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woensdag 18 april 2018

Nature Communications - 18 April 2018

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Innovators in Science Award 

Nominations are now being accepted from around the world for this prestigious award, administered by the New York Academy of Sciences and sponsored by Takeda Pharmaceuticals. An Early-Career Scientist and a Senior Scientist in Regenerative Medicine will each be recognized for their research and receive US$200,000.

Nominations close June 25th.

Nature Index 2018 Japan

Some of Japan's smallest institutions are among the most efficient in the production of high quality scientific research, though the decline in Japan's high quality scientific research output continues. This supplement examines reform efforts in light of the country's aim to become a "super-smart" society.

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TERRA recruitment of polycomb to telomeres is essential for histone trymethylation marks at telomeric heterochromatin OPEN
Juan J. Montero, Isabel López-Silanes, Diego Megías, Mario F. Fraga, Álvaro Castells-García & Maria A. Blasco

Long non-coding RNA TERRAs are essential for telomere protection and telomere length maintenance. Here the authors report a role for TERRAs in telomeric heterochromatin formation by recruiting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 to telomeres.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03916-3

Atomically thin noble metal dichalcogenide: a broadband mid-infrared semiconductor OPEN
Xuechao Yu, Peng Yu, Di Wu, Bahadur Singh, Qingsheng Zeng, Hsin Lin, Wu Zhou, Junhao Lin, Kazu Suenaga, Zheng Liu & Qi Jie Wang

The mid-infrared technologies are essential to various applications but suffer from limited materials with suitable bandgap. Here the authors demonstrate that two-dimensional atomically thin PtSe2 with variable bandgaps in the mid-infrared via layer and defect engineering is highly promising for mid-infrared optoelectronics.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03935-0
Materials for devices  Nanophotonics and plasmonics  Optical materials and structures 

Stabilizing ultrasmall Au clusters for enhanced photoredox catalysis OPEN
Bo Weng, Kang-Qiang Lu, Zichao Tang, Hao Ming Chen & Yi-Jun Xu

The improvement of photostability of Au clusters on metal-support interface remains challenging. Here, the authors report a joint strategy via interfacial modification and composition manipulation to enhance the photostability and activity of glutathione-protected Au clusters.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04020-2
Heterogeneous catalysis  Materials for energy and catalysis  Nanoparticles 

Neural-like computing with populations of superparamagnetic basis functions OPEN
Alice Mizrahi, Tifenn Hirtzlin, Akio Fukushima, Hitoshi Kubota, Shinji Yuasa, Julie Grollier & Damien Querlioz

Population coding, where populations of artificial neurons process information collectively can facilitate robust data processing, but require high circuit overheads. Here, the authors realize this approach with reduced circuit area and power consumption, by utilizing superparamagnetic tunnel junction based neurons.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03963-w
Electrical and electronic engineering  Magnetic devices 

Global H3.3 dynamic deposition defines its bimodal role in cell fate transition OPEN
Hai-Tong Fang, Chadi A. EL Farran, Qiao Rui Xing, Li-Feng Zhang, Hu Li, Bing Lim & Yuin-Han Loh

Histone variant H3.3 is incorporated at transcriptionally active genes and is associated with active marks. Here, the authors investigate H3.3 deposition during reprogramming and find that initially H3.3 helps maintain parental cell fate and is later required for establishment of the cell lineages.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03904-7
Gene expression  Histone post-translational modifications  Histone variants  Reprogramming 

Induction of muscle stem cell quiescence by the secreted niche factor Oncostatin M OPEN
Srinath C. Sampath, Srihari C. Sampath, Andrew T. V. Ho, Stéphane Y. Corbel, Joshua D. Millstone, John Lamb, John Walker, Bernd Kinzel, Christian Schmedt & Helen M. Blau

The factors that mediate quiescence of muscle stem cells are unknown. The authors show that Oncostatin M is produced by skeletal muscle, suppresses stem cell proliferation, and that its deletion in muscle results in stem cell depletion and impaired muscle regeneration following injury in mice.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03876-8
Extracellular signalling molecules  Muscle stem cells  Quiescence  Self-renewal  Stem-cell niche 

Stable representation of sounds in the posterior striatum during flexible auditory decisions OPEN
Lan Guo, William I. Walker, Nicholas D. Ponvert, Phoebe L. Penix & Santiago Jaramillo

Striatum mediates goal-oriented behaviors and habitual actions. This study shows that auditory information is represented by neuronal activity of the posterior tail of the dorsal striatum in mice, and that this brain region mediates rodent’s flexible decision making based on auditory cues.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03994-3
Auditory system  Decision  Sensory processing 

TAp63 contributes to sexual dimorphism in POMC neuron functions and energy homeostasis OPEN
Chunmei Wang, Yanlin He, Pingwen Xu, Yongjie Yang, Kenji Saito, Yan Xia, Xiaofeng Yan, Antentor Hinton Jr, Chunling Yan, Hongfang Ding, Likai Yu, Gang Shu, Rajat Gupta, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, William R. Lagor, Elsa R. Flores & Yong Xu

Sexual dimorphism exists in a number of physiological processes, including energy homeostasis. Here, the authors show that pro-opiomelanocortin neurons in female mice fire more rapidly than males, and that deletion of the transcription TAp63 leads to a reduced neuronal firing rate and a male-like susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03796-7
Hypothalamus  Obesity 

Nuclear receptor NR2F6 inhibition potentiates responses to PD-L1/PD-1 cancer immune checkpoint blockade OPEN
Victoria Klepsch, Natascha Hermann-Kleiter, Patricia Do-Dinh, Bojana Jakic, Anne Offermann, Mirjana Efremova, Sieghart Sopper, Dietmar Rieder, Anne Krogsdam, Gabriele Gamerith, Sven Perner, Alexandar Tzankov, Zlatko Trajanoski, Dominik Wolf & Gottfried Baier

Immune checkpoints blockade (ICB) is a viable anti-cancer strategy. Here the authors show that nuclear receptor NR2F6 acts as an immune checkpoint in T cells and, using mouse models and human T cells, they show NR2F6 inhibition might improve current ICB therapy or work as an alternative therapeutic strategy.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04004-2
Cancer immunotherapy  Non-small-cell lung cancer  Tumour immunology 

Structural basis of epilepsy-related ligand–receptor complex LGI1–ADAM22 OPEN
Atsushi Yamagata, Yuri Miyazaki, Norihiko Yokoi, Hideki Shigematsu, Yusuke Sato, Sakurako Goto-Ito, Asami Maeda, Teppei Goto, Makoto Sanbo, Masumi Hirabayashi, Mikako Shirouzu, Yuko Fukata, Masaki Fukata & Shuya Fukai

LGI1 is an epilepsy-related gene that encodes a secreted neuronal protein. Here the authors present the crystal structure of LGI1 bound to its receptor ADAM22, which provides structural insights into epilepsy-causing LGI1 mutations and might facilitate the development of novel anti-epilepsy drugs.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03947-w
Epilepsy  Molecular neuroscience  X-ray crystallography 

Nanomanufacturing of silicon surface with a single atomic layer precision via mechanochemical reactions OPEN
Lei Chen, Jialin Wen, Peng Zhang, Bingjun Yu, Cheng Chen, Tianbao Ma, Xinchun Lu, Seong H. Kim & Linmao Qian

The continued scaling of silicon based electronic devices requires the development of increasingly innovative approaches for high-precision material removal. Here, the authors demonstrate subnanometre depth removal of silicon using scanning probe, shear-induced mechanochemical reactions.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03930-5
Materials science  Nanoscience and technology 

Multi-functional DNA nanostructures that puncture and remodel lipid membranes into hybrid materials OPEN
Oliver Birkholz, Jonathan R. Burns, Christian P. Richter, Olympia E. Psathaki, Stefan Howorka & Jacob Piehler

DNA nanopores can span lipid bilayers but how they interact with lipids is not known. Here the authors establish at single-molecule level the insertion mechanism and show that DNA nanopores can locally cluster and remodel membranes, and stabilize autonomously formed lipid nanotubes.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-02905-w
DNA nanostructures  Membrane biophysics  Nanoscale biophysics  Synthetic biology 

Motion model ultrasound localization microscopy for preclinical and clinical multiparametric tumor characterization OPEN
Tatjana Opacic, Stefanie Dencks, Benjamin Theek, Marion Piepenbrock, Dimitri Ackermann, Anne Rix, Twan Lammers, Elmar Stickeler, Stefan Delorme, Georg Schmitz & Fabian Kiessling

The vascular structure of tumors impacts diagnosis, prognosis and drug response; however, imaging methods to analyse this important feature have been hindered by spatial resolution limitations. Here the authors present a tool called motion model ultrasound localization microscopy to morphologically and functionally characterize fine vascular networks in tumors at super-resolution.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03973-8
Cancer imaging  Translational research 

Screened moments and extrinsic in-gap states in samarium hexaboride OPEN
W. T. Fuhrman, J. R. Chamorro, P. A. Alekseev, J.-M. Mignot, T. Keller, J. A. Rodriguez-Rivera, Y. Qiu, P. Nikolić, T. M. McQueen & C. L. Broholm

The unconventional behaviour of samarium hexaboride has been difficult to explain in part because of differences between samples. Here the authors use gadolinium to exemplify that hard to avoid impurities introduce a low energy density of states that may explain earlier observations.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04007-z
Electronic properties and materials  Magnetic properties and materials  Topological matter 

Olfactory inputs modulate respiration-related rhythmic activity in the prefrontal cortex and freezing behavior OPEN
Andrew H. Moberly, Mary Schreck, Janardhan P. Bhattarai, Larry S. Zweifel, Wenqin Luo & Minghong Ma

Nasal airflow and olfactory bulb activity are linked to oscillations in cortical areas. This study shows olfactory input and respiration are correlated with oscillation in the prefrontal cortex during freezing behavior in mice, and attenuation of olfactory inputs can increase behavioral freezing.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03988-1
Fear conditioning  Neural circuits  Olfactory system  Prefrontal cortex 

Random sequences rapidly evolve into de novo promoters OPEN
Avihu H. Yona, Eric J. Alm & Jeff Gore

