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donderdag 8 maart 2018

Nature contents: 08 March 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 555 Issue 7695
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorials  
 
 
 
Chinese project offers a brighter farming future
A massive, decade-long experiment involving millions of Chinese farmers demonstrates an evidence-based approach to sustainability.
Learn to tell science stories
Ocean researchers are among those inspired by science fiction to tell diverse tales of the future.
Does your code stand up to scrutiny?
Nature journals encourage researchers who submit papers that rely on bespoke software to provide the programs for peer review.
 
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World View  
 
 
 
Fund ideas, not pedigree, to find fresh insight
Anonymous applications free scientists to make bold proposals; ‘golden tickets’ free reviewers to bet on them, says Thomas Sinkjær.
 
Seven Days  
 
 
 
Penguin colony, integrity office and Curiosity’s arm
The week in science: 2–8 March 2018.
Research Highlights  
 
 
 
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
 
 
Can you trust your Antibody? Implications for disease research.

A recent publication in Scientific Reports rigorously tested nine commercially available antibodies for specificity and sensitivity and found that only one, from Cell Signaling Technology, met all validation criteria. Read this open-access article to explore the potentially serious implications of non-specific antibodies and disease research.

Read more now.
 
 
News in Focus
 
US scientists plot return to the Moon's surface
Lunar researchers want to take advantage of Trump administration’s political interest.
Alexandra Witze
  EU expected to vote on pesticide ban after major scientific review
Survey of more than 1,500 studies concludes that neonicotinoids harm bees.
Declan Butler
Surprise graphene discovery could unlock secrets of superconductivity
Physicists make misaligned sheets of the carbon material conduct electricity without resistance.
Elizabeth Gibney
  China tests giant air cleaner to combat smog
Prototype offers innovative solution to major public health problem.
David Cyranoski
Canadian science wins billions in new budget
Researchers pleased with unfettered funding for granting councils.
Brian Owens
  Latest US weather satellite highlights forecasting challenges
Researchers begin to tackle the technical obstacles to incorporate observations from space into weather models.
Jeff Tollefson
Features  
 
 
 
Attack of the extreme floods
As the oceans rise, researchers aim to forecast where severe storms will trigger the worst flooding.
Alexandra Witze
Multimedia  
 
 
Nature: 08 March 2018
This week, surprising graphene superconductors, and 50 years dreaming of electric sheep.
Correction  
 
 
Correction
 
 
Comment
 
How female fellows fared at the Royal Society
Archive study shows that formal inclusion of women does not automatically lead to their full participation, say Aileen Fyfe and Camilla Mørk Røstvik.
Aileen Fyfe, Camilla Mørk Røstvik
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
Ominous biosecurity trends under Putin
Gary Ackerman praises a meticulously researched tome on Russia’s history with bioweapons research.
Gary Ackerman
Where Blade Runner began: 50 years of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
Ananyo Bhattacharya toasts Philip K. Dick’s prescient science-fiction classic.
Ananyo Bhattacharya
Correspondence  
 
 
 
India and Pakistan should work together for water security
Syed Ather Hussain, Vinod C. Nayak, Ritesh G. Menezes
  Electric fish inspire inventors across the centuries
Egidio D’Angelo, Paolo Mazzarello
Gender parity closer among astronomers in low-income countries
Aswin Sekhar
  Too few women authors on research papers in leading journals
Yiqin Alicia Shen, Yuichi Shoda, Ione Fine
Academics should build rapport with government’s policy analysts
Marie Claire Brisbois, Kimberly Girling, Scott Findlay
   
Obituary  
 
 
 
Donald Lynden-Bell (1935–2018)
Astrophysicist who predicted that galaxies have black holes at their hearts.
Roger Davies
 
 
Specials
 
Outlook:   
 
 
 
The future of medicine
Richard Hodson
  Infection forecasts powered by big data
Michael Eisenstein
Four stories of antibacterial breakthroughs
Natasha Gilbert
  The battle to tame autoimmunity
Katherine Bourzac
How CRISPR is transforming drug discovery
Andrew Scott
  The mind-reading devices that can free paralysed muscles
Neil Savage
Fighting the inevitability of ageing
Liam Drew
  How baby’s first microbes could be crucial to future health
Sarah DeWeerdt
Cleaning up pollutants to protect future health
Karl Gruber
  A CRISPR edit for heart disease
Anthony King
Bringing down the cost of cancer treatment
Elie Dolgin
   
