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vrijdag 29 juni 2018

The Lancet: [Review] Unanswered questions about the 1918 influenza pandemic: origin, pathology, and the virus itself

[Review] Unanswered questions about the 1918 influenza pandemic: origin, pathology, and the virus itself
The influenza epidemic of 1918 represented the greatest failure of medical science in the 20th century. Fortunately, research throughout subsequent years has been making amends. Some studies have applied RT-PCR to the tissue samples from that time, whereas others have reconstructed the pathogen in its virulent state. But the resurrection of the 1918 influenza virus leaves questions unanswered: although more virulent than contemporary H1N1 epidemic viruses in animal models, this increased virulence of the 1918 influenza virus is not sufficient to have been the sole cause of the high mortality rates recorded in humans during the epidemic.
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[Corrections] Corrections
Chan XHS, Win YN, Mawer LJ, et al. Risk of sudden unexplained death after use of dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine for malaria: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2018; published online June 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30297-4—In figure 3 on page 8 of the results section in this Article, the y-axis label for the middle graph should be 'Deaths within 30 days from dihydroartemisinin—piperaquine administration'. Additionally, the drug name in the title for table 2 should be 'dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine', and the author name for reference 27 should be 'Stan Development Team.' These corrections have been made to the online version as of June 26, 2018.
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[Comment] Preventing urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder
Urological complications are very common among patients with spinal cord injury; development of neurogenic bladder leading to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and "pyelonephritis being the end condition of a paraplegic", has determined the fate of these patients for centuries.1 Antibiotic treatment and prevention of UTIs in patients who use clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC) have substantially improved the clinical outcomes for patients with neurogenic bladder disturbances.1–4 However, increasing antibiotic resistance during the past decade has called into question whether long-term antibiotic prophylaxis is useful in many types of recurrent UTIs.
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[Articles] Continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for adults with repeated urinary tract infections (AnTIC): a randomised, open-label trial
Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in reducing UTI frequency in CISC users with recurrent UTIs, and it is well tolerated in these individuals. However, increased resistance of urinary bacteria is a concern that requires surveillance if prophylaxis is started.
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[Articles] Scabies outbreaks in ten care homes for elderly people: a prospective study of clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment outcomes
Clinical presentation of scabies in elderly residents of care homes differs from classic descriptions familiar to clinicians. This difference probably contributes to delayed recognition and suboptimal management in this vulnerable group. Dermatoscopy and microscopy were of little value. Health-care workers should be aware of the different presentation of scabies in elderly people, and should do thorough examinations, particularly in people with dementia.
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