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Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology contents April 2018 Volume 19 Number 4 pp 207-274

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Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology

Scientific Reports Editor's choice collection: New cell lines Cell populations that evade senescence are ubiquitous tools in biological research. Novel cell lines are frequently established. This collection presents a selection of reports describing the generation and characterisation of new lines from a range of species.
April 2018 Volume 19 Number 4
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology cover
2016 2-year Impact Factor 46.602 Journal Metrics 2-year Median 28.5
In this issue
Research Highlights
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 Featured article:
Shedding light on the cell biology of extracellular vesicles
Guillaume van Niel, Gisela D'Angelo & Graça Raposo


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Comment: A user's guide to the ambiguous word 'epigenetics'
John M. Greally

p207 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.135
The term 'epigenetics' is currently ambiguous, over-encompassing and uncoupled from its historical roots. This reflects interests and insights that have developed over time. In this Comment, I propose that we stop using the word in isolation, and be explicit about which definition we are using to avoid ambiguity in its scientific and public use.
The term 'epigenetics' has multiple interpretations, so we need to be clear which definition we are using, argues John Greally.
Full Text | PDF


Stem cells: Translating hypertranscription in embryonic stem cells
p209 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2018.19
The decondensed, permissive chromatin state of pluripotent stem cells is sensitive to translation, creating a positive feedback loop whereby hypertranscription depends on the high output of translation it produces.

Gene expression: Developmental enhancers in action
p210 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2018.15
Developmental enhancers can function in an additive manner and are regulated by RNA polymerase II pausing and by the directionality of transcription.

Metabolism: A metabolic switch of fate
p211 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2018.14
Fatty acid oxidation and increased acetyl-CoA levels act to suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transition.

DNA Replication: Onco-agent provocateur
p211 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2018.17
Oncogenes induce firing of replication origins at transcribed genes; this promotes transcription-replication conflicts and genome instability.

Autophagy: Mitochondria encaged
p212 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2018.16
Myosin VI is recruited to ubiquitylated mitochondria and drives their encapsulation into actin cages to sequester them for mitophagy.

Ubiquitin chains as second messengers

p212 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2018.9
Philip Cohen highlights how two studies from the laboratory of Zhijian Chen, published in 2000 and 2001, started a new era in the study of signal transduction pathways and the roles of ubiquitin chains.


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Shedding light on the cell biology of extracellular vesicles
Guillaume van Niel, Gisela D'Angelo & Graça Raposo

p213 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.125
Cells produce a wide variety of extracellular vesicles (subdivided into exosomes and microvesicles), which carry a multitude of cargoes, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. These vesicles have emerged as important means of cell-cell communication in physiology and disease, and their use in the clinic is now being explored.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Ten principles of heterochromatin formation and function
Robin C. Allshire & Hiten D. Madhani

p229 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.119
The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin are carried out by distinct mechanisms that include factors that bind nascent transcripts to recruit chromatin-modifying enzymes. The resulting post-translational modifications on heterochromatic histones contribute to the regulation of development by restricting lineage-specific gene expression.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Chromatin dependencies in cancer and inflammation
Ivan Marazzi, Benjamin D. Greenbaum, Diana H. P. Low & Ernesto Guccione

p245 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.113
Gene expression programmes that are induced by inflammatory or oncogenic signals are controlled by shared chromatin regulators. Such chromatin dependencies are known to regulate oncogenes and inflammation-promoting genes and can be leveraged to combine and increase the effectiveness of immune-cell-based therapies with epigenetic therapies.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF | Supplementary information

Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex
Julie Soutourina

p262 | doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.115
The evolutionarily conserved mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription (Mediator) complex is a general regulator of transcription. Recent structural and functional studies have provided important insights into the mechanisms of transcription activation by Mediator and have also revealed a new function of this complex in genome organization and suggested that it could be therapeutically targeted in disease.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF | Supplementary information

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