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Nature contents: 01 March 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 555 Issue 7694
This Week  
A code of ethics to get scientists talking
A set of guidelines could trigger positive action.
Oil and gas emissions could far exceed current estimates
Ethane and propane rises have been traced to the global fossil-fuel industry. Now governments need to act.
Nature journals announce two steps to improve transparency
Reporting summaries help authors to provide important details before review.
World View  
Data can help to end malnutrition across Africa
Progress in the fight against hunger is patchy. New tools must target action to those who are most vulnerable, says Kofi Annan.
Seven Days  
UK university strike, quark pioneer and the ancient-genome boom
The week in science: 23 February – 1 March.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
China’s lust for jaguar fangs imperils big cats
Wildlife traffickers seek body parts from protected species to satisfy consumers in China.
Barbara Fraser
  UK scientists brace for disruption from huge academic strike
Pension changes spur more than 40,000 university academics to walk out on research activities, conferences and lectures.
Elizabeth Gibney
Florida residents could soon get the power to alter science classes
Education bills would allow people who live in the state to review and recommend instructional materials to be used in schools.
Giorgia Guglielmi
  Indian scientist's sacking spotlights sexual harassment
Researchers in India hope that institute's finding will motivate other academic organizations to confront harassment.
T. V. Padma
Promising HIV vaccines could stall without coordinated research
Therapies to prevent infection are advancing in a crowded field.
Amy Maxmen
  Researchers have finally created a tool to spot duplicated images across thousands of papers
Publishers would need to join forces to apply image-checking software across the literature.
Declan Butler
How flashing lights and pink noise might banish Alzheimer’s, improve memory and more
Neuroscientists are getting excited about non-invasive procedures to tune the brain’s natural oscillations.
Helen Thomson
Nature: 01 March 2018
This week, the landscape of childhood cancers, physicists find a fingerprint from the early Universe, and brain waves cause a splash.
Six research priorities for cities and climate change
Xuemei Bai and colleagues call for long-term, cross-disciplinary studies to reduce carbon emissions and urban risks from global warming.
Xuemei Bai, Richard J. Dawson, Diana Ürge-Vorsatz et al.
Books and Arts  
A harrowing journey through disordered sleep
Emmanuel Mignot applauds Henry Nicholls’s personal and scientific account of narcolepsy and beyond.
Emmanuel Mignot
Bollywood takes on menstrual hygiene
Subhra Priyadarshini lauds a biopic of an inspired Indian sanitary-pad innovator.
Subhra Priyadarshini
Ursula K. Le Guin: an anthropologist of other worlds
Marleen S. Barr remembers a titan of science fiction.
Marleen S. Barr
Call for research into a wider range of behavioural addictions
Marc N. Potenza, Susumu Higuchi, Matthias Brand
  Smallholders need access to big-data agronomy too
Zia Mehrabi, Daniel Jimenez, Andy Jarvis
Risk and resilience must be independently managed
Igor Linkov, Benjamin D. Trump, Jeffrey Keisler
  Lessons from Italy’s policy shift on immunization
Roberto Burioni, Anna Odone, Carlo Signorelli
The mazes with minds of their own
Automated ‘smart mazes’ free behavioural researchers from the tedium of monitoring animals. They also boost data quality and reproducibility.
Charles Choi
Two chemically similar stellar overdensities on opposite sides of the plane of the Galactic disk
Fourteen stars from stellar overdensities above and below the Galactic disk have the same elemental abundances as disk stars, suggesting that these stars originated in the disk, perhaps being removed during interaction with passing dwarf galaxies.
The SMAD2/3 interactome reveals that TGFβ controls m6A mRNA methylation in pluripotency
The SMAD2 and SMAD3 protein interactome links TGFβ signalling to diverse effectors including m6A methyltransferase, which has a role in regulating differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells.
The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancers OPEN
Analyses of genomes from 914 children, adolescents, and young adults provide a comprehensive resource of genomic alterations across a spectrum of common childhood cancers.
