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Nature contents: 17 May 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 557 Issue 7705
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorial  
 
 
 
A slow road for stem cells
The steady and careful development that has guided treatments using embryonic stem cells should be applied to therapies derived from adult stem cells, too.
Research institutions must put the health of labs first
Universities should take responsibility to ensure professional science is performed in an environment that is supportive, productive and rigorous.
Aluminium producers promise a cleaner smelting pot
Industrial partnership and new anode technology could provide a greener way to make the metal — but cleaner electricity sources are also needed.
 
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World View  
 
 
 
Give every paper a read for reproducibility
I was hired to ferret out errors and establish routines that promote rigorous research, says Catherine Winchester.
Catherine Winchester
Research Highlights  
 
 
 
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
 
 
 
Lava flows, stem-cell crackdown and Ebola returns
The week in science: 11-17 May 2018.
 
 
News in Focus
 
News  
 
 
 
How science will suffer as US pulls out of Iran nuclear deal
International research collaborations could end in wake of US president Donald Trump's decision.
Jeff Tollefson
Sacked Japanese biologist gets chance to retrain at Crick institute
Yoshinori Watanabe hopes to revive his career by attending a year-long retraining programme.
David Cyranoski
Australian budget delivers for science facilities and medical research
Scientists welcome relative windfall after years of stagnating funds.
Nicky Phillips
Europe is demolishing its dams to restore ecosystems
The growing trend of dam removals calls for monitoring of environmental effects — both good and bad.
Quirin Schiermeier
Wikipedia's top-cited scholarly articles — revealed
Gene collections and astronomy studies dominate the list of the most-cited publications with DOIs on the popular online encyclopaedia.
Giorgia Guglielmi
Features  
 
 
 
How to grow a healthy lab
A special issue on how to make lab groups productive, rigorous and happy.
Some hard numbers on science's leadership problems
A Nature survey of 3,200 scientists reveals the tensions bubbling in research groups around the world.
Richard Van Noorden
 
 
Multimedia  
 
 
Nature Podcast 17 May 2018
This week, peering inside the proton, identifying research misconduct and making sense of mystery genes.
 
 
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Comment
 
Comment  
 
 
 
Nine pitfalls of research misconduct
Academic leaders must audit departments for flaws and strengths, then tailor practices to build good behaviour, say C. K. Gunsalus and Aaron D. Robinson.
C. K. Gunsalus, Aaron D. Robinson
Go beyond bias training
Ambiguity in expectations and evaluations harms progress, say Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton and colleagues.
Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, Colette Patt, Mark Richards
Health tips for research groups
Nature asked scientists to recommend one thing that institutional and laboratory leaders could do to make science more productive, rigorous and happy.
David Norris, Ulrich Dirnagl, Michael J. Zigmond et al.
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
The truth about Hans Asperger's Nazi collusion
Simon Baron-Cohen absorbs the grave revelations in a study on a paediatrician enmeshed in autism's history.
Simon Baron-Cohen
Blood, sweat and tears in biotech — the Theranos story
Eric Topol extols a gripping account of the rise and fall of the US medical-testing company.
Eric Topol
A lab director sets out fixes for the scientific ecosystem
Jonathan Adams is invigorated by a study on the nitty-gritty of research, from publishing to conferences.
Jonathan Adams
Correspondence  
 
 
 
Romans would have denied robots legal personhood
Luciano Floridi, Mariarosaria Taddeo
Treating brainwaves is not an option
Sebastian Olbrich
Engineer solar solutions locally to save water
Russell Seitz
China-US trade spat could hit the environment
Yong Geng, Joseph Sarkis
Get facts straight on computer women
Ken Shirriff
Obituary  
 
 
 
Ruth S. Nussenzweig (1928-2018)
Immunologist who paved the way to a malaria vaccine.
Robert A. Seder, Fidel Zavala
 
 
Careers
 
Features  
 
 
 
How lab heads can learn to lead
Lessons in leadership from outside the laboratory.
Roberta Kwok
 
