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donderdag 13 september 2018

Nature contents: 13 September 2018

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Nature Volume 561 Issue 7722
This Week  
The earliest known drawing in history sends a message through 73,000 years
Celebrate the mathematics of Emmy Noether
Pakistan's prosperity needs independent experts
World View  
Post-crash economics: have we learnt nothing?
Maeve Cohen
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Election security, CRISPR patents and Australia's drought

Communications Physics: Open for Submissions Communications Physics is a new open access journal that publishes high-quality primary research articles, reviews and commentary representing significant advances and new insights to the field of physics. The journal is now open for submissions. Find out more >>
News in Focus
Raging wildfires send scientists scrambling to study health effects
Sara Reardon
South Africa pushes science to improve daily life
Sarah Wild
India's surprise plan to send people to space by 2022
Sanjay Kumar
Pulsar discoverer Jocelyn Bell Burnell wins $3-million Breakthrough Prize
Zeeya Merali
Google unveils search engine for open data
Davide Castelvecchi
How to stop data centres from gobbling up the world's electricity
Nicola Jones
Nature Podcast 12 September 2018
Podcast: The oldest drawing and the energy of data
Thousands of scientists publish a paper every five days
John P. A. Ioannidis, Richard Klavans, Kevin W. Boyack
Don't forget people in the use of big data for development
Joshua Blumenstock
Books and Arts  
The long entanglement of war and astrophysics
Sharon Weinberger
The last polymath
Henning Schmidgen
The self-made women who created the Myers–Briggs
S. Alexander Haslam
Calling time on New Zealand's oldest tree species
Amanda Black, Nick Waipara, Monica Gerth
Attributing extreme weather to climate change is not a done deal
Rowan Sutton
Pedagogy helps to prepare undergraduates for the research lab
Andrew A. David
Help graduate students to become good peer reviewers
Tony R. Walker
How AI technology can tame the scientific literature
Andy Extance
A fieldwork flop needn't be a disaster
Emily Sohn
Why you need an agenda for meetings with your principal investigator
Tess L. Veuthey, Samuel Thompson
The Congress