Bacterial promoters initiate gene transcription and have distinct sequence features. Here, the authors show that random sequences that contain no information are just on the verge of functioning as promoters in Escherichia coli.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04026-w
Evolutionary genetics  Evolvability  Experimental evolution  Gene expression  Gene regulation 

Photon antibunching in a cluster of giant CdSe/CdS nanocrystals OPEN
Bihu Lv, Huichao Zhang, Lipeng Wang, Chunfeng Zhang, Xiaoyong Wang, Jiayu Zhang & Min Xiao

Semiconductor nanocrystals have potential applications in optoelectronic devices including single-photon emission sources. Here, Lv et al. demonstrate that nanocrystals within small clusters can electronically couple, thereby increasing their optical cross-section while the optical emission remains antibunched.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03971-w
Energy transfer  Nanoscience and technology  Quantum dots  Single photons and quantum effects 

Single synaptic inputs drive high-precision action potentials in parvalbumin expressing GABA-ergic cortical neurons in vivo OPEN
Jean-Sébastien Jouhanneau, Jens Kremkow & James F. A. Poulet

In superficial layers of the cortex, excitatory neurons often fire single action potentials. Here, using multiple whole-cell recordings in vivo, the authors show that single excitatory synaptic events can drive GABA-ergic parvalbumin neurons to fire, triggering inhibition of other pyramidal neurons.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03995-2
Barrel cortex  Sensory processing  Synaptic transmission 

Artificial two-dimensional polar metal at room temperature OPEN
Yanwei Cao, Zhen Wang, Se Young Park, Yakun Yuan, Xiaoran Liu, Sergey M. Nikitin, Hirofumi Akamatsu, M. Kareev, S. Middey, D. Meyers, P. Thompson, P. J. Ryan, Padraic Shafer, A. N’Diaye, E. Arenholz, Venkatraman Gopalan, Yimei Zhu, Karin M. Rabe & J. Chakhalian

Materials that combine metallic behaviour with stable electric polarization are scarce despite being proposed in the 1960s. Here the authors engineer a perovskite heterostructure where 2D polar metallic behavior coexists with built-in electric polarization from the displacement of B-site titanium cations.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03964-9
Electronic properties and materials  Surfaces, interfaces and thin films 

BRI1 and BAK1 interact with G proteins and regulate sugar-responsive growth and development in Arabidopsis OPEN
Yuancheng Peng, Liangliang Chen, Shengjun Li, Yueying Zhang, Ran Xu, Zupei Liu, Wuxia Liu, Jingjing Kong, Xiahe Huang, Yingchun Wang, Beijiu Cheng, Leiying Zheng & Yunhai Li

G-proteins regulate sugar-responsive growth in plants. Here the authors show that brassinosteroid (BR) signaling is also involved in sugar responses and present evidence that the BR receptor BRI1 and its co-receptor BAK1 can phosphorylate G-protein subunits to regulate sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03884-8
Plant signalling 

Mutation hotspots at CTCF binding sites coupled to chromosomal instability in gastrointestinal cancers OPEN
Yu Amanda Guo, Mei Mei Chang, Weitai Huang, Wen Fong Ooi, Manjie Xing, Patrick Tan & Anders Jacobsen Skanderup

The impact of non-coding somatic mutations in gastric cancer is unknown. Here, using whole genome sequencing data from 212 gastric tumors, the authors identify recurring mutations at specific CTCF binding sites that are common across gastrointestinal cancers and associated with chromosomal instability.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03828-2
Cancer genomics  Gastric cancer 

A cancer vaccine-mediated postoperative immunotherapy for recurrent and metastatic tumors OPEN
Tingting Wang, Dangge Wang, Haijun Yu, Bing Feng, Fangyuan Zhou, Hanwu Zhang, Lei Zhou, Shi Jiao & Yaping Li

Cancer vaccines represent a promising personalized therapeutic approach to treating cancer. Here, the authors report the efficacy in a metastatic model of a cancer vaccine-mediated postoperative immunotherapy, based on the coencapsulation of the JQ1 and a photosensitizer ICG together with inactivated tumor cells into a hydrogel matrix.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03915-4
Cancer immunotherapy  Metastasis 

Short-term activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase pathway in apoptosis-deficient cells of Drosophila induces tumorigenesis OPEN
Noelia Pinal, María Martín, Izarne Medina & Ginés Morata

Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is necessary for development in tumours, indicating it may play tumour-promoting roles; however, the experimental analysis of the role of JNK in proliferation is hindered by its pro-apoptotic activity. Here the authors carry out experiments in Drosophila with genetic backgrounds that make cells refractory to apoptosis to definitely prove the JNK pathway contribution to tumorigenesis.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04000-6
Cell death  Disease model 

Histone H2AX deficiency causes neurobehavioral deficits and impaired redox homeostasis OPEN
Urbain Weyemi, Bindu D. Paul, Adele M. Snowman, Parthav Jailwala, Andre Nussenzweig, William M. Bonner & Solomon H. Snyder

H2AX is a histone variant with an essential function in DNA double-strand break repair and genome stability. Here, Weyemi and colleagues show that loss of neuronal H2AX leads to locomotor dysfunction and alteration in oxidative stress response.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03948-9
DNA damage and repair  Histone variants  Molecular neuroscience 

TRPV1 SUMOylation regulates nociceptive signaling in models of inflammatory pain OPEN
Yan Wang, Yingwei Gao, Quan Tian, Qi Deng, Yangbo Wang, Tian Zhou, Qiang Liu, Kaidi Mei, Yingping Wang, Huiqing Liu, Ruining Ma, Yuqiang Ding, Weifang Rong, Jinke Cheng, Jing Yao, Tian-Le Xu, Michael X. Zhu & Yong Li

SUMOylation is a post translational modification. Here the authors show that TRPV1, which conveys thermal nociception, is SUMOylated in DRGs in inflammatory conditions and contributes to pain behavior in mice.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03974-7
Chronic pain  Post-translational modifications  Transient receptor potential channels 

Viral proteins as a potential driver of histone depletion in dinoflagellates OPEN
Nicholas A. T. Irwin, Benjamin J. E. Martin, Barry P. Young, Martin J. G. Browne, Andrew Flaus, Christopher J. R. Loewen, Patrick J. Keeling & LeAnn J. Howe

Dinoflagellates are known to use dinoflagellate-viral-nucleoproteins (DVNPs) in place of histones, yet this evolutionary transition is not well understood. Here, Irwin et al. use yeast expressing DVNP to show that DVNP displaces histones and that histone reduction allows cells to cope with DVNP.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03993-4
Chromatin  Experimental evolution  Microbial genetics 

Cathelicidins prime platelets to mediate arterial thrombosis and tissue inflammation OPEN
Joachim Pircher , Thomas Czermak, Andreas Ehrlich, Clemens Eberle, Erik Gaitzsch, Andreas Margraf, Jochen Grommes, Prakash Saha, Anna Titova, Hellen Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Konstantin Stark, Tobias Petzold, Thomas Stocker, Ludwig T Weckbach, Julia Novotny, Markus Sperandio, Bernhard Nieswandt, Alberto Smith, Hanna Mannell, Barbara Walzog et al.

Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides that eliminate pathogens and contribute to the innate immune response. Here the authors show that neutrophil-derived LL-37/CRAMP induces platelet activation and promotes arterial thrombosis and thrombo-inflammation.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03925-2
Leukocytes  Platelets  Thrombosis 

Inhibition of the mevalonate pathway enhances cancer cell oncolysis mediated by M1 virus OPEN

Oncolytic viruses selectively kill tumour cells and induce anti-tumour immunity. Here, the AUs demonstrate the anti-viral effect of the mevalonate pathway on oncolytic virus M1 in refractory cancer cells and provide evidence for a combination strategy of targeting the mevalonate pathway for potentiating oncolytic virus therapy.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03913-6
Cancer therapeutic resistance  Tumour virus infections 

Multi-petahertz electron interference in Cr:Al2O3 solid-state material OPEN
Hiroki Mashiko, Yuta Chisuga, Ikufumi Katayama, Katsuya Oguri, Hiroyuki Masuda, Jun Takeda & Hideki Gotoh

Signal processing in electronic devices is in the THz regime. Here the authors measure NIR lightwave-field-induced multiple dipole oscillations in Cr:Al2O3 in the time domain reaching PHz scale by using an isolated attosecond pulse and this method shows potential for higher speed signal processing.

18 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03885-7
Attosecond science  Optical physics 

Cooperative STAT/NF-κB signaling regulates lymphoma metabolic reprogramming and aberrant GOT2 expression OPEN
Maren Feist, Philipp Schwarzfischer, Paul Heinrich, Xueni Sun, Judith Kemper, Frederike von Bonin, Paula Perez-Rubio, Franziska Taruttis, Thorsten Rehberg, Katja Dettmer, Wolfram Gronwald, Jörg Reinders, Julia C. Engelmann, Jan Dudek, Wolfram Klapper, Lorenz Trümper, Rainer Spang, Peter J. Oefner & Dieter Kube

Metabolic rewiring of cancer cells can be driven by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Here the authors show that microenvironmental factors induce metabolic rewiring of B-cell lymphoma through activation of STAT3 and NF-ΚB resulting in upregulation of the aminotransferase GOT2 and glutamine addiction.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03803-x
Growth factor signalling  Lymphoma 

A large planetary body inferred from diamond inclusions in a ureilite meteorite OPEN
Farhang Nabiei, James Badro, Teresa Dennenwaldt, Emad Oveisi, Marco Cantoni, Cécile Hébert, Ahmed El Goresy, Jean-Alix Barrat & Philippe Gillet

Ureilites are a type of meteorite that are believed to be derived from a parent body that was impacted in the early solar system. Here, the authors analyse inclusions within diamonds from a ureilite meteorite and find that they must have formed at above 20 GPa suggesting the parent body was Mercury- to Mars-sized.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03808-6
Early solar system  Meteoritics 

Matrix stiffness controls lymphatic vessel formation through regulation of a GATA2-dependent transcriptional program OPEN
Maike Frye, Andrea Taddei, Cathrin Dierkes, Ines Martinez-Corral, Matthew Fielden, Henrik Ortsäter, Jan Kazenwadel, Dinis P. Calado, Pia Ostergaard, Marjo Salminen, Liqun He, Natasha L. Harvey, Friedemann Kiefer & Taija Mäkinen

