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donderdag 12 juli 2018

Nature contents: 12 July 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 559 Issue 7713
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorial  
 
 
 
No place for bullies in science
From artists to scientists, anyone can have a successful streak at any time
Governments must weigh the environmental costs of deep-sea mining
 
Advertising.
World View  
 
 
 
Lab heads should learn to talk about racism
Devang Mehta
Research Highlights  
 
 
 
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
 
 
 
Meteorite fragment, deadly floods and French open-access push
 
 
Advertising.
 
 
News in Focus
 
News  
 
 
 
Max Planck astrophysicist at centre of bullying allegations speaks up
Alison Abbott
Foreign-researcher figures stress need for immigration reform before Brexit
Elizabeth Gibney
Coming soon to a lab near you? Genetically modified cannabis
Amy Maxmen
Software beats animal tests at predicting toxicity of chemicals
Richard Van Noorden
Controversial CRISPR ‘gene drives’ tested in mammals for the first time
Ewen Callaway
Features  
 
 
 
100 bats and a long, dark tunnel: one neuroscientist’s quest to unlock the secrets of 3D navigation
Alison Abbott
 
 
Multimedia  
 
 
Nature Podcast 12 July 2018
This week, rats and coral reefs, charting successful careers streaks, and Cape Town's water crisis.
 
 
Hong Kong is maximising major scientific innovation and commercial benefits through its proximity to the research and development hubs in mainland China. Yet barriers to collaboration remain.
 
 
Comment
 
Comment  
 
 
 
Grand challenges in humanitarian aid
Abdallah S. Daar, Trillium Chang, Angela Salomon et al.
Cape Town’s drought: don’t blame climate change
Mike Muller
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
The imperial roots of climate science
Mott Greene
A guidebook to cancer, slavery to stupid machines, and the buzz about bees: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser
The Flint water crisis: how citizen scientists exposed poisonous politics
Mark Peplow
Correspondence  
 
 
 
Now India is electrified, bring on the renewables
Shekhar Chandra, Lawrence E. Susskind
EPA is open to scrutiny
Charles Herrick
Justification for the EPA’s transparency rule
Peter Wood
Local diagnostics kits for Africa being developed in Ghana
Aniweh Yaw, Kanyong Prosper, Francis Krampa et al.
Two centuries since discovery of dawn-of-life molecule
Willem H. Koppenol, Helmut Sies
 
 
Careers
 
Features  
 
 
 
How to start a lab when funds are tight
Elie Dolgin
Career Briefs  
 
 
 
US universities urged to seek greater fairness and diversity in faculty and administration roles
Universities should help junior researchers broaden their career prospects
 
