dark matter
The current state of the search for dark-matter particles is reviewed, and a broader experimental and theoretical approach is proposed to solve the dark-matter problem.
Gianfranco Bertone, Tim M. P. Tait
Articles  
 
 
 
Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome
Analyses of the relationships between temperature, moisture and seven key plant functional traits across the tundra and over time show that community height increased with warming across all sites, whereas other traits lagged behind predicted rates of change.
Anne D. Bjorkman, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Sarah C. Elmendorf et al.
T cells in patients with narcolepsy target self-antigens of hypocretin neurons
The detection of hypocretin-specific autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with narcolepsy reveals the autoimmune aetiology of this disorder.
Daniela Latorre, Ulf Kallweit, Eric Armentani et al.
Necroptosis microenvironment directs lineage commitment in liver cancer
The tumour microenvironment determines which type of liver cancer develops, with transformed hepatocytes giving rise to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or hepatocellular carcinoma depending or whether they are surrounded by cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis.
Marco Seehawer, Florian Heinzmann, Luana D'Artista et al.
The interaction landscape between transcription factors and the nucleosome
A method for systematically exploring interactions between the nucleosome and transcription factors identifies five major interaction patterns.
Fangjie Zhu, Lucas Farnung, Eevi Kaasinen et al.
Letters  
 
 
 
Very-high-energy particle acceleration powered by the jets of the microquasar SS 433
Observations of teraelectronvolt γ-rays accelerated by the jets of the miniature quasar SS 433 are reported.
A. U. Abeysekara, A. Albert, R. Alfaro et al.
Time-asymmetric loop around an exceptional point over the full optical communications band
Time-asymmetric light transmission over the entire optical communications band is achieved using a silicon photonic structure with photonic modes that dynamically encircle an exceptional point in the optical domain.
Jae Woong Yoon, Youngsun Choi, Choloong Hahn et al.
Giant and anisotropic many-body spin–orbit tunability in a strongly correlated kagome magnet
The topological magnet Fe3Sn2 exhibits a giant nematic energy shift of a many-body electronic state, demonstrating anisotropic spin–orbit tunability.
Jia-Xin Yin, Songtian S. Zhang, Hang Li et al.
Ferroelectric polymers exhibiting behaviour reminiscent of a morphotropic phase boundary
An organic copolymer with compositionally tailored tacticity exhibits behaviour reminiscent of a morphotropic phase boundary, with an intramolecular order-to-disorder transition in the crystalline phase and a very large piezoelectric coefficient.
Yang Liu, Haibibu Aziguli, Bing Zhang et al.
Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages
Chip-scale lithium niobate electro-optic modulators that rapidly convert electrical to optical signals and use CMOS-compatible voltages could prove useful in optical communication networks, microwave photonic systems and photonic computation.
Cheng Wang, Mian Zhang, Xi Chen et al.
Asymmetric α-arylation of amino acids
This approach introduces an aryl substituent to the α-carbon of amino acids without a transition-metal catalyst, and uses the inherent chirality of the amino acid itself as the source of asymmetry.
Daniel J. Leonard, John W. Ward, Jonathan Clayden
Widespread seasonal compensation effects of spring warming on northern plant productivity
Widespread but contrasting delayed responses of ecosystem productivity to spring warmth across northern ecosystems is inferred from satellite data, with higher areal fractions of adverse effects than beneficial effects.
Wolfgang Buermann, Matthias Forkel, Michael O'Sullivan et al.
An abstract drawing from the 73,000-year-old levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa
A silcrete flake with a 73,000-year-old cross-hatched ochre drawing, from Blombos Cave, South Africa, demonstrates that early Homo sapiens used a range of media and techniques to produce graphic representations.
Christopher S. Henshilwood, Francesco d'Errico, Karen L. van Niekerk et al.
A natural variant and engineered mutation in a GPCR promote DEET resistance in C. elegans
DEET interferes selectively with chemotaxis of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, and mutations in the str-217 gene or silencing of the pair of chemosensory neurons that express it makes worms DEET-resistant.
Emily J. Dennis, May Dobosiewicz, Xin Jin et al.
Coherent encoding of subjective spatial position in visual cortex and hippocampus
When running through a virtual reality corridor, a mouse's position is represented in both the hippocampus (as expected) and the primary visual cortex, for places that are visually identical.
Aman B. Saleem, E. Mika Diamanti, Julien Fournier et al.
Mechanosensing by β1 integrin induces angiocrine signals for liver growth and survival
In mouse and human liver models, blood vessel perfusion and mechanical stretching release angiocrine signals from endothelial cells that lead to hepatocyte survival and liver growth.
Linda Lorenz, Jennifer Axnick, Tobias Buschmann et al.
Discovery of a periosteal stem cell mediating intramembranous bone formation
A periosteal stem cell specialized in intramembranous bone formation has been identified and was found to be essential for normal bone development and fracture healing.
Shawon Debnath, Alisha R. Yallowitz, Jason McCormick et al.
A flavin-based extracellular electron transfer mechanism in diverse Gram-positive bacteria
The Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes pathogen possesses a distinctive extracellular electron transfer mechanism, which is probably present in numerous ecologically diverse species of the Firmcutes phylum.
Samuel H. Light, Lin Su, Rafael Rivera-Lugo et al.
Architecture of the TRPM2 channel and its activation mechanism by ADP-ribose and calcium
Structures of the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 channel in the apo resting (closed) state and in the ADP-ribose/Ca2+-bound active (open) state are determined by cryo-electron microscopy.
Yihe Huang, Paige A. Winkler, Weinan Sun et al.
 
 
Amendments & Corrections
 
Author Correction: Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia
Hannah F. Iaccarino, Annabelle C. Singer, Anthony J. Martorell et al.
Publisher Correction: Deterministic delivery of remote entanglement on a quantum network
Peter C. Humphreys, Norbert Kalb, Jaco P. J. Morits et al.
Publisher Correction: A naturally occurring antiviral ribonucleotide encoded by the human genome
Anthony S. Gizzi, Tyler L. Grove, Jamie J. Arnold et al.
Retraction Note: DDX5 and its associated lncRNA Rmrp modulate TH17 cell effector functions
Wendy Huang, Benjamin Thomas, Ryan A. Flynn et al.
 
 
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