Mechanical cues are known to influence endothelial cell behavior. Here Frye et al. show that lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors experience varying degrees of matrix stiffness during development, and that matrix stiffness regulates GATA2 expression to drive lymphatic vessel formation.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03959-6
Extracellular matrix  Lymphangiogenesis  Mechanotransduction 

Proscription supports robust perceptual integration by suppression in human visual cortex OPEN
Reuben Rideaux & Andrew E. Welchman

Perception relies on information integration but it is unclear how the brain decides which information to integrate and which to keep separate. Here, the authors develop and test a biologically inspired model of cue-integration, implicating a key role for GABAergic proscription in robust perception.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03400-y
Neural decoding  Perception  Sensory processing 

A geometric approach to characterize the functional identity of single cells OPEN
Shahin Mohammadi, Vikram Ravindra, David F. Gleich & Ananth Grama

Functional characterisation of single cells is crucial for uncovering the true extent of cellular heterogeneity. Here the authors offer an approach to infer functional identities of cells from their transcriptomes, identify their dominant function, and reconstruct the underlying regulatory networks.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03933-2
Gene regulatory networks  Machine learning  Melanoma 

Numerical simulations of a kilometre-thick Arctic ice shelf consistent with ice grounding observations OPEN
Edward G. W. Gasson, Robert M. DeConto, David Pollard & Chris D. Clark

Ice grounding features discovered in the Arctic Basin, in water depths exceeding 1 km and dated to the penultimate glacial, suggest a past Arctic ice shelf. Here, the authors undertake numerical simulations that shed light on how such an ice shelf could have formed, its dynamics and most likely configuration.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03707-w
Climate sciences  Cryospheric science  Palaeoceanography  Palaeoclimate  Planetary science 

Westward migration of tropical cyclone rapid-intensification over the Northwestern Pacific during short duration El Niño OPEN
Yi-Peng Guo & Zhe-Min Tan

El Niño events have important impacts on tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific. Here, the authors show that short duration El Niño could significantly shift the tropical cyclone rapid intensification westward by transporting ocean heat energy to the western Pacific.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03945-y
Atmospheric science  Climate change 

Improved calcium sensor GCaMP-X overcomes the calcium channel perturbations induced by the calmodulin in GCaMP OPEN
Yaxiong Yang, Nan Liu, Yuanyuan He, Yuxia Liu, Lin Ge, Linzhi Zou, Sen Song, Wei Xiong & Xiaodong Liu

The popular genetically-encoded Ca2+ indicator, GCaMP, has several side-effects. Here the authors show that GCaMP containing CaM interferes with gating and signaling of L-type calcium channels, which disrupts Ca2+ dynamics and gene expression, and develop GCaMP-X to overcome these limitations.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03719-6
Calcium channels  Calcium signalling  Fluorescence imaging  Ion channel signalling  Ion channels in the nervous system 

Spin-lattice decoupling in a triangular-lattice quantum spin liquid OPEN
Takayuki Isono, Shiori Sugiura, Taichi Terashima, Kazuya Miyagawa, Kazushi Kanoda & Shinya Uji

A number of materials have been proposed as realizations of exotic quantum spin liquids but many important properties are difficult to establish. Isono et al. show evidence for spin-lattice decoupling in an organic material, which may help resolve conflicting results about the existence of a spin-excitation gap.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04005-1
Magnetic properties and materials  Phase transitions and critical phenomena 

Integration of human adipocyte chromosomal interactions with adipose gene expression prioritizes obesity-related genes from GWAS OPEN
David Z. Pan, Kristina M. Garske, Marcus Alvarez, Yash V. Bhagat, James Boocock, Elina Nikkola, Zong Miao, Chelsea K. Raulerson, Rita M. Cantor, Mete Civelek, Craig A. Glastonbury, Kerrin S. Small, Michael Boehnke, Aldons J. Lusis, Janet S. Sinsheimer, Karen L. Mohlke, Markku Laakso, Päivi Pajukanta & Arthur Ko

GWAS have identified numerous genetic loci for BMI and related traits. Here, Pan et al. generate Promoter Capture Hi-C data for human white adipocytes and integrate these with data of transcription factor motifs, RNA-seq and GWAS to identify eQTL-eGene relationships mediated by chromosomal interactions.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03554-9
Gene expression profiling  Obesity 

HATRIC-based identification of receptors for orphan ligands OPEN
Nadine Sobotzki, Michael A. Schafroth, Alina Rudnicka, Anika Koetemann, Florian Marty, Sandra Goetze, Yohei Yamauchi, Erick M. Carreira & Bernd Wollscheid

Technologies for identifying receptor-ligand pairs on living cells at physiological conditions remain scarce. Here, the authors develop a mass spectrometry-based ligand receptor capture technology that can identify receptors for a diverse range of ligands at physiological pH with as few as a million cells.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03936-z
Chemical tools  Target identification 

Canonical PI3Kγ signaling in myeloid cells restricts Trypanosoma cruzi infection and dampens chagasic myocarditis OPEN
Maria C. Silva , Marcela Davoli-Ferreira, Tiago S. Medina, Renata Sesti-Costa, Grace K. Silva, Carla D. Lopes, Lucas E. Cardozo, Fábio N. Gava, Konstantina Lyroni, Fabrício C. Dias, Amanda F. Frade, Monique Baron, Helder I. Nakaya, Florêncio Figueiredo, José C. Alves-Filho, Fernando Q. Cunha, Christos Tsatsanis, Christophe Chevillard, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Emilio Hirsch et al.

Trypanosoma cruzi infection causes Chagas disease, but mechanisms underlying pathogenesis are unclear. Here, Silva et al. show that canonical PI3Kγ signaling in myeloid cells restricts T. cruzi infection in mice and that high PIK3CG expression correlates with low parasite levels in human Chagas’ hearts.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03986-3
Infection  Monocytes and macrophages  Parasite host response  Parasitic infection 

Genome-wide excision repair in Arabidopsis is coupled to transcription and reflects circadian gene expression patterns OPEN
Onur Oztas, Christopher P. Selby, Aziz Sancar & Ogun Adebali

Plants use nucleotide excision repair to maintain genome integrity in response to damage caused by stresses such as UV radiation. Here Oztas et al. use genome-wide profiling to show that excision repair in Arabidopsis is strongly coupled to transcription and reflects circadian patterns of gene expression.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03922-5
Light stress  Nucleotide excision repair  Plant sciences 

Unifying the global phylogeny and environmental distribution of ammonia-oxidising archaea based on amoA genes OPEN
Ricardo J. Eloy Alves, Bui Quang Minh, Tim Urich, Arndt von Haeseler & Christa Schleper

Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) were only discovered a little over a decade ago and remain poorly characterized despite their ubiquity and importance for nitrogen cycling. Here, the authors define a taxonomy of AOA based on a resolved amoA phylogeny and describe emergent global patterns in AOA diversity.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03861-1
Archaea  Microbial ecology  Phylogenetics  Taxonomy 

Reduction in global area burned and wildfire emissions since 1930s enhances carbon uptake by land OPEN
Vivek K. Arora & Joe R. Melton

Anthropogenic influences alter natural fire regimes in multiple ways but the resulting effect on the land carbon budget has not been quantified. Here the authors show that the reduction in global area burned and wildfire emissions due to anthropogenic influences is currently enhancing carbon uptake over land.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03838-0
Carbon cycle  Fire ecology 

A nanofluidic knot factory based on compression of single DNA in nanochannels OPEN
Susan Amin, Ahmed Khorshid, Lili Zeng, Philip Zimny & Walter Reisner

Polymer knots are important for a range of biological systems and engineering applications, yet the variables influencing knotting probability are not well understood. Here the authors develop a nanofluidic device that can detect knots and provide a free energy formalism that can quantify knotting probability in their system.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03901-w
Biological physics  DNA nanotechnology  Polymers  Single-molecule biophysics 

Resonantly enhanced multiple exciton generation through below-band-gap multi-photon absorption in perovskite nanocrystals OPEN
Aurora Manzi, Yu Tong, Julius Feucht, En-Ping Yao, Lakshminarayana Polavarapu, Alexander S. Urban & Jochen Feldmann

The effects of the combined interplay of below-band-gap multi-photon absorption and multiple exciton generation have not been investigated. Here, the authors show the combined interaction of these processes in perovskite nanocrystals, leading to an enhanced interband photoluminescence emission under resonant conditions.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03965-8
Nanoscale materials  Nonlinear optics  Optical physics 

Methanol-essential growth of Escherichia coli OPEN
Fabian Meyer, Philipp Keller, Johannes Hartl, Olivier G. Gröninger, Patrick Kiefer & Julia A. Vorholt

Engineering synthetic methylotrophy remains challenging. Here, the authors engineer a methanol-essential E. coli by an in silico-guided multiple knockout approach and show a laboratory evolved strain can incorporate up to 24% methanol into core metabolites during growth.