 
Futures
 
Your face
The price of success.
Grace Tang
 
 
Advertising.
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
Histidine catabolism is a major determinant of methotrexate sensitivity
Histidine metabolism influences the sensitivity of cancer cells to methotrexate, with mice bearing leukaemia xenografts showing increased response to the drug upon histidine supplementation.
Naama Kanarek, Heather R. Keys, Jason R. Cantor et al.
Prespliceosome structure provides insights into spliceosome assembly and regulation
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prespliceosome provides insights into splice-site selection and early spliceosome assembly events.
Clemens Plaschka, Pei-Chun Lin, Clément Charenton et al.
An early hominin arrival in Asia
An excavation has uncovered stone tools in China that are about 2.1 million years old. This evidence pushes back the date of the earliest established signs of a hominin species outside Africa.
John Kappelman
Hominin occupation of the Chinese Loess Plateau since about 2.1 million years ago
An Early Pleistocene artefact assemblage from the Chinese Loess Plateau indicates that hominins had left Africa by at least 2.1 million years ago, and occupied the Loess Plateau repeatedly for a long time.
Zhaoyu Zhu, Robin Dennell, Weiwen Huang et al.
Neural circuit evolved to process pheromone differently in two species of fruit fly
The males of two closely related species of fly respond differently to a female pheromone. It emerges that this difference is due to alterations in the activity of an evolutionarily conserved neural circuit in the brain.
Nicolas Gompel, Benjamin Prud’homme
Resistance-gene-directed discovery of a natural-product herbicide with a new mode of action
Fungal genome mining targeted to self-resistance genes close to biosynthetic gene clusters identifies a pathway that produces aspterric acid, which proves to be a potent inhibitor of plant growth.
Yan Yan, Qikun Liu, Xin Zang et al.
X-ray and cryo-EM structures of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter
X-ray and cryo-electron microscopy structures of fungal mitochondrial calcium uniporter proteins reveal a tetrameric architecture and shed light on the function of the channel.
Chao Fan, Minrui Fan, Benjamin J. Orlando et al.
Reprogramming human T cell function and specificity with non-viral genome targeting
A non-viral strategy to introduce large DNA sequences into T cells enables the correction of a pathogenic mutation that causes autoimmunity, and the replacement of an endogenous T-cell receptor with an engineered receptor that can recognize cancer antigens.
Theodore L. Roth, Cristina Puig-Saus, Ruby Yu et al.
Cryo-EM structure of a fungal mitochondrial calcium uniporter
A cryo-electron microscopy structure of fungal mitochondrial calcium uniporter shows that the channel is tetrameric and sheds light on channel assembly and function.
Nam X. Nguyen, Jean-Paul Armache, Changkeun Lee et al.
Cryo-EM structures of fungal and metazoan mitochondrial calcium uniporters
Structures of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter from fungal and metazoan organisms reveal a tetrameric architecture and shed light on the function of the channel.
Rozbeh Baradaran, Chongyuan Wang, Andrew Francis Siliciano et al.
Structures of human Patched and its complex with native palmitoylated sonic hedgehog
High-resolution structures of the human plasma membrane protein patched 1 alone and in complex with the native form of the ligand sonic hedgehog are determined.
Xiaofeng Qi, Philip Schmiege, Elias Coutavas et al.
Hot streaks in artistic, cultural, and scientific careers
The career trajectories of around 30,000 artists, film directors and scientists show that individuals in each domain have ‘hot streaks’ during which their works have increased impact, despite showing no increase in productivity.
Lu Liu, Yang Wang, Roberta Sinatra et al.
Evolution of a central neural circuit underlies Drosophila mate preferences
A female Drosophila melanogaster pheromone is recognized by males from both the same and a closely related species through conserved peripheral sensory neurons; the signal is then differentially propagated to promote conspecific and suppress interspecies courtship.
Laura F. Seeholzer, Max Seppo, David L. Stern et al.
Insights into clonal haematopoiesis from 8,342 mosaic chromosomal alterations
Analysis of genotyping data for more than 150,000 individuals from the UK Biobank using long-range phase information sheds light on mechanisms of clonal haematopoiesis.
Po-Ru Loh, Giulio Genovese, Robert E. Handsaker et al.
Histidine metabolism boosts cancer therapy
Clinical use of the anticancer drug methotrexate can be limited by its high toxicity. It emerges that a diet rich in the amino acid histidine increases the effectiveness of methotrexate treatment and lowers toxicity in mice.
Christian Frezza
PtdIns(4,5)P2 stabilizes active states of GPCRs and enhances selectivity of G-protein coupling
Mass spectrometry-based assays are used to reveal specificity and structural determinants of lipid binding to class A G-protein-coupled receptors, and the effects of specific lipids on receptor coupling to G proteins.
Hsin-Yung Yen, Kin Kuan Hoi, Idlir Liko et al.
Atmosphere–soil carbon transfer as a function of soil depth
This study of whole-soil carbon dynamics finds that, of the atmospheric carbon that is incorporated into the topmost metre of soil over 50 years, just 19 per cent reaches the subsoil, in a manner that depends on land use and aridity.
Jérôme Balesdent, Isabelle Basile-Doelsch, Joël Chadoeuf et al.
Prediction of acute myeloid leukaemia risk in healthy individuals
Individuals who are at high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia can be identified years before diagnosis using genetic information from blood samples.
Sagi Abelson, Grace Collord, Stanley W. K. Ng et al.
A two-million-year-long hydroclimatic context for hominin evolution in southeastern Africa
A multiple-proxy reconstruction for the catchment of the Limpopo River and of sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean provides evidence for hydroclimatic changes that may have been important in hominin evolution.
Thibaut Caley, Thomas Extier, James A. Collins et al.
 
News & Views  
 
 
 
Self-organizing multicellular structures designed using synthetic biology
Jesse Tordoff, Ron Weiss
 
A fresh take on ancient climate change in the North Pacific
Kaustubh Thirumalai
 
Superfast DNA replication causes damage in cancer cells
Annabel Quinet, Alessandro Vindigni
 
Estimate suggests many infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa attributable to air pollution
Lance A. Waller
50 & 100 years ago
The heat is on for Majorana fermions
Kirill Shtengel
How rats wreak havoc on coral reefs
Nancy Knowlton
Perspective  
 
 
 
China’s response to a national land-system sustainability emergency
China has addressed widespread rural poverty and environmental degradation head-on via unprecedented investment in sixteen large-scale sustainability programmes.
Brett A. Bryan, Lei Gao, Yanqiong Ye et al.
Articles  
 
 
 
Observation of half-integer thermal Hall conductance
Measurements of the thermal Hall conductance in the first excited Landau level of the quantum Hall effect show the existence of a state with non-Abelian excitations.
Mitali Banerjee, Moty Heiblum, Vladimir Umansky et al.
Kinase-controlled phase transition of membraneless organelles in mitosis
The dual-specificity kinase DYRK3 acts as a central ‘dissolvase’, mediating the phase transitions of several types of membraneless organelles during mitosis.
Arpan Kumar Rai, Jia-Xuan Chen, Matthias Selbach et al.
Structure of the origin recognition complex bound to DNA replication origin
The cryo-EM structure of the yeast origin recognition complex (ORC) bound to a 72-base-pair origin DNA sequence provides insights into the basis of the origin selection mechanism.
Ningning Li, Wai Hei Lam, Yuanliang Zhai et al.
Letters  
 
 
 
