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vrijdag 23 maart 2018

Nature Neuroscience Contents: March 2018 Volume 21 Number 3

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Nature Neuroscience

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

March 2018 Volume 21, Issue 3

News & Views
Perspectives
Brief Communications
Articles
Technical Reports
 
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Nature Outline: Spinal-cord injury

There is currently no way to reverse damage to the spinal cord, nor restore the ability to move and feel that such an injury takes away. But regenerative therapies in early clinical testing are offering much-needed hope. 

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Produced with support from 
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News & Views

 

Huntington modeling improves with age    pp301 - 303
Virginia B. Mattis & Clive N. Svendsen
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0086-4

An innate circuit for object craving    pp303 - 304
Dayu Lin
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0087-3

Stress and sociability    pp304 - 306
Dana Rubi Levy & Ofer Yizhar
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0088-2

Following the pathway to Alzheimer’s disease    pp306 - 308
William Jagust
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0085-5

Neuroscience
JOBS of the week
Professor and Head of the School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience
University of Bristol
Neuroscience Postdoctoral Programme
Linköping University (LiU)
Postdoctoral Research Fellow- Computational Nueroscience
National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse IRP
SRH - Post-Doctoral Research Fellow
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital
Early Clinical Development Director
Servier Group
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22nd Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience (ISDN2018)
22.05.18
Nara, Japan
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Perspectives

 

Memory formation depends on both synapse-specific modifications of synaptic strength and cell-specific increases in excitability    pp309 - 314
John Lisman, Katherine Cooper, Megha Sehgal & Alcino J. Silva
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0076-6

The authors discuss newly emerging evidence for the role of the transcription factor CREB in memory, including its role in modulating changes in excitability that are critical for neural assembly formation and linking of memories across time.

 

Studying individual differences in human adolescent brain development    pp315 - 323
Lucy Foulkes & Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0078-4

Research in adolescent neurocognitive development has focussed largely on averages, but there is substantial individual variation in development. This Perspective proposes that the field should move towards studying individual differences.

 

Brief Communications

 

Mrgprs on vagal sensory neurons contribute to bronchoconstriction and airway hyper-responsiveness    pp324 - 328
Liang Han, Nathachit Limjunyawong, Fei Ru, Zhe Li, Olivia J. Hall et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0074-8

The authors show that Mrgprs, vagal sensory neuron-expressing GPCRs, mediate bronchoconstriction and hyperresponsiveness, both of which are hallmark features of asthma. The results reveal novel potential neural mechanisms underlying asthma.

 

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Nature Outlook: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALS is mysterious and deadly, but new discoveries and treatments bring hope.

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Produced with support from 
Biogen
BrainStorm
Cytokinetics 

Funded by a grant from Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma America, Inc.
 

Articles

 

Microglia-mediated recovery from ALS-relevant motor neuron degeneration in a mouse model of TDP-43 proteinopathy    pp329 - 340
Krista J. Spiller, Clark R. Restrepo, Tahiyana Khan, Myrna A. Dominique, Terry C. Fang et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0083-7

Using an inducible mouse model of sporadic ALS, Spiller et al. show that spinal microgliosis is not a major feature of TDP-43-triggered disease. Instead, microglia mediate TDP-43 clearance and motor recovery, suggesting a neuroprotective role in ALS.

 

Striatal neurons directly converted from Huntington’s disease patient fibroblasts recapitulate age-associated disease phenotypes    pp341 - 352
Matheus B. Victor, Michelle Richner, Hannah E. Olsen, Seong Won Lee, Alejandro M. Monteys et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0075-7

Direct neuronal conversion of skin fibroblasts from individuals with Huntington’s disease (HD) generates a population of medium spiny neurons that recapitulate hallmarks of HD, including aggregation of mutant huntingtin protein, DNA damage and spontaneous cell death.

 

Single excitatory axons form clustered synapses onto CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites    pp353 - 363
Erik B. Bloss, Mark S. Cembrowski, Bill Karsh, Jennifer Colonell, Richard D. Fetter et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0084-6

Bloss et al. show single axons form clustered inputs onto the dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells in a projection-specific manner. The spatial and temporal features inherent in these connections efficiently drive dendritic depolarization.