17 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03937-y
Experimental evolution  Metabolic engineering  Metabolomics 

Characterising the phenotypic evolution of circulating tumour cells during treatment OPEN
Simon Chang-Hao Tsao, Jing Wang, Yuling Wang, Andreas Behren, Jonathan Cebon & Matt Trau

Monitoring the heterogeneity of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and their phenotypic changes during treatment is a challenge. This study describes and tests a method for detection and quantitative heterogeneity analysis of melanoma CTCs in 10 stage-IV melanoma patients.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03725-8
Biosensors  Melanoma 

RPAP3 provides a flexible scaffold for coupling HSP90 to the human R2TP co-chaperone complex OPEN
Fabrizio Martino, Mohinder Pal, Hugo Muñoz-Hernández, Carlos F. Rodríguez, Rafael Núñez-Ramírez, David Gil-Carton, Gianluca Degliesposti, J. Mark Skehel, S. Mark Roe, Chrisostomos Prodromou, Laurence H. Pearl & Oscar Llorca

The R2TP/PFDL co-chaperone facilitates assembly of RNA polymerase II and PI3-kinase-like kinases such as mTOR by a so far unknown mechanism. Here authors provide the cryo-EM structure of human R2TP, which shows how RPAP3 serves as a flexible platform to recruit HSP90 to diverse client proteins.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03942-1
Biochemistry  Cryoelectron microscopy  Structural biology 

Quantitative assessment of protein activity in orphan tissues and single cells using the metaVIPER algorithm OPEN
Hongxu Ding, Eugene F. Douglass Jr., Adam M. Sonabend, Angeliki Mela, Sayantan Bose, Christian Gonzalez, Peter D. Canoll, Peter A. Sims, Mariano J. Alvarez & Andrea Califano

VIPER has been successfully used to assess the regulatory activities of proteins from gene expression data, but its dependence on tissue-specific molecular profiles limits its applicability. MetaVIPER, introduced here, enables inference of the protein activities in orphan tissues and single cells.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03843-3
Computational biology and bioinformatics  Systems biology 

Highly stable graphene-oxide-based membranes with superior permeability OPEN
Khalid Hussain Thebo, Xitang Qian, Qing Zhang, Long Chen, Hui-Ming Cheng & Wencai Ren

Graphene oxide membranes show great potential for water filtering, but improving their performance and stability remains difficult. Here, the authors use theanine amino acid and tannic acid to reduce and cross-link graphene oxide membranes with remarkably high permeability and stability in aqueous solution.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03919-0
Graphene  Porous materials  Synthesis of graphene 

μ-opioid receptor system mediates reward processing in humans OPEN
Lauri Nummenmaa, Tiina Saanijoki, Lauri Tuominen, Jussi Hirvonen, Jetro J. Tuulari, Pirjo Nuutila & Kari Kalliokoski

μ-opioid signalling has a known role in the response to various rewarding stimuli, including pleasant foods. Here, Nummenmaa et al. show using PET and fMRI that individual differences in brain μ-opioid receptor density predict the strength of the neural response to highly palatable foods in humans

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03848-y
Feeding behaviour  Motivation  Reward 

Ultra-thin high-efficiency mid-infrared transmissive Huygens meta-optics OPEN
Li Zhang, Jun Ding, Hanyu Zheng, Sensong An, Hongtao Lin, Bowen Zheng, Qingyang Du, Gufan Yin, Jerome Michon, Yifei Zhang, Zhuoran Fang, Mikhail Y. Shalaginov, Longjiang Deng, Tian Gu, Hualiang Zhang & Juejun Hu

Mid-IR optics can require exotic materials or complicated processing, which can result in high cost and inferior quality. Here the authors report the demonstration of high-efficiency mid-IR transmissive lenses based on dielectric Huygens metasurface, showing diffraction limited focusing and imaging performance.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03831-7
Metamaterials  Mid-infrared photonics  Nanophotonics and plasmonics 

Modulation of Hoogsteen dynamics on DNA recognition OPEN
Yu Xu, James McSally, Ioan Andricioaei & Hashim M. Al-Hashimi

DNA is found in a dynamic equilibrium between standard Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs and non-standard Hoogsteen (HG) base pairs. Here the authors describe the influence of echinomycin and actinomycin D ligands binding on the HG-WC base pair dynamics in DNA.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03516-1
Biophysics  DNA  Small molecules  Solution-state NMR 

HOXA9 inhibits HIF-1α-mediated glycolysis through interacting with CRIP2 to repress cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development OPEN
Liang Zhou, Yinghui Wang, Meijuan Zhou, Ying Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Xiaoxing Li, Jing Yang, Hongmei Wang & Zhenhua Ding

Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α promotes glycolysis allowing cell survival under stress. Here the authors show, using both cell lines and animal models, that in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma HOXA9 acts as a tumor suppressor and inhibits glycolysis by associating with CRIP2 to repress HIF-1α binding to target genes.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03914-5
Cancer metabolism  Squamous cell carcinoma  Transcriptional regulatory elements 

STAG2 deficiency induces interferon responses via cGAS-STING pathway and restricts virus infection OPEN
Siyuan Ding, Jonathan Diep, Ningguo Feng, Lili Ren, Bin Li, Yaw Shin Ooi, Xin Wang, Kevin F. Brulois, Linda L. Yasukawa, Xingnan Li, Calvin J. Kuo, David A. Solomon, Jan E. Carette & Harry B. Greenberg

Cohesin is a multimeric nuclear protein complex which includes STAG2 and is associated with vital roles during cell division. Here in a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen, the authors identify a novel role of STAG2 as a crucial component of the innate immune response to rotavirus.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03782-z
CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing  Innate immunity  Viral host response  Virology 

Neuronal SphK1 acetylates COX2 and contributes to pathogenesis in a model of Alzheimer’s Disease OPEN
Ju Youn Lee, Seung Hoon Han, Min Hee Park, Bosung Baek, Im-Sook Song, Min-Koo Choi, Yoh Takuwa, Hoon Ryu, Seung Hyun Kim, Xingxuan He, Edward H. Schuchman, Jae-Sung Bae & Hee Kyung Jin

Sphingosine kinase (SphK) converts sphingosine into lipids, and is implicated in inflammation. Here the authors show that SphK1 functions as an acetyltransferase, regulates microglial phagocytosis and is reduced in a model of Alzheimer’s Disease, such that its restoration ameliorates pathology

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03674-2
Alzheimer's disease  Neuroimmunology 

Pausing controls branching between productive and non-productive pathways during initial transcription in bacteria OPEN
David Dulin, David L. V. Bauer, Anssi M. Malinen, Jacob J. W. Bakermans, Martin Kaller, Zakia Morichaud, Ivan Petushkov, Martin Depken, Konstantin Brodolin, Andrey Kulbachinskiy & Achillefs N. Kapanidis

RNA synthesis by bacterial RNA polymerase is interrupted by pauses but their role in RNA synthesis is poorly understood. Here the authors use single-molecule FRET and biochemical analysis to show that pausing regulates branching between the abortive and productive outcomes of initial transcription.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03902-9
Single-molecule biophysics  Transcription 

Microfabricated electrodes unravel the role of interfaces in multicomponent copper-based CO2 reduction catalysts OPEN
Gastón O. Larrazábal, Tatsuya Shinagawa, Antonio J. Martín & Javier Pérez-Ramírez

The development of efficient catalysts for electrochemical carbon dioxide conversion is hindered by a lack of rationalization. Here, authors use microfabricated electrodes to study the birth of active sites around interfaces in multicomponent copper-based catalysts during carbon dioxide reduction.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03980-9
Design, synthesis and processing  Electrocatalysis 

Pharmacodynamics of mutant-IDH1 inhibitors in glioma patients probed by in vivo 3D MRS imaging of 2-hydroxyglutarate OPEN
Ovidiu C. Andronesi, Isabel C. Arrillaga-Romany, K. Ina Ly, Wolfgang Bogner, Eva M. Ratai, Kara Reitz, A. John Iafrate, Jorg Dietrich, Elizabeth R. Gerstner, Andrew S. Chi, Bruce R. Rosen, Patrick Y. Wen, Daniel P. Cahill & Tracy T. Batchelor

Inhibitors of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) entered recently clinical trials for treatment of gliomas. Here, the authors apply a MRS imaging method for 2HG detection and assessement of the pharmacodynamic effects of the mutant IDH1 inhibitor (IDH305) in 8 mutant IDH1 glioma patients.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03905-6
Cancer imaging  Targeted therapies 

Greenland records of aerosol source and atmospheric lifetime changes from the Eemian to the Holocene OPEN
S. Schüpbach , H. Fischer, M. Bigler, T. Erhardt, G. Gfeller, D. Leuenberger, O. Mini, R. Mulvaney, N. J. Abram, L. Fleet, M. M. Frey, E. Thomas, A. Svensson, D. Dahl-Jensen, E. Kettner, H. Kjaer, I. Seierstad, J. P. Steffensen, S. O. Rasmussen, P. Vallelonga et al.

Past climate changes in Greenland ice were accompanied by large aerosol concentration changes. Here, the authors show that by correcting for transport effects, reliable source changes for biogenic aerosol from North America, sea salt aerosol from the North Atlantic, and dust from East Asian deserts can be derived.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03924-3
Atmospheric science  Biogeochemistry  Palaeoclimate 

LRH-1 agonism favours an immune-islet dialogue which protects against diabetes mellitus OPEN
Nadia Cobo-Vuilleumier , Petra I. Lorenzo, Noelia García Rodríguez, Irene de Gracia Herrera Gómez, Esther Fuente-Martin, Livia López-Noriega, José Manuel Mellado-Gil, Silvana-Yanina Romero-Zerbo, Mathurin Baquié, Christian Claude Lachaud, Katja Stifter, German Perdomo, Marco Bugliani, Vincenzo De Tata, Domenico Bosco, Geraldine Parnaud, David Pozo, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Javier P. Florido, Miguel G. Toscano et al.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by beta cell loss because of an autoimmune attack. Here the authors show that an agonist for LRH-1/NR5A2, a nuclear receptor known to be protective against beta cell apoptosis, inhibits immune-mediated inflammation and hyperglycemia in T1DM mouse models.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03943-0
Islets of Langerhans  Type 1 diabetes  Type 2 diabetes 

Modular assembly of proteins on nanoparticles OPEN
Wenwei Ma, Angela Saccardo, Danilo Roccatano, Dorothy Aboagye-Mensah, Mohammad Alkaseem, Matthew Jewkes, Francesca Di Nezza, Mark Baron, Mikhail Soloviev & Enrico Ferrari

The conjugation of nanoparticles and proteins can require complex optimization for the addition of different proteins. Here, the authors report on the development of a simple isopeptide bond forming method of conjoining gold nanoparticles and fusion proteins.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03931-4
Biomaterials – proteins  Nanoparticles  Nanoscale materials 

Uranium transport in acidic brines under reducing conditions OPEN
Alexander Timofeev, Artaches A. Migdisov, Anthony E. Williams-Jones, Robert Roback, Andrew T. Nelson & Hongwu Xu

Ore deposits and nuclear reactors are greatly affected by the solubility and speciation of uranium at elevated (>100 °C) temperature. Here, the authors identify a new uranium chloride species (UCl40), which is mobile under reducing conditions, thereby necessitating a re-evaluation of uranium mobility.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03564-7
Economic geology  Geochemistry 

Genome-wide association study of depression phenotypes in UK Biobank identifies variants in excitatory synaptic pathways OPEN
David M. Howard , Mark J. Adams, Masoud Shirali, Toni-Kim Clarke, Riccardo E. Marioni, Gail Davies, Jonathan R. I. Coleman, Clara Alloza, Xueyi Shen, Miruna C. Barbu, Eleanor M. Wigmore, Jude Gibson, Saskia P. Hagenaars, Cathryn M. Lewis, Joey Ward, Daniel J. Smith, Patrick F. Sullivan, Chris S. Haley, Gerome Breen, Ian J. Deary et al.