Pan-cancer genome and transcriptome analyses of 1,699 paediatric leukaemias and solid tumours OPEN
Analysis of the genomes, exomes and transcriptomes of 1,699 childhood cancers identifies 142 driver genes.
Hierarchical neural architecture underlying thirst regulation
Thirst is regulated by hierarchical neural circuits in the lamina terminalis, and these integrate the instinctive need for water with consequent drinking behaviour to maintain internal water homeostasis.
Environment dominates over host genetics in shaping human gut microbiota
Statistical analyses of a metagenomics-sequenced human cohort identify a relatively minor role for genetics in determining microbiome composition and show that several human phenotypes are as strongly associated with the gut microbiome as with host genetics.
Evolved Cas9 variants with broad PAM compatibility and high DNA specificity
Regeneration of the lung alveolus by an evolutionarily conserved epithelial progenitor
An evolutionarily conserved alveolar epithelial progenitor lineage that derives from alveolar type 2 cells is responsive to Wnt signalling and acts as a major facultative progenitor in regenerating the distal lung.
The mechanism of eukaryotic CMG helicase activation
In vitro experiments, using purified proteins and an assay that detects DNA unwinding, reveal the mechanism of activation of eukaryotic DNA replication.
Hierarchical roles of mitochondrial Papi and Zucchini in Bombyx germline piRNA biogenesis
The biogenesis of piRNAs in the silkworm Bombyx is simpler than in Drosophila, with the exonucleases Trim and Nbr having no major role, and the endonuclease Zuc acting at the 3′ rather than the 5′ end.
Recognition of DHN-melanin by a C-type lectin receptor is required for immunity to Aspergillus
The C-type lectin receptor MelLec recognizes DHN-melanin in conidial spores of Aspergillus fumigatus and other DHN-melanized fungi, revealing an important role for this receptor in antifungal immunity in both mice and humans.
Structure of the Insulin Receptor–Insulin Complex by Single Particle CryoEM analysis
Mapping child growth failure in Africa between 2000 and 2015 OPEN
Geospatial estimates of child growth failure in Africa provide a baseline for measuring progress and a precision public health platform to target interventions to those populations with the greatest need.
Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman, Anoushka I. Millear, Rebecca W. Stubbs et al.
Mapping local variation in educational attainment across Africa OPEN
Local-level analyses show that, despite marked progress in educational attainment from 2000 to 2015 across Africa, substantial differences persist between locations and sexes that have widened in many countries.
Nicholas Graetz, Joseph Friedman, Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman et al.
Population snapshots predict early haematopoietic and erythroid hierarchies
Single-cell transcriptomics, fate assays and a computational theory enable prediction of cell fates during haematopoiesis, discovery of regulators of erythropoiesis and reveal coupling between the erythroid, basophil and mast cell fates.
Betsabeh Khoramian Tusi, Samuel L. Wolock, Caleb Weinreb et al.
Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex
A high-affinity complex of histone H1 and prothymosin-α reveals an unexpected interaction mechanism, where the large opposite net charge enables the two proteins to remain highly disordered even in the complex.
Alessandro Borgia, Madeleine B. Borgia, Katrine Bugge et al.
An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum
The 21-cm absorption profile is detected in the sky-averaged radio spectrum, but is much stronger than predicted, suggesting that the primordial gas might have been cooler than predicted.
Judd D. Bowman, Alan E. E. Rogers, Raul A. Monsalve et al.
Possible interaction between baryons and dark-matter particles revealed by the first stars
The large absorption of the 21-centimetre transition of hydrogen around redshift 20 is explained by radiation from the first stars, combined with excess cooling of the cosmic gas caused by baryon–dark matter scattering.
Rennan Barkana
Fast quantum logic gates with trapped-ion qubits
Fast and high-fidelity two-qubit logic gates are demonstrated by using amplitude-shaped laser pulses to ensure that the gate operation is insensitive to the optical phase of the pulses.
V. M. Schäfer, C. J. Ballance, K. Thirumalai et al.
Probing the interatomic potential of solids with strong-field nonlinear phononics
Ultrashort mid-infrared laser pulses can drive atoms far from their equilibrium positions in LiNbO3, exciting high phonon harmonics and providing a way to map the interatomic potential.