Non-gravitational acceleration in the trajectory of 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua)
‘Oumuamua—the first known interstellar object to have entered the Solar System—is probably a comet, albeit with unusual dust and chemical properties owing to its origin in a distant solar system.
Marco Micheli, Davide Farnocchia, Karen J. Meech et al.
Majorana quantization and half-integer thermal quantum Hall effect in a Kitaev spin liquid
Half-integer quantization of the thermal Hall effect in a Kitaev spin liquid reveals chiral currents of charge-neutral Majorana fermions around the edges of the sample, produced by strong electronic correlations.
Y. Kasahara, T. Ohnishi, Y. Mizukami et al.
Metallic nanoparticle contacts for high-yield, ambient-stable molecular-monolayer devices
A top-contacting method for the fabrication of molecular devices uses metallic nanoparticles to electrically contact self-assembled monolayers, enabling the preparation of thousands of identical, ambient-stable metal–molecule–metal devices.
Gabriel Puebla-Hellmann, Koushik Venkatesan, Marcel Mayor et al.
Electrically controlled water permeation through graphene oxide membranes
The rapid water transport through graphene oxide membranes can be switched off by introducing localized electric fields within the membranes that ionize surrounding water molecules and thus block transport.
K.-G. Zhou, K. S. Vasu, C. T. Cherian et al.
North Pacific freshwater events linked to changes in glacial ocean circulation
Sediment-core and modelling analyses suggest that, during distinct cold periods known as Heinrich Stadials, changes in ocean circulation in the North Atlantic triggered discharge of freshwater from the Cordilleran Ice Sheet into the North Pacific.
E. Maier, X. Zhang, A. Abelmann et al.
Evolution of cooperation in stochastic games
Cooperation is more likely to evolve in a public-goods-distribution game when payoffs can change between rounds so that the stakes increase when players cooperate and decrease when players defect.
Christian Hilbe, Štěpán Šimsa, Krishnendu Chatterjee et al.
Seabirds enhance coral reef productivity and functioning in the absence of invasive rats
Productivity of coral reefs is enhanced near islands with no invasive rats, as populations of seabirds, which transfer nitrogen from deeper areas of ocean to the nearshore waters via their guano, are much larger than on rat-infested islands.
Nicholas A. J. Graham, Shaun K. Wilson, Peter Carr et al.
Robust relationship between air quality and infant mortality in Africa
A 10 μg m−3 increase in the concentration of ambient respirable particulate matter is associated with a 9% rise in infant mortality in Africa and this increase is not affected by household wealth.
Sam Heft-Neal, Jennifer Burney, Eran Bendavid et al.
Species-specific activity of antibacterial drug combinations
Screening pairwise combinations of antibiotics and other drugs against three bacterial pathogens reveals that antagonistic and synergistic drug–drug interactions are specific to microbial species and strains.
Ana Rita Brochado, Anja Telzerow, Jacob Bobonis et al.
The purinergic receptor P2RX7 directs metabolic fitness of long-lived memory CD8+ T cells
Activation of P2RX7 receptors by extracellular ATP is required for the generation, maintenance and function of central and tissue-resident CD8+ memory T cells.
Henrique Borges da Silva, Lalit K. Beura, Haiguang Wang et al.
Targeting STING with covalent small-molecule inhibitors
The discovery and characterization of small-molecule antagonists that inhibit the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein may help to develop therapies for the treatment of autoinflammatory disease.
Simone M. Haag, Muhammet F. Gulen, Luc Reymond et al.
Mechanism for remodelling of the cell cycle checkpoint protein MAD2 by the ATPase TRIP13
Structural analysis demonstrates how TRIP13 and p31comet disassemble the mitotic checkpoint complex.
Claudio Alfieri, Leifu Chang, David Barford
High speed of fork progression induces DNA replication stress and genomic instability
Inhibition of PARP is shown to accelerate the speed of replication fork elongation, which prevents fork stalling and induces DNA damage, with implications for genomic instability and cancer treatment.
Apolinar Maya-Mendoza, Pavel Moudry, Joanna Maria Merchut-Maya et al.
CRISPR screens identify genomic ribonucleotides as a source of PARP-trapping lesions
Mutations in all three genes encoding ribonuclease H2 sensitize cells to poly(ADP–ribose) polymerase inhibitors by compromising ribonucleotide excision repair.
Michal Zimmermann, Olga Murina, Martin A. M. Reijns et al.
 
 
 
Ying Sun is a multi-award-winning statistician who is inspired by the value of statistics in solving real-world problems.
 
Discover more about Prof. Sun's latest efforts. 
 
 
Amendments & Corrections
 
Author Correction: Roads towards fault-tolerant universal quantum computation
Earl T. Campbell, Barbara M. Terhal, Christophe Vuillot
Author Correction: A series of energetic metal pentazolate hydrates
Yuangang Xu, Qian Wang, Cheng Shen et al.
Publisher Correction: Pervasive phosphorus limitation of tree species but not communities in tropical forests
Benjamin L. Turner, Tania Brenes-Arguedas, Richard Condit
Publisher Correction: A TRP channel trio mediates acute noxious heat sensing
Ine Vandewauw, Katrien De Clercq, Marie Mulier et al.
 
 
 
 
 

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