The UK Biobank provides data for three depression-related phenotypes. Here, Howard et al. perform a genome-association study for broad depression, probable major depressive disorder (MDD) and hospital record-coded MDD in up to 322,580 UK Biobank participants which highlights excitatory synaptic pathways.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03819-3
Depression  Genome-wide association studies 

A switch point in the molecular chaperone Hsp90 responding to client interaction OPEN
Daniel Andreas Rutz, Qi Luo, Lee Freiburger, Tobias Madl, Ville R. I. Kaila, Michael Sattler & Johannes Buchner

The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone undergoes large conformational changes during its functional cycle. Here the authors combine in vivo, biochemical, biophysical and computational approaches and provide insights into the allosteric regulation of Hsp90 by identifying and characterizing a switch point in the Hsp90 middle domain.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03946-x
Biochemical assays  Chaperones 

Variation in Wolbachia effects on Aedes mosquitoes as a determinant of invasiveness and vectorial capacity OPEN
Jessica G. King, Caetano Souto-Maior, Larissa M. Sartori, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas & M. Gabriela M. Gomes

Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes reduces dengue virus spread under specific lab conditions, prompting its use in disease control. Here, King et al. show that Wolbachia increases mean and variance in mosquito susceptibility and explain how this affects Wolbachia invasion and dengue transmission.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03981-8
Applied mathematics  Ecological epidemiology  Ecological modelling  Population dynamics  Viral infection 

A RAB35-p85/PI3K axis controls oscillatory apical protrusions required for efficient chemotactic migration OPEN
Corallino Salvatore, Chiara Malinverno, Beate Neumann, Christian Tischer, Andrea Palamidessi, Emanuela Frittoli, Magdalini Panagiotakopoulou, Andrea Disanza, Gema Malet-Engra, Paulina Nastaly, Camilla Galli, Chiara Luise, Giovanni Bertalot, Salvatore Pece, Pier Paolo Di Fiore, Nils Gauthier, Aldo Ferrari, Paolo Maiuri & Giorgio Scita

Circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs) are apical actin enriched structures involved in the interpretation of growth factor gradients during cell migration. Here, the authors find that a RAB35/PI3K axis is necessary and sufficient for the formation and stabilization of polarized CDRs and persistent directional migration.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03571-8
Chemotaxis  Growth factor signalling  Mesenchymal migration 

In silico optimization of a guava antimicrobial peptide enables combinatorial exploration for peptide design OPEN
William F. Porto, Luz Irazazabal, Eliane S. F. Alves, Suzana M. Ribeiro, Carolina O. Matos, Állan S. Pires, Isabel C. M. Fensterseifer, Vivian J. Miranda, Evan F. Haney, Vincent Humblot, Marcelo D. T. Torres, Robert E. W. Hancock, Luciano M. Liao, Ali Ladram, Timothy K. Lu, Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez & Octavio L. Franco

Antimicrobial peptides are considered promising alternatives to antibiotics. Here the authors developed a computational algorithm that starts with peptides naturally occurring in plants and optimizes this starting material to yield new variants which are highly distinct from the parent peptide.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03746-3
Antibiotics  High-throughput screening  Protein design  Protein sequence analyses 

Dinosaur diversification linked with the Carnian Pluvial Episode OPEN
Massimo Bernardi, Piero Gianolla, Fabio Massimo Petti, Paolo Mietto & Michael J. Benton

Dinosaurs originated ~245 million years ago (mya) but did not diversify until some time in the Late Triassic. Here, Bernardi and colleagues synthesize palaeontological and dated stratigraphic evidence to show that dinosaur diversification followed the Carnian Pluvial Episode 234–232 mya.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03996-1
Palaeoecology  Palaeontology 

Competition between microtubule-associated proteins directs motor transport OPEN
Brigette Y. Monroy, Danielle L. Sawyer, Bryce E. Ackermann, Melissa M. Borden, Tracy C. Tan & Kassandra M. Ori-McKenney

Motor and non-motor microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) bind to the microtubule lattice, but it is unclear how their binding activities are coordinated and how this impacts motor transport. Here the authors show how MAP competition controls microtubule access to determine the distribution and balance of motor activity.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03909-2
Cytoskeletal proteins  Microtubules 

Dripplons as localized and superfast ripples of water confined between graphene sheets OPEN
Hiroaki Yoshida, Vojtěch Kaiser, Benjamin Rotenberg & Lydéric Bocquet

Water between two parallel solid plates can form mono-, bi-, or more layers. Here, the authors investigate the behavior of water confined between graphene sheets and find that the phase separation to mono- and bi-layer creates 2D droplets by bending the sheets which form ripples.

16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03829-1
Graphene  Statistical physics, thermodynamics and nonlinear dynamics  Structural properties  Surfaces, interfaces and thin films  Two-dimensional materials 

Horizontal antimicrobial resistance transfer drives epidemics of multiple Shigella species OPEN
Kate S. Baker, Timothy J. Dallman, Nigel Field, Tristan Childs, Holly Mitchell, Martin Day, François-Xavier Weill, Sophie Lefèvre, Mathieu Tourdjman, Gwenda Hughes, Claire Jenkins & Nicholas Thomson

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella species is a public health concern. Here, Baker et al. show how horizontal transfer of an AMR plasmid among Shigella species contributes to epidemics in men who have sex with men in England.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03949-8
Antimicrobial resistance  Bacterial infection  Epidemiology  Molecular medicine 

Rapid increase in atmospheric iodine levels in the North Atlantic since the mid-20th century OPEN
Carlos A. Cuevas, Niccolò Maffezzoli, Juan Pablo Corella, Andrea Spolaor, Paul Vallelonga, Helle A. Kjær, Marius Simonsen, Mai Winstrup, Bo Vinther, Christopher Horvat, Rafael P. Fernandez, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Carlo Barbante & Alfonso Saiz-Lopez

Despite its chemical importance, the evolution of atmospheric iodine concentrations over time is unknown. Here, the authors show that North Atlantic atmospheric iodine levels have tripled since 1950, and propose ozone pollution and enhanced biological production Arctic sea ice thinning as a primary driver.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03756-1
Atmospheric chemistry 

Cell-free prediction of protein expression costs for growing cells OPEN
Olivier Borkowski, Carlos Bricio, Michela Murgiano, Brooke Rothschild-Mancinelli, Guy-Bart Stan & Tom Ellis

The translation of heterologous proteins places a burden on host cell resources, affecting growth and productivity. Here the authors develop a cell-free assay to measure resource consumption and predict in vivo burden.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03970-x
Genetic circuit engineering  Standardization  Synthetic biology  Systems biology 

Reflection from a free carrier front via an intraband indirect photonic transition OPEN
Mahmoud A. Gaafar, Dirk Jalas, Liam O’Faolain, Juntao Li, Thomas F. Krauss, Alexander Yu. Petrov & Manfred Eich

Here the authors present an experimental demonstration of a free carrier front induced intraband indirect photonic transition and show how the waveguide dispersion can be exploited to decrease the required free carrier concentration for substantial reflection via an indirect intraband transition.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03862-0
Optical materials and structures  Optics and photonics  Slow light 

Fossil black smoker yields oxygen isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic seawater OPEN
F. Hodel, M. Macouin, R. I. F. Trindade, A. Triantafyllou, J. Ganne, V. Chavagnac, J. Berger, M. Rospabé, C. Destrigneville, J. Carlut, N. Ennih & P. Agrinier

Uncertainty regarding the evolution of the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater casts doubt on past temperature reconstructions. Here, the authors present a new, precise δ18O value for the Neoproterozoic, and propose that ocean temperatures on the eve of the Sturtian glaciation were 15–30 °C warmer than present.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03890-w
Geochemistry  Palaeoclimate 

Synthesis of a molecularly defined single-active site heterogeneous catalyst for selective oxidation of N-heterocycles OPEN
Yujing Zhang, Shaofeng Pang, Zhihong Wei, Haijun Jiao, Xingchao Dai, Hongli Wang & Feng Shi

Synthesis of molecularly defined single-active site catalytic materials is the key to bridging the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Here, the authors develop such catalysts for selective oxidation of heterocyclic compounds to quinoline and indole via the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole derivatives.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03834-4
Catalyst synthesis  Catalytic mechanisms  Heterogeneous catalysis 

Nonzero Berry phase in quantum oscillations from giant Rashba-type spin splitting in LaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures OPEN
M. J. Veit, R. Arras, B. J. Ramshaw, R. Pentcheva & Y. Suzuki

Rashba-type splitting is an effective way to manipulate the spin degrees of freedom in a solid without external magnetic field. Here, the authors demonstrate a strong Rashba-type splitting at the interface of LaTiO3 and SrTiO3 which is promising for the development of oxide-based spintronics.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04014-0
Electronic properties and materials  Surfaces, interfaces and thin films 

Shallow magma diversions during explosive diatreme-forming eruptions OPEN
Nicolas Le Corvec, James D. Muirhead & James D. L. White

Shallow magmatic feeder systems in monogenetic volcanic fields may determine how a volcano erupts. Here, the authors use numerical modeling to show that explosive excavation and infilling of eruptive craters affects local stress states, with feedbacks controlling sites and depths of crater-forming explosions.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03865-x
Natural hazards  Volcanology 

Simultaneous complementary photoswitching of hemithioindigo tweezers for dynamic guest relocalization OPEN
Sandra Wiedbrauk, Thomas Bartelmann, Stefan Thumser, Peter Mayer & Henry Dube