Dave Kavanaugh
An abstract drawing from the 73,000-year-old levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa
A silcrete flake with a 73,000-year-old cross-hatched ochre drawing, from Blombos Cave, South Africa, demonstrates that early Homo sapiens used a range of media and techniques to produce graphic representations.
Christopher S. Henshilwood, Francesco d'Errico, Karen L. van Niekerk et al.
Necroptosis microenvironment directs lineage commitment in liver cancer
The tumour microenvironment determines which type of liver cancer develops, with transformed hepatocytes giving rise to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or hepatocellular carcinoma depending on whether they are surrounded by cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis.
Marco Seehawer, Florian Heinzmann, Luana D'Artista et al.
Giant and anisotropic many-body spin–orbit tunability in a strongly correlated kagome magnet
The topological magnet Fe3Sn2 exhibits a giant nematic energy shift of a many-body electronic state, demonstrating anisotropic spin–orbit tunability.
Jia-Xin Yin, Songtian S. Zhang, Hang Li et al.
Gene editing reveals the effect of thousands of variants in a key cancer gene
Gene editing has now been used to introduce every possible single-nucleotide mutation into key protein-coding regions in the cancer-predisposition gene BRCA1, to identify the variants that are linked to cancer risk.
Stephen J. Chanock
The electrifying energy of gut microbes
Some bacteria make energy in a process that is accompanied by transfer of electrons to a mineral. A previously unknown electron-transfer pathway now reveals an energy-generation system used by bacteria in the human gut.
Laty A. Cahoon, Nancy E. Freitag
In vivo CRISPR editing with no detectable genome-wide off-target mutations
A strategy developed to define off-target effects of gene-editing nucleases in whole organisms is validated and leveraged to show that CRISPR–Cas9 nucleases can be used effectively in vivo without inducing detectable off-target mutations.
Pinar Akcakaya, Maggie L. Bobbin, Jimmy A. Guo et al.
Touch and tactile neuropathic pain sensitivity are set by corticospinal projections
Somatosensory corticospinal neurons facilitate touch sensitivity and touch-evoked neuropathic pain in mice.
Yuanyuan Liu, Alban Latremoliere, Xinjian Li et al.
Designer proteins activate fluorescent molecules
A computational method has been devised that allows a structural motif found in proteins, known as a β-barrel, to be designed to bind specifically to any small molecule, opening the door to biotechnological applications.
Roberto A. Chica
Accurate classification of BRCA1 variants with saturation genome editing
Germline BRCA1 loss-of-function variants are associated with predisposition to early-onset breast and ovarian cancer; here the authors use CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to functionally assess thousands of BRCA1 variants in order to facilitate the clinical interpretation of these variants.
Gregory M. Findlay, Riza M. Daza, Beth Martin et al.
A flavin-based extracellular electron transfer mechanism in diverse Gram-positive bacteria
The Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes pathogen possesses a distinctive extracellular electron transfer mechanism, which is probably present in numerous ecologically diverse species of the Firmcutes phylum.
Samuel H. Light, Lin Su, Rafael Rivera-Lugo et al.
De novo design of a fluorescence-activating β-barrel
The elucidation of general principles for designing β-barrels enables the de novo creation of fluorescent proteins.
Jiayi Dou, Anastassia A. Vorobieva, William Sheffler et al.
A cortical filter that learns to suppress the acoustic consequences of movement
Training of mice to associate a particular sound frequency with locomotion results in selective suppression of cortical responses to that frequency during movement, consistent with a motor-dependent form of auditory cortical plasticity.
David M. Schneider, Janani Sundararajan, Richard Mooney
Neighbourhood deaths cause a switch in cancer subtype
How the same type of cell can form different kinds of tumour isn't always clear. The discovery that cancer subtype in mice is influenced by the type of cell death occurring in the microenvironment provides some insight.
Eli Pikarsky
The genetic basis and cell of origin of mixed phenotype acute leukaemia
A large-scale genomics study shows that the cell of origin and founding mutations determine disease subtype and lead to the expression of multiple haematopoietic lineage-defining antigens in mixed phenotype acute leukaemia.
Thomas B. Alexander, Zhaohui Gu, Ilaria Iacobucci et al.
Cryo-EM structure of the active, Gs-protein complexed, human CGRP receptor
The structure of a complex containing calcitonin gene-related peptide, the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor and the Gs heterotrimer, determined using Volta phase-plate cryo-electron microscopy, provides structural insight into the regulation of G-protein-coupled receptors by receptor activity modifying protein 1.
Yi-Lynn Liang, Maryam Khoshouei, Giuseppe Deganutti et al.
From the archive
What Nature was saying 50 and 100 years ago.
A topological source of quantum light
Topologically protected edge states realized in a square array of ring resonators are used to demonstrate a robust source of heralded single photons produced by spontaneous four-wave mixing.
Sunil Mittal, Elizabeth A. Goldschmidt, Mohammad Hafezi
Tracing HIV-1 strains that imprint broadly neutralizing antibody responses
Similarity of antibody responses in HIV-1 transmission pairs reveals a significant impact of the virus genome on imprinting antibody responses.
Roger D. Kouyos, Peter Rusert, Claus Kadelka et al.
Extremely efficient terahertz high-harmonic generation in graphene by hot Dirac fermions
Efficient terahertz harmonic generation—challenging but important for ultrahigh-speed optoelectronic technologies—is demonstrated in graphene through a nonlinear process that could potentially be generalized to other materials.
Hassan A. Hafez, Sergey Kovalev, Jan-Christoph Deinert et al.
Experimental and computational framework for a dynamic protein atlas of human cell division
Quantitative live-cell imaging provides a dynamic protein atlas of mitosis.
Yin Cai, M. Julius Hossain, Jean-Karim Hériché et al.
Coherent encoding of subjective spatial position in visual cortex and hippocampus
When running through a virtual reality corridor, a mouse's position is represented in both the hippocampus (as expected) and the primary visual cortex, for places that are visually identical.
