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Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology contents October 2018 Volume 19 Number 10

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Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology

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October 2018 Volume 19, Issue 10

Research Highlights
Amendments & Corrections


Why does biopolymer condensation matter?   
Stephen W. Michnick & Louis-Philippe Bergeron-Sandoval

pp613 - 614 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0023-0
Biomolecules can phase separate and form condensates that have roles in diverse cellular processes and contexts. Michnick and Bergeron-Sandoval comment on this rapidly progressing field and envisage that the study of biological phase separation will bring new understanding of cell and developmental biology.
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Arrestins as rheostats of GPCR signalling   
J. Silvio Gutkind & Evi Kostenis

pp615 - 616 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0041-y
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit a variety of signals, mostly by engaging G proteins, but G protein-independent signalling through arrestins has also been demonstrated. Based on recent experimental evidence, Gutkind and Kostenis argue that arrestins serve as important signal modulators instead of as independent signal transducers.
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Research Highlights

A sugar rush of DNA methylation
Paulina Strzyz

p617 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0051-9
A new study in Nature identifies a molecular axis linking diabetes to cancer, whereby AMPK, which is inhibited in high glucose conditions, regulates the stability of TET2 DNA demethylase, thereby impacting DNA methylation and gene expression.

Instructive power of senescence
David Bernard

p618 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0042-x
Senescent cells secrete a multitude of factors that modulate their local environment — a phenomenon known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). David Bernard highlights that the SASP secretome can be flexibly regulated, resulting in different types of SASP, which contributes to the versatility of responses triggered by senescent cells.

TUT-TUTting retrotransposons
Paulina Strzyz

p618 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0058-2
3′uridylation by TUT4 and TUT7 is shown as a post-transcriptional mechanism restricting retrotransposition of LINE-1 elements and also replication of animal RNA viruses.

Not so CRISP(R)
Kim Baumann

p619 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0056-4
A study reports that CRISPR–Cas9 induces extensive on-target mutagenesis in mouse and human cells, calling for greater caution when using it in clinical contexts.

Poly(dA:dT) make it and break it
Eytan Zlotorynski

p619 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0054-6
Poly(dA:dT) tracts characterize strong DNA replication origins in mammals and cause replication-fork collapse and DNA breaks that underlie the expression of fragile sites.

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Eukaryotic core promoters and the functional basis of transcription initiation   
Vanja Haberle & Alexander Stark

pp621 - 637 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0028-8
Core promoters of RNA polymerase II enable highly regulated transcription initiation by integrating cues from distal enhancers. The emerging diversity of core promoters defines distinct transcription programmes and can explain the nature and outcome of transcription initiation at gene start sites and at enhancers.
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Mechanisms of signalling and biased agonism in G protein-coupled receptors   
Denise Wootten, Arthur Christopoulos, Maria Marti-Solano, M. Madan Babu & Patrick M. Sexton

pp638 - 653 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0049-3
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control a plethora of signalling pathways in various contexts. Importantly, a single GPCR can elicit different responses depending on the bound ligand — a phenomenon known as biased agonism. Increasing molecular and structural understanding of biased agonism offers the possibility of designing improved GPCR-targeting drugs.
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Metabolites as regulators of insulin sensitivity and metabolism   
Qin Yang, Archana Vijayakumar & Barbara B. Kahn

pp654 - 672 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0044-8
Metabolomics and lipidomics have enabled the identification of metabolites (such as lipids, amino acids and bile acids) and metabolic pathways that modulate insulin sensitivity both directly and indirectly. Understanding the metabolic adaptations involved in insulin resistance may lead to novel approaches for preventing and treating T2DM.
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Collection: Metabolic signalling


Amendments & Corrections

Author Correction: Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them   
Kathrin Leppek, Rhiju Das & Maria Barna

p673 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0055-5
Full Text | PDF

Author Correction: Sphingolipids and their metabolism in physiology and disease   
Yusuf A. Hannun & Lina M. Obeid

p673 | doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0046-6
Full Text | PDF

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