Controlling complex photoresponsive systems while minimizing light input is highly challenging. Here, the authors report two photoswitchable molecular tweezers responding to the same light signals with opposite changes in their binding affinities towards a guest molecule allowing for its “light-economic” relocation.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03912-7
Density functional theory  Photochemistry  Supramolecular chemistry 

Anchoring zero valence single atoms of nickel and iron on graphdiyne for hydrogen evolution OPEN
Yurui Xue, Bolong Huang, Yuanping Yi, Yuan Guo, Zicheng Zuo, Yongjun Li, Zhiyu Jia, Huibiao Liu & Yuliang Li

Single atom catalysts provide the most efficient metal atoms usage and afford active site homogeneity, but surface attachment has proven challenging. Here, the authors use triple-bond-rich graphdiyne to anchor nickel/iron atoms and show high hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis activities.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03896-4
Catalyst synthesis  Electrocatalysis 

Real-time magnetic actuation of DNA nanodevices via modular integration with stiff micro-levers OPEN
Stephanie Lauback, Kara R. Mattioli, Alexander E. Marras, Maxim Armstrong, Thomas P. Rudibaugh, Ratnasingham Sooryakumar & Carlos E. Castro

DNA molecular machines hold promise for biological nanotechnology, but how to actuate them in a fast and programmable manner remains challenging. Here, Lauback et al. demonstrate direct manipulation of DNA origami assemblies via a micrometer-long stiff mechanical lever controlled by a magnetic field.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03601-5
DNA nanomachines  Nanobiotechnology 

Incorporation of bridged nucleic acids into CRISPR RNAs improves Cas9 endonuclease specificity OPEN
Christopher R. Cromwell, Keewon Sung, Jinho Park, Amanda R. Krysler, Juan Jovel, Seong Keun Kim & Basil P. Hubbard

Minimizing off-target effects is an important concern for therapeutic applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Here, the authors show that incorporating bridged or locked nucleic acids into crRNA improves editing kinetics and reduces off-target cleavage.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03927-0
CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing  RNA 

Continuous-variable protocol for oblivious transfer in the noisy-storage model OPEN
Fabian Furrer, Tobias Gehring, Christian Schaffner, Christoph Pacher, Roman Schnabel & Stephanie Wehner

Oblivious transfer is a standard primitive for cryptography between two parties which do not trust each other. Here, the authors propose a continuous-variable protocol which is secure against a dishonest party with bounded quantum storage capacity, and realize a proof-of-principle implementation.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03729-4
Fibre optics and optical communications  Quantum information 

Somatic genome editing with the RCAS-TVA-CRISPR-Cas9 system for precision tumor modeling OPEN
Barbara Oldrini, Álvaro Curiel-García, Carolina Marques, Veronica Matia, Özge Uluçkan, Osvaldo Graña-Castro, Raul Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales, Jason T. Huse & Massimo Squatrito

Accurate recapitulation of human disease in animal models requires generation of complex and heterogeneous genetic variation. Here the authors combine RCAS-TVA with CRISPR-Cas9 to generate mouse models of cancer.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03731-w
Cancer models  CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing  CNS cancer 

Interactions and scattering of quantum vortices in a polariton fluid OPEN
Lorenzo Dominici, Ricardo Carretero-González, Antonio Gianfrate, Jesús Cuevas-Maraver, Augusto S. Rodrigues, Dimitri J. Frantzeskakis, Giovanni Lerario, Dario Ballarini, Milena De Giorgi, Giuseppe Gigli, Panayotis G. Kevrekidis & Daniele Sanvitto

Superfluid flow around a vortex is quantized so that vortices become discrete, particle-like defects, with interactions mediated by the surrounding fluid. Here, the authors use a polariton system to experimentally investigate the behavior and scattering of vortices in a two-component superfluid.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03736-5
Nonlinear optics  Polaritons  Quantum fluids and solids 

Gold nanocrystal-mediated sliding of doublet DNA origami filaments OPEN
Maximilian J. Urban, Steffen Both, Chao Zhou, Anton Kuzyk, Klas Lindfors, Thomas Weiss & Na Liu

Kinesin, a motor protein, moves along filaments in a walk-like fashion to transport cargo to specific places in the cell. Here, the authors developed an analogous, artificial system consisting of nanoparticles moving along DNA filaments.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03882-w
DNA nanomachines  DNA nanostructures  Nanoparticles 

Sign epistasis caused by hierarchy within signalling cascades OPEN
Philippe Nghe, Manjunatha Kogenaru & Sander J. Tans

Sign epistasis clearly constrains evolution, but its causes are difficult to decipher. Here, the authors study epistasis in a signalling cascade, and arrive at a general criterion and understanding of sign epistasis as arising from the inherent hierarchy between signalling cascade components.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03644-8
Biochemical networks  Biophysics  Computer modelling  Evolution 

Directed evolution of broadly crossreactive chemokine-blocking antibodies efficacious in arthritis OPEN
Alessandro Angelini, Yoshishige Miyabe, Daniel Newsted, Byron H. Kwan, Chie Miyabe, Ryan L. Kelly, Misha N. Jamy, Andrew D. Luster & K. Dane Wittrup

CXCR2 antagonism has been shown to be anti-arthritic, but anti-chemokine therapies usually fail in the clinic owing to redundancy in chemokine-receptor interactions. Here the authors develop single-chain antibodies with multiple chemokine specificities to achieve high affinity and broad specificity to mouse and human CXC chemokines with efficacy in a K/BxN serum transfer model of arthritis.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03687-x
Immunology  Medical research  Protein design  Rheumatoid arthritis 

A TAD boundary is preserved upon deletion of the CTCF-rich Firre locus OPEN
A. Rasim Barutcu, Philipp G. Maass, Jordan P. Lewandowski, Catherine L. Weiner & John L. Rinn

Although CTCF binding has been implicated in the formation of topologically associated domains (TADs) the mechanisms folding the genome into TADs are not fully understood. Here the authors investigate the TAD boundary on lncRNA locus Firre, which has ~ 15 CTCF binding sites, and its organization.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03614-0
Chromatin structure  Long non-coding RNAs  Nuclear organization 

Orientation-dependent Dxz4 contacts shape the 3D structure of the inactive X chromosome OPEN
G. Bonora, X. Deng, H. Fang, V. Ramani, R. Qiu, J. B. Berletch, G. N. Filippova, Z. Duan, J. Shendure, W. S. Noble & C. M. Disteche

The inactive X chromosome condenses into a bipartite structure. Here the authors use cells with allelic deletions or inversions to show that the Dxz4 locus is necessary to maintain the bipartite structure and that Dxz4 orientation controls the distribution of contacts on the inactive X chromosome.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03694-y
CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing  Chromatin structure  Dosage compensation  Nuclear organization 

Accessing valley degree of freedom in bulk Tin(II) sulfide at room temperature OPEN
Shuren Lin, Alexandra Carvalho, Shancheng Yan, Roger Li, Sujung Kim, Aleksandr Rodin, Lídia Carvalho, Emory M. Chan, Xi Wang, Antonio H. Castro Neto & Jie Yao

Valleytronics leverages the valley degree of freedom to engineer light-matter interaction. Here, the authors demonstrate a room temperature, bias-free valley effect in bulk SnS by means of spectroscopic measurements, previously unattainable using atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03897-3
Materials for optics  Optical physics 

Decoding the influence of anticipatory states on visual perception in the presence of temporal distractors OPEN
Freek van Ede, Sammi R. Chekroud, Mark G. Stokes & Anna C. Nobre

Anticipation helps to prioritise the processing of task-relevant sensory targets over irrelevant distractors. Here the authors analyse visual EEG responses and show that anticipation may do so by enhancing the neural representation of the target and by delaying the interference caused by distractors that follow closely in time.

13 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03960-z
Attention  Perception 

GFI1 facilitates efficient DNA repair by regulating PRMT1 dependent methylation of MRE11 and 53BP1 OPEN
Charles Vadnais, Riyan Chen, Jennifer Fraszczak, Zhenbao Yu, Jonathan Boulais, Jordan Pinder, Daria Frank, Cyrus Khandanpour, Josée Hébert, Graham Dellaire, Jean-François Côté, Stéphane Richard, Alexandre Orthwein, Elliot Drobetsky & Tarik Möröy

The transcription factor GFI1 mediates the DNA damage response (DDR) of T cells through a yet unknown mechanism. Here the authors show that GFI1 can adopt non-transcriptional roles during DDR, enabling PRMT1 to bind and methylate the DNA repair proteins MRE11 and 53BP1.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03817-5
Double-strand DNA breaks  Homologous recombination  Leukaemia  Methylation 

Multicomponent reactions provide key molecules for secret communication OPEN
Andreas C. Boukis, Kevin Reiter, Maximiliane Frölich, Dennis Hofheinz & Michael A. R. Meier

Designing molecular keys and combining advanced encryption standard cryptography with molecular steganography is a secure way for encoding messages. Here, the authors use the Ugi four-component reaction of perfluorinated acids to create a library of 500,000 molecular keys for encryption and decryption.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03784-x
Chemical libraries  Information technology 

Tuning Ising superconductivity with layer and spin–orbit coupling in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides OPEN
Sergio C. de la Barrera, Michael R. Sinko, Devashish P. Gopalan, Nikhil Sivadas, Kyle L. Seyler, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Adam W. Tsen, Xiaodong Xu, Di Xiao & Benjamin M. Hunt

Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) is promising to host features of topological superconductivity. Here, de la Barrera et al. study layered compounds, 2H-TaS2 and 2H-NbSe2, in their atomic layer limit and find a largest upper critical field for an intrinsic TMD superconductor.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03888-4
Superconducting properties and materials  Two-dimensional materials 

Stabilised frequency of extreme positive Indian Ocean Dipole under 1.5 °C warming OPEN
Wenju Cai, Guojian Wang, Bolan Gan, Lixin Wu, Agus Santoso, Xiaopei Lin, Zhaohui Chen, Fan Jia & Toshio Yamagata