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
Developmental diversification of cortical inhibitory interneurons
The embryonic emergence of interneuron subtypes in mice is revealed by integrated single-cell transcriptomic analysis along a developmental time course.
Unconventional superconductivity in magic-angle graphene superlattices
Confocal non-line-of-sight imaging based on the light-cone transform
A confocal scanning technique solves the reconstruction problem of non-line-of-sight imaging to give fast and high-quality reconstructions of hidden objects.
EWS–FLI1 increases transcription to cause R-loops and block BRCA1 repair in Ewing sarcoma
The EWS–FLI1 fusion protein, expressed in Ewing sarcoma, increases global transcription, causes accumulation of R-loops and replication stress, and impairs BRCA1-mediated repair.
Gating mechanisms of acid-sensing ion channels
X-ray and cryo-electron microscopy structures of the acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1a reveal the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and desensitization.
Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers
Millions of Chinese smallholder farmers were persuaded to adopt enhanced management practices, which led to a greater yield, reduced nitrogen fertilizer use and improved environmental performance throughout China.
Pervasive phosphorus limitation of tree species but not communities in tropical forests
In lowland tropical forests in Panama, widespread species-level phosphorus limitation of tree growth is not reflected in community-wide growth or biomass owing to the presence of a few species tolerant of low phosphorus availability.
Epigenetic reprogramming enables the transition from primordial germ cell to gonocyte
Gonadal germline epigenetic reprogramming involves an interplay between DNA methylation, the polycomb complex and Tet1 in both DNA methylation dependent and independent roles, to ensure the activation of a specific subset of genes critical for progression of gametogenesis.
Altruism in a volatile world
A derivation of Hamilton’s rule that considers explicit environmental stochasticity can predict when organisms should pay a cost to influence the variance in the reproductive success of their relatives, formalizing the link between bet-hedging and altruism.
Human hippocampal neurogenesis drops sharply in children to undetectable levels in adults
Recruitment of young neurons to the hippocampus decreases rapidly during the first years of life, and neurogenesis does not continue, or is extremely rare, in the adult human brain.
Correlated insulator behaviour at half-filling in magic-angle graphene superlattices
Modular assembly of the nucleolar pre-60S ribosomal subunit
Review  
 
 
 
Meta-analysis and the science of research synthesis
Meta-analysis—the quantitative, scientific synthesis of research results—has been both revolutionary and controversial, with rapid advances and broad implementation resulting in substantial scientific advances, but not without pitfalls.
Jessica Gurevitch, Julia Koricheva, Shinichi Nakagawa et al.
Articles  
 
 
 
GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures
Group III/nitride semiconductors have been grown epitaxially on the superconductor niobium nitride, allowing the superconductor’s macroscopic quantum effects to be combined with the semiconductors’ electronic, photonic and piezoelectric properties.
Rusen Yan, Guru Khalsa, Suresh Vishwanath et al.
The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe
Genome-wide data from 400 individuals indicate that the initial spread of the Beaker archaeological complex between Iberia and central Europe was propelled by cultural diffusion, but that its spread into Britain involved a large-scale migration that permanently replaced about ninety per cent of the ancestry in the previously resident population.
Iñigo Olalde, Selina Brace, Morten E. Allentoft et al.
The genomic history of southeastern Europe
Genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe between 12000 and 500 ʙᴄ reveals that the region acted as a genetic crossroads before and after the arrival of farming.
Iain Mathieson, Songül Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth et al.
Hierarchical neural architecture underlying thirst regulation
Thirst is regulated by hierarchical neural circuits in the lamina terminalis, and these integrate the instinctive need for water with consequent drinking behaviour to maintain internal water homeostasis.
Vineet Augustine, Sertan Kutal Gokce, Sangjun Lee et al.
Environment dominates over host genetics in shaping human gut microbiota
Statistical analyses of a metagenomics-sequenced human cohort identify a relatively minor role for genetics in determining microbiome composition and show that several human phenotypes are as strongly associated with the gut microbiome as with host genetics.
Daphna Rothschild, Omer Weissbrod, Elad Barkan et al.
Letters  
 
 
 
Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles
Visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole of Jupiter by the Juno spacecraft reveal polygonal patterns of large cyclones; it is unknown how these cyclones evolved, or how they persist without merging.
A. Adriani, A. Mura, G. Orton et al.
Measurement of Jupiter’s asymmetric gravity field
Precise Doppler tracking of the Juno spacecraft in its polar orbit around Jupiter is used to determine the planet’s gravity harmonics, showing north–south asymmetry caused by atmospheric and interior flows.
L. Iess, W. M. Folkner, D. Durante et al.
Jupiter’s atmospheric jet streams extend thousands of kilometres deep
The determination of Jupiter’s odd gravitational harmonics by the Juno spacecraft reveals that the observed jet streams extend to about three thousand kilometres below the cloud tops.
Y. Kaspi, E. Galanti, W. B. Hubbard et al.
A suppression of differential rotation in Jupiter’s deep interior
The determination of Jupiter’s even gravitational moments by the Juno spacecraft reveals that more than three thousand kilometres below the cloud tops, differential rotation is suppressed and the gas giant’s interior rotates as a solid body.
T. Guillot, Y. Miguel, B. Militzer et al.
Monolayer atomic crystal molecular superlattices
Superlattices consisting of alternating monolayer atomic crystals and molecular layers allow access to stable phosphorene monolayers with competitive transistor performance and to bulk monolayer materials with tunable optoelectronic properties.
Chen Wang, Qiyuan He, Udayabagya Halim et al.
CaSiO3 perovskite in diamond indicates the recycling of oceanic crust into the lower mantle
The composition of natural calcium silicate perovskite, the fourth most abundant mineral in the Earth, found within a diamond indicates an origin from oceanic crust subducted deeper than 700 kilometres into the Earth’s mantle.
F. Nestola, N. Korolev, M. Kopylova et al.
Social norm complexity and past reputations in the evolution of cooperation
In a binary decision game in which players strategically help certain individuals but not others, simple moral principles maximize cooperation, even when including the historical reputations of players.
Fernando P. Santos, Francisco C. Santos, Jorge M. Pacheco
Global elevational diversity and diversification of birds
A global study of all bird species in mountainous areas shows that richness decreases predictably with elevation, whereas diversification rates increase.
Ignacio Quintero, Walter Jetz
Regeneration of the lung alveolus by an evolutionarily conserved epithelial progenitor
An evolutionarily conserved alveolar epithelial progenitor lineage that derives from alveolar type 2 cells is responsive to Wnt signalling and acts as a major facultative progenitor in regenerating the distal lung.
William J. Zacharias, David B. Frank, Jarod A. Zepp et al.
The SMAD2/3 interactome reveals that TGFβ controls m6A mRNA methylation in pluripotency
The SMAD2 and SMAD3 protein interactome links TGFβ signalling to diverse effectors including m6A methyltransferase, which has a role in regulating differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells.
Alessandro Bertero, Stephanie Brown, Pedro Madrigal et al.
Hierarchical roles of mitochondrial Papi and Zucchini in Bombyx germline piRNA biogenesis
The biogenesis of piRNAs in the silkworm Bombyx is simpler than in Drosophila, with the exonucleases Trim and Nbr having no major role, and the endonuclease Zuc acting at the 3′ rather than the 5′ end.
Kazumichi M. Nishida, Kazuhiro Sakakibara, Yuka W. Iwasaki et al.
The mechanism of eukaryotic CMG helicase activation
In vitro experiments, using purified proteins and an assay that detects DNA unwinding, reveal the mechanism of activation of eukaryotic DNA replication.
Max E. Douglas, Ferdos Abid Ali, Alessandro Costa et al.
Structure of the D2 dopamine receptor bound to the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone
An X-ray structure of the D2 dopamine receptor bound to the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone reveals an extended binding pocket and indicates structural features that could be used to design drugs that specifically target the D2 receptor.
Sheng Wang, Tao Che, Anat Levit et al.
Corrigenda  
 
 
 
Corrigendum: Rare cell variability and drug-induced reprogramming as a mode of cancer drug resistance
Sydney M. Shaffer, Margaret C. Dunagin, Stefan R. Torborg et al.
Corrigendum: Landscape of X chromosome inactivation across human tissues
Taru Tukiainen, Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Angela Yen et al.
Retraction  
 
 
 
Retraction: Asia’s glaciers are a regionally important buffer against drought
Hamish D. Pritchard
News and Views  
 
 
 
A deeper look at Jupiter
Jonathan Fortney
Simple moral code supports cooperation
Charles Efferson, Ernst Fehr
A new era of rationally designed antipsychotics
David R. Sibley, Lei Shi
 


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Transistors driven by superconductors
Yoshiharu Krockenberger, Yoshitaka Taniyasu
 
Mountains of diversity
Alexander Zizka, Alexandre Antonelli
 
 
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Careers & Jobs
 
Columns  
 
 
 
Why scientists need to market themselves
Peter Fiske
Career Briefs  
 
 
 
‘March for Science’ organizers hope to repeat last year’s success
Isolation and alienation force women from technology positions
Careers News  
 
 
 
Science PhDs lead to enjoyable jobs
Futures  
 
 
Writing for the end of the world
A mammoth task.
Karlo Yeager Rodríguez
 
 
 
 
 

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