A. von Hoegen, R. Mankowsky, M. Fechner et al.
Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array
A scalable process is described for fabricating skin-like electronic circuitry that can be bent and stretched while retaining desirable electronic functionality.
Sihong Wang, Jie Xu, Weichen Wang et al.
Hadean silicate differentiation preserved by anomalous 142Nd/144Nd ratios in the Réunion hotspot source
Neodymium-142 isotope data from young Réunion Island volcanic rocks reflect the effects of geological processes that occurred more than four billion years ago, showing that the deep mantle may preserve geochemical signatures of the primordial Earth.
Bradley J. Peters, Richard W. Carlson, James M. D. Day et al.
Evolutionary history resolves global organization of root functional traits
Analyses of a global dataset of plant root traits identify an ancestral conservative strategy based on thick roots and mycorrhizal symbiosis, and an evolutionarily more-recent opportunistic strategy of thin roots that efficiently use photosynthetic carbon for soil exploration.
Zeqing Ma, Dali Guo, Xingliang Xu et al.
Circadian clock neurons constantly monitor environmental temperature to set sleep timing
The DN1p clock neurons of Drosophila melanogaster continuously report temperature changes into the circadian neural network, to control the timing of sleep and activity.
Swathi Yadlapalli, Chang Jiang, Andrew Bahle et al.
Mechanical regulation of stem-cell differentiation by the stretch-activated Piezo channel
Stem cells of the Drosophila midgut sense mechanical signals in vivo through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo, which is expressed on previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells.
Li He, Guangwei Si, Jiuhong Huang et al.
Sequences enriched in Alu repeats drive nuclear localization of long RNAs in human cells
A sequence that is frequently found in Alu elements drives the localization of some long RNAs to the nucleus in human cells.
Yoav Lubelsky, Igor Ulitsky
Intragenic origins due to short G1 phases underlie oncogene-induced DNA replication stress
Oncogene activation results in firing of ectopic origins of replication within transcribed genes, resulting in replication stress and genome instability.
Morgane Macheret, Thanos D. Halazonetis
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of huntingtin
The structure of huntingtin in complex with an interactor is determined to an overall resolution of 4 Å, paving the way for improved understanding of the cellular functions of this protein.
Qiang Guo, Bin Huang, Jingdong Cheng et al.
Phase-plate cryo-EM structure of a biased agonist-bound human GLP-1 receptor–Gs complex
The structure of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) with its biased agonist exendin-P5 sheds light on both receptor activation and the mechanism of biased agonism.
Yi-Lynn Liang, Maryam Khoshouei, Alisa Glukhova et al.
Corrigendum: Progress in and promise of bacterial quorum sensing research
Marvin Whiteley, Stephen P. Diggle, E. Peter Greenberg
Corrigendum: Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica
Timothy A. Kohler, Michael E. Smith, Amy Bogaard et al.
Erratum: Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos
Marta N. Shahbazi, Antonio Scialdone, Natalia Skorupska et al.
News and Views  
Precision maps for public health
Brian J. Reich, Murali Haran
Qubits break the sound barrier
Tobias Schaetz
A gut feeling for cellular fate
Jackson Liang, Lucy Erin O’Brien
LOS ANGELES Venue | March 31, 2018 | Register FREE
SAN FRANCISCO Venue | April 2, 2018 | Register FREE
Quantum upside-down cake
Chih-Kang Shih, Allan H. MacDonald
Tight complexes from disordered proteins
Rebecca B. Berlow, Peter E. Wright
A surprising chill before the cosmic dawn
Lincoln Greenhill
Highlighting the latest breakthroughs at the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore's premier research organization
Recent Highlights:
Download the A*STAR Research app now! 
Careers & Jobs
How to write a first-class paper
Virginia Gewin
Why I won’t be silenced on climate resilience
Virginia Gewin
Career Briefs  
Enter our ‘scientist at work’ photo contest
Jack Leeming
Lava cake for the Apocalypse
A taste of history.
Wendy Nikel


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