It is unclear how extreme positive Indian Ocean Dipole will respond to 1.5 °C of warming. Here the authors show that the frequency of these events increases linearly with warming, doubling at 1.5 °C from the pre-industrial level, but plateaus thereafter.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03789-6
Physical oceanography  Projection and prediction 

Pharmaceutical concentration using organic solvent forward osmosis for solvent recovery OPEN
Yue Cui & Tai-Shung Chung

Solvent recovery is an important process in the pharmaceutical industry, but organic solvent nanofiltration membranes operate under high pressures. Here the authors demonstrate organic solvent forward osmosis — an alternative process that does not require application of external pressure and may prove to be economically favorable.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03612-2
Chemical engineering  Organic chemistry  Sustainability 

Two-dimensional electronic transport and surface electron accumulation in MoS2 OPEN
M. D. Siao, W. C. Shen, R. S. Chen, Z. W. Chang, M. C. Shih, Y. P. Chiu & C.-M. Cheng

In absence of dangling bonds, van der Waals layered crystals are expected to have inert surfaces. In contrast, here the authors show presence of surface electron accumulation in MoS2, with a surface electron concentration nearly four orders of magnitude higher than that of MoS2 inner bulk.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03824-6
Electronic and spintronic devices  Electronic properties and materials  Two-dimensional materials 

Rice auxin influx carrier OsAUX1 facilitates root hair elongation in response to low external phosphate OPEN
Jitender Giri , Rahul Bhosale, Guoqiang Huang, Bipin K. Pandey, Helen Parker, Susan Zappala, Jing Yang, Anne Dievart, Charlotte Bureau, Karin Ljung, Adam Price, Terry Rose, Antoine Larrieu, Stefan Mairhofer, Craig J. Sturrock, Philip White, Lionel Dupuy, Malcolm Hawkesford, Christophe Perin, Wanqi Liang et al.

Plant root architecture can adapt to different nutrient conditions in the soil. Here Giri et al. show that the rice auxin influx carrier AUX1 mobilizes auxin from the root apex to the differentiation zone and promotes root hair elongation when roots encounter low external phosphate.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03850-4
Abiotic  Auxin 

Epigenetic control of IL-23 expression in keratinocytes is important for chronic skin inflammation OPEN
Hui Li, Qi Yao, Alberto Garcia Mariscal, Xudong Wu, Justus Hülse, Esben Pedersen, Kristian Helin, Ari Waisman, Caroline Vinkel, Simon Francis Thomsen, Alexandra Avgustinova, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Paola Lovato, Hanne Norsgaard, Mette Sidsel Mortensen, Lone Veng, Björn Rozell & Cord Brakebusch

Although IL-23 is expressed by psoriatic keratinocytes as well as immune cells, only the immune cell derived IL-23 is thought to be important for the development of psoriasis. Here the authors provide evidence that keratinocyte-produced IL-23 is sufficient to cause a chronic skin inflammation.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03704-z
Cell signalling  Differentiation  Epigenetics  Skin diseases 

Autonomous robotic searching and assembly of two-dimensional crystals to build van der Waals superlattices OPEN
Satoru Masubuchi, Masataka Morimoto, Sei Morikawa, Momoko Onodera, Yuta Asakawa, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi & Tomoki Machida

The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures of atomically thin materials often relies on the search, manual transferring, and alignment of suitable flakes. Here, the authors develop a robotic system capable of identifying exfoliated 2D crystals and assembling them in complex heterostructures.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03723-w
Design, synthesis and processing  Two-dimensional materials 

Self-cleaning and surface chemical reactions during hafnium dioxide atomic layer deposition on indium arsenide OPEN
Rainer Timm, Ashley R. Head, Sofie Yngman, Johan V. Knutsson, Martin Hjort, Sarah R. McKibbin, Andrea Troian, Olof Persson, Samuli Urpelainen, Jan Knudsen, Joachim Schnadt & Anders Mikkelsen

Atomic layer deposition of high-quality thin oxide layers is crucial for many modern semiconductor electronic devices. Here, the authors explore the surface chemistry during the initial deposition and observe a previously unknown two-step process, with promise for an improved self-cleaning effect.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03855-z
Characterization and analytical techniques  Semiconductors  Surface spectroscopy  Surfaces, interfaces and thin films 

TSPAN15 interacts with BTRC to promote oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma metastasis via activating NF-κB signaling OPEN
Baozhu Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Lei Li, Yan-Ru Qin, Haibo Liu, Chen Jiang, Ting-Ting Zeng, Meng-Qing Li, Dan Xie, Yan Li, Xin-Yuan Guan & Ying-Hui Zhu

BTRC can activate NF-κB signaling through the ubiquitination and degradation of IκB-α. Here the authors show that TSPAN15 promotes metastasis of oesophageal squamous cell cancer by enhancing BTRC induced degradation of IκB-α and subsequent activation of NF-κB.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03716-9
Cell invasion  Oesophageal cancer 

Treating cat allergy with monoclonal IgG antibodies that bind allergen and prevent IgE engagement OPEN
J. M. Orengo , A. R. Radin, V. Kamat, A. Badithe, L. H. Ben, B. L. Bennett, S. Zhong, D. Birchard, A. Limnander, A. Rafique, J. Bautista, A. Kostic, D. Newell, X. Duan, M. C. Franklin, W. Olson, T. Huang, N. A. Gandhi, L. Lipsich, N. Stahl et al.

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to treat patients affected by acute immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses, but the function mechanism is unclear. Here the authors show that the administration of two cat allergen-specific IgGs reduces allergic responses in mouse models and helps ameliorate clinical symptoms in a phase 1b clinical trial.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03636-8
Allergy  Antibodies  Phase I trials  Translational immunology 

Electron density modulation of NiCo2S4 nanowires by nitrogen incorporation for highly efficient hydrogen evolution catalysis OPEN
Yishang Wu, Xiaojing Liu, Dongdong Han, Xianyin Song, Lei Shi, Yao Song, Shuwen Niu, Yufang Xie, Jinyan Cai, Shaoyang Wu, Jian Kang, Jianbin Zhou, Zhiyan Chen, Xusheng Zheng, Xiangheng Xiao & Gongming Wang

The hydrogen evolution reaction is a promising route to produce clean hydrogen fuel; however, its efficient electrolytic generation relies on expensive platinum. Here, the authors show how modulating electron density in a metal sulfide, NiCo2S4, boosts hydrogen desorption to achieve high catalytic activity.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03858-w
Devices for energy harvesting  Hydrogen energy 

Calculating curly arrows from ab initio wavefunctions OPEN
Yu Liu, Philip Kilby, Terry J. Frankcombe & Timothy W. Schmidt

Despite being essential to organic chemistry, the curly arrow notation of reaction mechanisms has been treated with suspicion due to its unclear connection with quantum mechanics. Here, the authors show that analysis of wavefunction 'tiles' along a reaction coordinate reveals the electron motion depicted by curly arrows.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03860-2
Quantum chemistry  Reaction mechanisms 

Immiscible hydrous Fe–Ca–P melt and the origin of iron oxide-apatite ore deposits OPEN
Tong Hou, Bernard Charlier, François Holtz, Ilya Veksler, Zhaochong Zhang, Rainer Thomas & Olivier Namur

The origin of iron oxide-apatite deposits remains enigmatic and controversial. Here, the authors perform experiments on intermediate magmas and show that increasing aH2O and fO2 enlarges the two-liquid field thus allowing the Fe–Ca–P melt to separate easily from host silicic magma and produce iron oxide-apatite ores.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03761-4
Geochemistry  Petrology  Volcanology 

Energy-loss return gate via liquid dielectric polarization OPEN
Taehun Kim, Hyungseok Yong, Banseok Kim, Dongseob Kim, Dukhyun Choi, Yong Tae Park & Sangmin Lee

One major energy loss in electronics is heat dissipation due to induced polarization in dielectric materials in the presence of electric fields. Kim et al. utilize large polarization in liquids to harvest dielectric loss via an energy-loss return gate design, which converts energy back to electricity.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03893-7
Electrical and electronic engineering  Energy harvesting 

Optical characterization of surface adlayers and their compositional demixing at the nanoscale OPEN
Limin Xiang, Michal Wojcik, Samuel J. Kenny, Rui Yan, Seonah Moon, Wan Li & Ke Xu

Characterization of adsorbed molecular layers on surfaces is the key to wide-ranging applications, but elucidating the structure and composition of such adlayers remains challenging. Here the authors develop an approach to unveil the nanoscale structure and composition of adlayers through spectrally resolved super-resolution microscopy.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03820-w
Imaging and sensing  Super-resolution microscopy  Surface assembly 

HSP27 is a partner of JAK2-STAT5 and a potential therapeutic target in myelofibrosis OPEN
Margaux Sevin , Lucia Kubovcakova, Nicolas Pernet, Sébastien Causse, Franck Vitte, Jean Luc Villeval, Catherine Lacout, Marine Cordonnier, Fernando Rodrigues-Lima, Gaétan Chanteloup, Matthieu Mosca, Marie-Lorraine Chrétien, Jean Noël Bastie, Sylvain Audia, Paul Sagot, Selim Ramla, Laurent Martin, Martin Gleave, Valérie Mezger, Radek Skoda et al.

Myelofibrosis is a chronic degenerative disorder characterized by progressive bone marrow fibrosis. Here, the authors show that the chaperone HSP27 contributes to myelofibrosis via regulation of the JAK2/STAT5 pathway, and that antisense oligonucleotides targeting HSP27 are effective in two mouse models of the disease

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03627-9
Antisense oligonucleotide therapy  Myeloproliferative disease 

Phosphatase activity tunes two-component system sensor detection threshold OPEN
Brian P. Landry, Rohan Palanki, Nikola Dyulgyarov, Lucas A. Hartsough & Jeffrey J. Tabor

Two-component systems are a major family of signal transduction pathways and a rich source of sensors for biotechnology. Here, the authors develop a general method for rationally tuning two-component system input detection thresholds via specific point mutations in sensor histidine kinase proteins.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03929-y
Computer modelling  Synthetic biology 

Deterministic realization of collective measurements via photonic quantum walks OPEN
Zhibo Hou, Jun-Feng Tang, Jiangwei Shang, Huangjun Zhu, Jian Li, Yuan Yuan, Kang-Da Wu, Guo-Yong Xiang, Chuan-Feng Li & Guang-Can Guo

Demonstrating the advantage of collective measurements in experiments remains a daunting task. Here the authors introduce a general recipe for performing deterministic collective measurements on two identically prepared qubits based on quantum walks.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03849-x
Quantum information  Quantum metrology  Quantum optics 

A mechanistic framework for auxin dependent Arabidopsis root hair elongation to low external phosphate OPEN
Rahul Bhosale , Jitender Giri, Bipin K. Pandey, Ricardo F. H. Giehl, Anja Hartmann, Richard Traini, Jekaterina Truskina, Nicola Leftley, Meredith Hanlon, Kamal Swarup, Afaf Rashed, Ute Voß, Jose Alonso, Anna Stepanova, Jeonga Yun, Karin Ljung, Kathleen M. Brown, Jonathan P. Lynch, Liam Dolan, Teva Vernoux et al.