 

Medial preoptic circuit induces hunting-like actions to target objects and prey    pp364 - 372
Sae-Geun Park, Yong-Cheol Jeong, Dae-Gun Kim, Min-Hyung Lee, Anna Shin et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0072-x

This study finds the key neurons that respond to 3D objects in the medial preoptic area (MPA). Their photostimulation induces hunting-like behaviors towards toys and prey, showing how the brain organizes behaviors to acquire useful resources.

 

Bidirectional and long-lasting control of alcohol-seeking behavior by corticostriatal LTP and LTD    pp373 - 383
Tengfei Ma, Yifeng Cheng, Emily Roltsch Hellard, Xuehua Wang, Jiayi Lu et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0081-9

Addiction-related behaviors are believed to result from drug-evoked synaptic changes, but their causality is unclear. The authors show that bidirectional optogenetic modifications of synaptic strength distinctly alter alcohol-seeking behavior.

 

Hippocampus-driven feed-forward inhibition of the prefrontal cortex mediates relapse of extinguished fear    pp384 - 392
Roger Marek, Jingji Jin, Travis D. Goode, Thomas F. Giustino, Qian Wang et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0073-9

Neurons in the ventral hippocampus project to parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons in the infralimbic (IL) region of medial prefrontal cortex. Activation of this projection produces feed-forward inhibition of IL and causes relapse of extinguished fear.

 

Social transmission and buffering of synaptic changes after stress    pp393 - 403
Toni-Lee Sterley, Dinara Baimoukhametova, Tamás Füzesi, Agnieszka A. Zurek, Nuria Daviu et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0044-6

In mice, stress-induced priming of glutamate synapses in the PVN can be transmitted through social interactions. This requires PVN CRH neuron activation in both of the interacting mice and release of an alarm pheromone from the stressed mouse.

 

Insular cortex mediates approach and avoidance responses to social affective stimuli    pp404 - 414
Morgan M. Rogers-Carter, Juan A. Varela, Katherine B. Gribbons, Anne F. Pierce, Morgan T. McGoey et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0071-y

Determining how to respond to others in distress is central to social cognition. In a new model, male rats approach stressed juveniles but avoid stressed adults; these behaviors require excitatory action of oxytocin within the insular cortex.

 

Shared neural coding for social hierarchy and reward value in primate amygdala    pp415 - 423
Jérôme Munuera, Mattia Rigotti & C. Daniel Salzman
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0082-8

New data reveal that the amygdala—a brain area specialized for emotion—also signals the hierarchical rank of peers in a social group. These neural signals likely mediate appropriate social and emotional behavior in many social settings.

 

Structural tract alterations predict downstream tau accumulation in amyloid-positive older individuals    pp424 - 431
Heidi I. L. Jacobs, Trey Hedden, Aaron P. Schultz, Jorge Sepulcre, Rodrigo D. Perea et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0070-z

Using longitudinal multimodal imaging data collected in healthy older individuals, Jacobs et al. provide in vivo evidence in humans that amyloid deposition facilitates tau spread along connected pathways and memory decline.

 

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Nature Collection: 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young for their pioneering work in Drosophila that elucidated the molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm. 

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Produced with support from: 
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Technical Reports

 

Single-nucleus analysis of accessible chromatin in developing mouse forebrain reveals cell-type-specific transcriptional regulation    pp432 - 439
Sebastian Preissl, Rongxin Fang, Hui Huang, Yuan Zhao, Ramya Raviram et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0079-3

This study describes single-nucleus ATAC-seq, a method to profile open chromatin in individual nuclei from frozen tissues. It is used to examine gene regulation in 15,000 nuclei comprising 20 distinct cell types in the developing mouse forebrain.

 

In vivo simultaneous transcriptional activation of multiple genes in the brain using CRISPR–dCas9-activator transgenic mice    pp440 - 446
Haibo Zhou, Junlai Liu, Changyang Zhou, Ni Gao, Zhiping Rao et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0060-6

dCas9-mediated activation has been verified and widely used in vitro. Here the authors generated a potent in vivo activation platform and applied it to control the transcription of multiple genetic elements in the mammalian brain.

 

CRISPR interference-based specific and efficient gene inactivation in the brain    pp447 - 454
Yi Zheng, Wei Shen, Jian Zhang, Bo Yang, Yao-Nan Liu et al.
doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0077-5

CRISPR interference-based gene silencing was adopted to achieve highly efficient multiple and conditional gene knockdown in the mouse brain with negligible off-target effects, providing a rapid gene interrogation tool in the mammalian brain.

 

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