Aman B. Saleem, E. Mika Diamanti, Julien Fournier et al.
News & Views  
Receptor becomes a ligand to control bone remodelling
Mone Zaidi, Christopher P. Cardozo
Spins travel far in an antiferromagnet
Sergio M. Rezende
A 3D cell shape that enables tube formation
Guy Blanchard
Future of tidal wetlands depends on coastal management
Jonathan D. Woodruff
Elusive mitochondrial connection to inflammation uncovered
Alexandra Stolz, Ivan Dikic
Protein complexes assemble as they are being made
Christine Mayr
Brief Communications Arising  
Does the galaxy NGC1052–DF2 falsify Milgromian dynamics?
Pavel Kroupa, Hosein Haghi, Behnam Javanmardi et al.
Optimized arylomycins are a new class of Gram-negative antibiotics
Chemical optimization of arylomycins results in an inhibitor of bacterial type I signal peptidase that shows activity both against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria in vitro and in several in vivo infection models.
Peter A. Smith, Michael F. T. Koehler, Hany S. Girgis et al.
Coupling of bone resorption and formation by RANKL reverse signalling
Osteoclasts secrete small extracellular vesicles that stimulate osteoblasts, promoting bone formation via receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), thereby linking bone formation and resorption.
Yuki Ikebuchi, Shigeki Aoki, Masashi Honma et al.
Precancerous neoplastic cells can move through the pancreatic ductal system
Comparison of multiple lesions from individual pancreases sheds light on how ancestral clones can spread through the ductal system and give rise to precursor lesions, with acquisition of further mutations leading to pancreatic cancer.
Alvin P. Makohon-Moore, Karen Matsukuma, Ming Zhang et al.
Autogenous and efficient acceleration of energetic ions upstream of Earth's bow shock
Observations of a hot flow anomaly accelerating solar-wind ions suggest a mechanism for such acceleration—a Fermi acceleration trap caused by Earth's bow shock interacting with the solar wind.
D. L. Turner, L. B. Wilson III, T. Z. Liu et al.
Observation of the 1S–2P Lyman-α transition in antihydrogen
The observation of the 1S–2P Lyman-α transition in the antihydrogen atom, the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen, is reported.
M. Ahmadi, B. X. R. Alves, C. J. Baker et al.
Hundred-fold enhancement in far-field radiative heat transfer over the blackbody limit
Rates of radiative heat transfer between sub-wavelength planar membranes are experimentally and theoretically shown to exceed the blackbody limit in the far field by more than two orders of magnitude.
Dakotah Thompson, Linxiao Zhu, Rohith Mittapally et al.
Tunable long-distance spin transport in a crystalline antiferromagnetic iron oxide
Tunable spin transport over long distances is demonstrated through the antiferromagnetic insulator haematite, paving the way to the development of spin-logic devices based on antiferromagnetic insulators.
R. Lebrun, A. Ross, S. A. Bender et al.
Three-dimensional printing of hierarchical liquid-crystal-polymer structures
3D printing of liquid-crystal polymers can create lightweight hierarchical structures with very high stiffness and toughness.
Silvan Gantenbein, Kunal Masania, Wilhelm Woigk et al.
Future response of global coastal wetlands to sea-level rise
A global modelling approach shows that in response to rises in global sea level, gains of up to 60% in coastal wetland areas are possible, if appropriate coastal management solutions are developed to help support wetland resilience.
Mark Schuerch, Tom Spencer, Stijn Temmerman et al.
Stepwise and independent origins of roots among land plants
Meristems of the rooting axes of Asteroxylon mackiei preserved in 407-million-year-old Rhynie chert lack root caps, which demonstrates that the evolution of the root systems of modern vascular plants occurred in a stepwise fashion.
Alexander J. Hetherington, Liam Dolan
Sensing with tools extends somatosensory processing beyond the body
Tools are embodied by the human somatosensory system, serving as sensory extensions of the human body.
Luke E. Miller, Luca Montroni, Eric Koun et al.
In vivo reprogramming of wound-resident cells generates skin epithelial tissue
Four transcription factors that specify keratinocyte cell fate, facilitate in vivo reprogramming of wound-resident mesenchymal cells, epithealization and regeneration of skin epithelial tissues in mice.
Masakazu Kurita, Toshikazu Araoka, Tomoaki Hishida et al.
Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signalling
The plant receptor kinase co-receptor BAK1 contains phosphosites that are required for immune function but not for brassinosteroid-regulated growth in Arabidopsis thaliana; an additional tyrosine phosphosite may be required for the function of many Arabidopsis receptor kinases.
Artemis Perraki, Thomas A. DeFalco, Paul Derbyshire et al.
An orthogonal proteomic survey uncovers novel Zika virus host factors
Integrative analyses identify host proteins that are modulated by Zika virus at multiple levels and provide a comprehensive framework for the understanding of Zika virus-induced changes to cellular pathways.
Pietro Scaturro, Alexey Stukalov, Darya A. Haas et al.
Parkin and PINK1 mitigate STING-induced inflammation
Acute and chronic mitochondrial stress in mice require PINK1 and parkin to restrain STING-mediated innate immunity.
Danielle A. Sliter, Jennifer Martinez, Ling Hao et al.
GAPDH inhibits intracellular pathways during starvation for cellular energy homeostasis
During starvation, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) targets GTPase-activating proteins to inhibit multiple intracellular transport pathways, thereby promoting energy homeostasis.
Jia-Shu Yang, Jia-Wei Hsu, Seung-Yeol Park et al.
Cotranslational assembly of protein complexes in eukaryotes revealed by ribosome profiling
Cotranslational assembly is a prevalent mechanism for the formation of oligomeric complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with one subunit serving as scaffold for the translation of partner subunits.
Ayala Shiber, Kristina Döring, Ulrike Friedrich et al.
Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: The evolutionary history of vertebrate RNA viruses

Mang Shi, Xian-Dan Lin, Xiao Chen et al.
Author Correction: RSPO2 inhibition of RNF43 and ZNRF3 governs limb development independently of LGR4/5/6

Emmanuelle Szenker-Ravi, Umut Altunoglu, Marc Leushacke et al.
Publisher Correction: An extracellular network of Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases

Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, G. Adam Mott, Katarzyna Parys et al.


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