Plant root hairs elongate in response to low soil phosphate. Here Bhosale et al. show that root hair elongation requires auxin synthesis mediated by TAA1, auxin transport by AUX1 in the lateral root cap and epidermis, and signaling via the auxin-inducible ARF19, RSL2 and RSL4 transcription factors.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03851-3
Abiotic  Auxin 

Two-dimensional materials in functional three-dimensional architectures with applications in photodetection and imaging OPEN
Wonho Lee, Yuan Liu, Yongjun Lee, Bhupendra K. Sharma, Sachin M. Shinde, Seong Dae Kim, Kewang Nan, Zheng Yan, Mengdi Han, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang, Jong-Hyun Ahn & John A. Rogers

The strain tolerance and promising optoelectronic properties of 2D materials can be leveraged to design functional optical sensing devices. Here, the authors provide a demonstration of arrays of independently addressable photodetectors constructed from graphene and MoS2 engineered in 3D Kirigami geometries.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03870-0
Two-dimensional materials 

AKAPs-PKA disruptors increase AQP2 activity independently of vasopressin in a model of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus OPEN
Fumiaki Ando, Shuichi Mori, Naofumi Yui, Tetsuji Morimoto, Naohiro Nomura, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Sei Sasaki, Yoshiaki Kondo, Hiroyuki Kagechika & Shinichi Uchida

Patients suffering from congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) fail to concentrate urine due to mutations in vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R). Here Ando et al. show that agents disrupting the interaction between PKA and AKAPs restore aquaporin-2 activity downstream of V2R, offering a therapeutic approach for the treatment of NDI.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03771-2
Diabetes insipidus  Kidney diseases  Target identification 

Identification of rare sequence variation underlying heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension OPEN
Stefan Gräf , Matthias Haimel, Marta Bleda, Charaka Hadinnapola, Laura Southgate, Wei Li, Joshua Hodgson, Bin Liu, Richard M. Salmon, Mark Southwood, Rajiv D. Machado, Jennifer M. Martin, Carmen M. Treacy, Katherine Yates, Louise C. Daugherty, Olga Shamardina, Deborah Whitehorn, Simon Holden, Micheala Aldred, Harm J. Bogaard et al.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare lung disorder characterised by narrowing and obliteration of small pulmonary arteries ultimately leading to right heart failure. Here, the authors sequence whole genomes of over 1000 PAH patients and identify likely causal variants in GDF2, ATP13A3, AQP1 and SOX17.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03672-4
Arterial stiffening  Genetics research  Genome informatics  Rare variants 

Gene expression links functional networks across cortex and striatum OPEN
Kevin M. Anderson, Fenna M. Krienen, Eun Young Choi, Jenna M. Reinen, B. T. Thomas Yeo & Avram J. Holmes

The functional connectivity of brain regions can be reflected in a shared molecular architecture. This cross-modal study demonstrates correspondence of spatial patterns of gene expression to limbic and somato/motor cortico-striatal networks in human and non-human primates.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03811-x
Cognitive neuroscience  Genetics of the nervous system 

In vivo guiding nitrogen-doped carbon nanozyme for tumor catalytic therapy OPEN
Kelong Fan, Juqun Xi, Lei Fan, Peixia Wang, Chunhua Zhu, Yan Tang, Xiangdong Xu, Minmin Liang, Bing Jiang, Xiyun Yan & Lizeng Gao

If decorated with the right surface modifications, nanoparticles can function as Trojan horses, transporting cell death-facilitating compounds to tumor cells. Here, the authors prepare a particle with four enzyme-like activities and show that ferritin can direct nanoparticles to tumor cells.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03903-8
Biocatalysis  Nanotechnology in cancer  Targeted therapies 

A novel autophagy enhancer as a therapeutic agent against metabolic syndrome and diabetes OPEN
Hyejin Lim, Yu-Mi Lim, Kook Hwan Kim, Young Eui Jeon, Kihyoun Park, Jinyoung Kim, Hui-Yun Hwang, Dong Jin Lee, Haushabhau Pagire, Ho Jeong Kwon, Jin Hee Ahn & Myung-Shik Lee

Autophagy plays an important role in metabolic functions and increased autophagic activity may be beneficial for metabolic disorders. Here the authors screen a chemical library for enhancer of autophagic flux and identify small molecules that improve the metabolic profile by increasing lysosomial functions.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03939-w
Macroautophagy  Type 2 diabetes 

Disclosing the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas OPEN
Anthony Lamur, Yan Lavallée, Fiona E. Iddon, Adrian J. Hornby, Jackie E. Kendrick, Felix W. von Aulock & Fabian B. Wadsworth

Columnar joints in lavas form during cooling, but the temperature this occurs at is unclear. Here, the authors perform thermo-mechanical experiments on basaltic rocks to examine the temperature of columnar joints in lavas and find that failure occurs at 890–840 °C, which is below the solidus temperature of 980 °C.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03842-4
Environmental impact  Volcanology 

GABAergic inhibition in dual-transmission cholinergic and GABAergic striatal interneurons is abolished in Parkinson disease OPEN
N. Lozovaya, S. Eftekhari, R. Cloarec, L. A. Gouty-Colomer, A. Dufour, B. Riffault, M. Billon-Grand, A. Pons-Bennaceur, N. Oumar, N. Burnashev, Y. Ben-Ari & C. Hammond

Cholinergic interneurons of the striatum are involved reward-related behaviors and have been implicated in Parkinson’s disease. Here the authors report that half of cholinergic neurons co-release acetylcholine and GABA, and study the role of these neurons in a model of Parkinson’s Disease.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03802-y
Cellular neuroscience  Parkinson's disease 

Design principles for enhancing phase sensitivity and suppressing phase fluctuations simultaneously in biochemical oscillatory systems OPEN
Chenyi Fei, Yuansheng Cao, Qi Ouyang & Yuhai Tu

Biochemical processes require both high sensitivity and low fluctuation which is incompatible with the fluctuation dissipation theorem. Here Fei et al. model biochemical oscillators to show how free energy dissipation leads to both a suppression of phase fluctuation and an enhancement of phase sensitivity.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03826-4
Biochemical reaction networks  Computational biophysics  Oscillators 

Understanding the adsorption process in ZIF-8 using high pressure crystallography and computational modelling OPEN
Claire L. Hobday, Christopher H. Woodall, Matthew J. Lennox, Mungo Frost, Konstantin Kamenev, Tina Düren, Carole A. Morrison & Stephen A. Moggach

Understanding host–guest interactions and structural changes within porous materials is crucial for enhancing gas storage properties. Here, the authors combine cryogenic loading of gases with high pressure crystallography and computational techniques to obtain atomistic detail of adsorption-induced structural and energetic changes in ZIF-8.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03878-6
Chemical engineering  Computational chemistry  Metal–organic frameworks  Porous materials 

Dissolved organic carbon leaching from plastics stimulates microbial activity in the ocean OPEN
Cristina Romera-Castillo, Maria Pinto, Teresa M. Langer, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado & Gerhard J. Herndl

The impact of plastic debris floating at the sea surface on the lowest trophic levels of the food web remains unknown. Here, using leaching experiments, the authors show that plastics release dissolved organic carbon into the ambient seawater that is rapidly taken up by marine microbes stimulating their growth.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03798-5
Carbon cycle  Environmental impact  Marine chemistry 

High-sensitivity ion detection at low voltages with current-driven organic electrochemical transistors OPEN
Matteo Ghittorelli, Leona Lingstedt, Paolo Romele, N. Irina Crăciun, Zsolt Miklós Kovács-Vajna, Paul W. M. Blom & Fabrizio Torricelli

The organic electrochemical transistor is a type of transistor that modulates the channel current by the ion concentration and is thus explored for bio-applications. Here Ghittorelli et al. show a current-driven device configuration to increase the sensitivity by ten times than conventional approaches.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03932-3
Applied physics  Electrical and electronic engineering 

Epigenetic activation during T helper 17 cell differentiation is mediated by Tripartite motif containing 28 OPEN
Yu Jiang, Ying Liu, Huiping Lu, Shao-Cong Sun, Wei Jin, Xiaohu Wang & Chen Dong

T help 17 (Th17) cells are important mediators for both protective and pathogenic immune reactions, but how their functions are regulated at the epigenetic level is not understood. Here the authors show that TRIM28, a cofactor for transcriptional regulation, is important for epigenetic activation of Th17-related gene loci during Th17 response.

12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03852-2
Autoimmunity  Epigenetics in immune cells  Lymphocyte differentiation  T-helper 17 cells 
  Latest Author Correction    
Author Correction: Harmonic phase in polar liquids and spin ice OPEN
Steven T. Bramwell
16 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03815-7
Magnetic properties and materials  Statistical physics 
  Latest Publisher Correction    
Publisher Correction: Reversible chromism of spiropyran in the cavity of a flexible coordination cage OPEN
Dipak Samanta, Daria Galaktionova, Julius Gemen, Linda J. W. Shimon, Yael Diskin-Posner, Liat Avram, Petr Král & Rafal Klajn
12 April 2018 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03701-2
Molecular capsules  Molecular machines and motors  Self-assembly 

Adolescence Collection

Exploring the science of adolescence and its far-reaching implications for societal challenges 

Access the Collection online 

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