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Nature Neuroscience Contents: May 2018 Volume 21 Number 5

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Nature Neuroscience

Analyze biomolecular interactions using AAV biosensors 

Prepackaged and Ready-to-use
Growing collection of sensors (e.g. Calcium and glutamate) CaMPARI, GCaMP3, GCaMP5, GCaMP6, jRCaMP1, jRGECO1 & iGLuSnFR Choice of promoter and the ability to include Cre inducible (FLEx-ON) expression Perfect for in vitro or in vivo models 

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May 2018 Volume 21, Issue 5

News & Views
Brief Communications

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Nature Neuroscience: Poster on Cerebral Organoids 

Emerging three-dimensional culture methods enable differentiated human stem cells to form into brain organoids or assembloids, which can be used to study evolution, development, and disease. 

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Celebrating 20 years of Nature Neuroscience    p647

News & Views


Yet another reason to walk instead of drive    pp648 - 649
Jennifer L. Raymond

Heartless beat or beatless heart?    pp649 - 651
László Acsády

Baby brains reflect maternal inflammation    pp651 - 653
Monica D. Rosenberg

JOBS of the week
18 PhD Positions Medical Neuroscience
Medical University of Vienna
Postdoctoral Position in NeuroImmunology and Behavioral Science
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University
Postdoctoral Fellow Positions in RNA Biology / Neurobiology Lab
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Brief Communications


Excitatory connections between the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex show a role for the prelimbic cortex in fear extinction    pp654 - 658
Roger Marek, Li Xu, Robert K. P. Sullivan & Pankaj Sah

Prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) mPFC are thought to mediate fear expression and fear extinction, respectively. The authors show that PL projects to IL and innervates projections to amygdala and that this connection is engaged in fear extinction.


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Tbr1 instructs laminar patterning of retinal ganglion cell dendrites    pp659 - 670
Jinyue Liu, Jasmine D. S. Reggiani, Mallory A. Laboulaye, Shristi Pandey, Bin Chen et al.

Specific retinal connectivity depends on laminar restriction of neuronal processes. The authors show that a single transcription factor specifies a common laminar identity in dendrites of four retinal cell types, albeit via cell-type-specific means.


Synaptic nanomodules underlie the organization and plasticity of spine synapses    pp671 - 682


Hruska et al. suggest an architectural basis for NMDAR-dependent spine plasticity mediated by addition of unitary pre- and postsynaptic nanomodules that function as building blocks of synaptic organization and enable structural plasticity.


Lifelong cortical myelin plasticity and age-related degeneration in the live mammalian brain    pp683 - 695
Robert A. Hill, Alice M. Li & Jaime Grutzendler

It is unknown if myelination patterns are fixed in adults. Using label-free & fluorescence in vivo imaging, Hill et al show lifelong internode addition to partially myelinated axons, with age-related internode loss & debris accumulation in microglia.


Myelin remodeling through experience-dependent oligodendrogenesis in the adult somatosensory cortex    pp696 - 706
Ethan G. Hughes, Jennifer L. Orthmann-Murphy, Abraham J. Langseth & Dwight E. Bergles

Oligodendrocytes are generated in adult somatosensory cortex, but few successfully integrate to form myelin. Sensory enrichment alters myelination patterns by enhancing oligodendrogenesis rather than altering the length of existing myelin sheaths.


Circuit dissection of the role of somatostatin in itch and pain    pp707 - 716
Jing Huang, Erika Polgár, Hans Jürgen Solinski, Santosh K. Mishra, Pang-Yen Tseng et al.

Huang et al. demonstrate that somatostatin (Sst)-expressing primary afferents are pruriceptors. In spinal cord, they show that Sst potentiates itch by disinhibition involving dynorphin-expressing spinal neurons and that Sst also suppresses pain.


A hypothalamic circuit for the circadian control of aggression    pp717 - 724
William D. Todd, Henning Fenselau, Joshua L. Wang, Rong Zhang, Natalia L. Machado et al.

Todd et al. show a daily rhythm in aggression propensity in male mice and reveal a novel polysynaptic circuit within the hypothalamus by which the central circadian clock (the suprachiasmatic nucleus) influences neurons that regulate attack behavior.


Locomotor activity modulates associative learning in mouse cerebellum    pp725 - 735
Catarina Albergaria, N. Tatiana Silva, Dominique L. Pritchett & Megan R. Carey

Albergaria et al. demonstrate that ongoing locomotor activity modulates cerebellum-dependent associative learning. Optogenetic circuit dissection reveals a site of locomotor modulation within the mossy fiber pathway in the cerebellum.


Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum    pp736 - 743
David J. Herzfeld, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo & Reza Shadmehr

Herzfeld et al. examine how the cerebellum learns to correct movements. They find a timing code that links a Purkinje cell’s preference for error to its downstream projection on motor effectors that produce force to correct for that error.


Cortical drive and thalamic feed-forward inhibition control thalamic output synchrony during absence seizures    pp744 - 756
Cian McCafferty, François David, Marcello Venzi, Magor L. Lőrincz, Francis Delicata et al.

The authors demonstrate that the thalamic output during absence seizures is controlled and synchronized by a combination of excitation from the cortex and fast feedforward inhibition from reticular thalamus, with little involvement of thalamocortical neuron intrinsic mechanisms.


The functional organization of cortical feedback inputs to primary visual cortex    pp757 - 764
Tiago Marques, Julia Nguyen, Gabriela Fioreze & Leopoldo Petreanu

The authors measured the organization of cortical feedback inputs in mouse primary visual cortex. They found that the locations in visual cortex targeted by feedback axons relate to their tuning properties according to a simple geometrical rule.


Maternal IL-6 during pregnancy can be estimated from newborn brain connectivity and predicts future working memory in offspring    pp765 - 772
Marc D. Rudolph, Alice M. Graham, Eric Feczko, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Jerod M. Rasmussen et al.

The authors show that maternal inflammation during pregnancy, indexed by IL-6, can be estimated from the newborn brain connectome and predicts future working memory performance in offspring at two years of age.


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