 
Futures
 
When Nain came to Shirin's door
Stories from the stars.
Filip Wiltgren
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
The effect of hydration number on the interfacial transport of sodium ions
A sodium ion hydrated with three (rather than one, two, four or five) water molecules diffuses orders of magnitude more quickly than the other ion hydrates owing to the interfacial symmetry mismatch.
ANKRD16 prevents neuron loss caused by an editing-defective tRNA synthetase
ANKRD16 attenuates neurodegeneration induced by a mutation in the editing domain of alanyl tRNA synthetase by directly accepting mis-activated serine from the synthetase before transfer to the tRNA, establishing a new mechanism by which editing defects are prevented.
KLHL22 activates amino-acid-dependent mTORC1 signalling to promote tumorigenesis and ageing
In response to amino acid stimulation, the ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL3–KLHL22 promotes the activation of mTORC1, which may drive tumour growth in breast cancer.
Structure of a volume-regulated anion channel of the LRRC8 family
The structure of a homomeric channel of subunit A of leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 8 (LRRC8) determined by cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography reveals the basis for anion selectivity.
Spatiotemporal regulation of liquid-like condensates in epigenetic inheritance
ZNFX-1 and WAGO-4 localize to germ granules in early C. elegans embryogenesis and later separate to form independent liquid-like droplets, and the temporal and spatial ordering of these droplets may help cells to organize complex RNA processing pathways.
RSPO2 inhibition of RNF43 and ZNRF3 governs limb development independently of LGR4/5/6
Independently of the LGR4/5/6 receptors, RSPO2 acts as a direct antagonistic ligand to RNF43 and ZNRF3 during embryogenesis, and specifies the position and number of limbs that an embryo should form.
Structural basis for gating pore current in periodic paralysis
Crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations of voltage-gated sodium channels containing mutations that cause hypokalaemic and normokalaemic periodic paralysis indicate the pathogenic mechanisms of these conditions and suggest a target for the design of potential therapeutic and symptomatic drugs.
Microbial signals drive pre-leukaemic myeloproliferation in a Tet2-deficient host
Microbial signals are crucial to the development of pre-leukaemic myeloproliferation, which can be induced by disrupting the intestinal barrier or by introducing systemic bacterial stimuli in Tet2-deficient mice.
Emerging trends in global freshwater availability
Analysis of 2002–2016 GRACE satellite observations of terrestrial water storage reveals substantial changes in freshwater resources globally, which are driven by natural and anthropogenic climate variability and human activities.
Approaching the Schottky–Mott limit in van der Waals metal–semiconductor junctions
In metal–semiconductor junctions, interfacial bonding and disorder cause deviations from theoretical predictions for the energy barrier, but delicately transferring pre-fabricated metal films onto two-dimensional semiconductors can overcome this challenge.
Bystander CD8+ T cells are abundant and phenotypically distinct in human tumour infiltrates
Human lung and colorectal tumours contain a population of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes that are specific for tumour-unrelated antigens and, unlike tumour-antigen-specific tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, do not express CD39.
SWI2/SNF2 ATPase CHR2 remodels pri-miRNAs via Serrate to impede miRNA production
The chromatin remodelling protein CHR2 interacts with Serrate in Arabidopsis to regulate microRNA biogenesis.
Microglial control of astrocytes in response to microbial metabolites
TGFα and VEGF-B produced by microglia regulate astrocyte function in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis.
Mxra8 is a receptor for multiple arthritogenic alphaviruses
The cell adhesion molecule Mxra8 is identified as a receptor for multiple arthritogenic alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus, and anti-Mxra8 monoclonal antibodies are shown to reduce rates of chikungunya virus infection in mice and a range of human cells.
Mutant phenotypes for thousands of bacterial genes of unknown function
A large-scale mutagenesis screen identifies mutant phenotypes for over 11,000 protein-coding genes in bacteria that had previously not been assigned a specific function.
 
News & Views  
 
 
 
Distant galaxy formed stars only 250 million years after the Big Bang
Rychard Bouwens
 
AI mimics brain codes for navigation
Francesco Savelli, James J. Knierim
 
Will ocean zones with low oxygen levels expand or shrink?
Laure Resplandy
 


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More than one way to induce a neuron
Lynette Lim, Oscar Marín
Evidence of illegal emissions of ozone-depleting chemicals
Michaela I. Hegglin
Activation mechanisms for a universal signalling protein
Brian Krumm, Bryan L. Roth
Insight  
 
 
 
Regeneration
Noah Gray, Nathalie Le Bot, Marie-Thérèse Heemels
Reviews  
 
 
 
Diverse mechanisms for endogenous regeneration and repair in mammalian organs
James M. Wells, Fiona M. Watt
New approaches for brain repair—from rescue to reprogramming
Roger A. Barker, Magdalena Götz, Malin Parmar
Bioengineering strategies to accelerate stem cell therapeutics
Christopher M. Madl, Sarah C. Heilshorn, Helen M. Blau
Pancreas regeneration
Qiao Zhou, Douglas A. Melton
Restoring vision
Botond Roska, José-Alain Sahel
Perspectives  
 
 
 
Dissecting spinal cord regeneration
Michael V. Sofroniew
Articles  
 
 
 
137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes
Sequences of 137 ancient and 502 modern human genomes illuminate the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age and document the replacement of Indo-European speakers of West Eurasian ancestry by Turkic-speaking groups of East Asian ancestry.
Peter de Barros Damgaard, Nina Marchi, Simon Rasmussen et al.
Diverse reprogramming codes for neuronal identity
A screen in which combinatorial pairs of transcription factors are exogenously expressed in fibroblasts identifies different combinations that reprogram these cells into induced neuronal cells with diverse functional properties.
Rachel Tsunemoto, Sohyon Lee, Attila Szucs et al.
Catalytic activation of β-arrestin by GPCRs
Transient engagement of the G protein-coupled receptor core can act as a catalyst to activate cellular β-arrestin function after dissociation from the receptor.
Kelsie Eichel, Damien Jullié, Benjamin Barsi-Rhyne et al.
Reconstitution reveals motor activation for intraflagellar transport
Reconstitution of a functional intraflagellar transport complex in Caenorhabditis elegans provides insight into the recruitment and activation of the kinesin-2 motor protein.
Mohamed A. A. Mohamed, Willi L. Stepp, Zeynep Ökten
Letters  
 
 
 
The onset of star formation 250 million years after the Big Bang
Observation of the emission line of doubly ionized oxygen at a redshift of 9.1096 reveals that star formation began at a redshift of about 15, around 250 million years after the Big Bang.
Takuya Hashimoto, Nicolas Laporte, Ken Mawatari et al.
The pressure distribution inside the proton
Measurements of the quark pressure distribution in the proton reveal a strong repulsive pressure near the proton's centre (stronger than the pressure in neutron stars) and a binding pressure at greater distances.
V. D. Burkert, L. Elouadrhiri, F. X. Girod
Overcoming the rate-distance limit of quantum key distribution without quantum repeaters
Twin optical fields enable a form of quantum key distribution that can exceed the secret-key capacity without using quantum repeaters and that has security independent of the measuring devices.
M. Lucamarini, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes et al.
Dynamic band-structure tuning of graphene moiré superlattices with pressure
For appropriately aligned layers of different two-dimensional materials, the separation between layers—and hence the interlayer coupling—is very sensitive to pressure, leading to pressure-induced changes in the electronic properties of the heterostructures.
Matthew Yankowitz, Jeil Jung, Evan Laksono et al.
Thickness-independent capacitance of vertically aligned liquid-crystalline MXenes
Electrode films prepared from a liquid-crystal phase of vertically aligned two-dimensional titanium carbide show electrochemical energy storage that is nearly independent of film thickness.
Yu Xia, Tyler S. Mathis, Meng-Qiang Zhao et al.
An unexpected and persistent increase in global emissions of ozone-depleting CFC-11
Atmospheric CFC-11 concentrations have been declining less rapidly since 2012; evidence suggests that this finding is explained by an increase in the emission of CFC-11 during these years.
Stephen A. Montzka, Geoff S. Dutton, Pengfei Yu et al.
Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period
Phylogenies reconstructed using 12 hepatitis B virus genomes, which were recovered from ancient human genome data, reveal a complex history of hepatitis B evolution that is not evident when using only modern samples.
Barbara Mühlemann, Terry C. Jones, Peter de Barros Damgaard et al.
Genome sequence of the progenitor of wheat A subgenome Triticum urartu
The genome sequence of Triticum urartu, the progenitor of the A subgenome of hexaploid wheat, provides insight into genome duplication during grass evolution.
Hong-Qing Ling, Bin Ma, Xiaoli Shi et al.
Vector-based navigation using grid-like representations in artificial agents
Grid-like representations emerge spontaneously within a neural network trained to self-localize, enabling the agent to take shortcuts to destinations using vector-based navigation.
Andrea Banino, Caswell Barry, Benigno Uria et al.
An exclusive metabolic niche enables strain engraftment in the gut microbiota
Finely tuned control of strain engraftment and abundance in the mouse gut microbiota was achieved using the marine polysaccharide porphyran, which could exclusively be used by an introduced subset of wild-type or genetically modified Bacteroides strains.
Elizabeth Stanley Shepherd, William C. DeLoache, Kali M. Pruss et al.
Control of cardiac jelly dynamics by NOTCH1 and NRG1 defines the building plan for trabeculation
A new model of cardiac trabeculation in mice is presented in which NOTCH1 and NRG1 have opposing roles in extracellular matrix degradation and synthesis that are essential for defining trabecular architecture.
Gonzalo del Monte-Nieto, Mirana Ramialison, Arne A. S. Adam et al.
Vms1 and ANKZF1 peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases release nascent chains from stalled ribosomes
The Cdc48 adaptor Vms1 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase that cooperates with the ribosome quality control complex to catalyse the removal of nascent polypeptides from stalled ribosomes.
Rati Verma, Kurt M. Reichermeier, A. Maxwell Burroughs et al.
Molecular mechanism of GPCR-mediated arrestin activation
Molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed fluorescence spectroscopy show that the transmembrane core and cytoplasmic tail of G-protein-coupled receptors independently and cooperatively activate arrestin.
Naomi R. Latorraca, Jason K. Wang, Brian Bauer et al.
 
 
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KACST Impact is a new online publication highlighting the latest cutting edge scientific research conducted at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) that features various stories ranging from exciting new scientific finds to the commercialization of innovative discoveries. 

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