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donderdag 22 februari 2018

The Lancet: [Articles] The effect of LRRK2 mutations on the cholinergic system in manifest and premanifest stages of ...

[Articles] The effect of LRRK2 mutations on the cholinergic system in manifest and premanifest stages of Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional PET study
LRRK2 mutations are associated with significantly increased cholinergic activity in the brain in mutation carriers without Parkinson's disease compared with healthy controls and in LRRK2 mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease compared with individuals with idiopathic disease. Changes in cholinergic activity might represent early and sustained attempts to compensate for LRRK2-related dysfunction, or alteration of acetylcholinesterase in non-neuronal cells.
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[Correspondence] The SeLECT score is useful to predict post-stroke epilepsy
We read with interest Josef Finsterer's Comment1 on our Article2 on the SeLECT score as a prognostic model for prediction of late seizures after ischaemic stroke. He does not take into account three major points about prognostic modelling3 and the differences from aetiological research.4 First, for a prognostic model to be clinically useful, the entry data have to be routinely and widely available and easily applicable in the clinical setting. Second, for a model to be relevant, it must provide outcome information satisfying the needs of the user at, or soon after, the event.
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[Comment] Hypercholinergic activity in LRRK2 Parkinson's disease
Mutations of the LRRK2 gene are a common cause of autosomal-dominant Parkinson's disease. The clinical features of manifest LRRK2 Parkinson's disease are generally indistinguishable from those of sporadic Parkinson's disease, although some features might be less prominent, including diminished hyposmia and less cognitive decline.1 Study of premanifest LRRK2 Parkinson's disease has the potential to identify early and important events in Parkinson's disease pathophysiology and pathogenesis. Cholinergic system changes are implicated in several non-motor features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
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[In Context] The birth of consciousness: I think, therefore I am?
Consciousness is an elusive concept, and efforts towards understanding it or its evolution oscillate between philosophy and neuroscience—between thought experiments and measurable tests of brain activity. Consequently, philosophers and scientists are continually coming up with new theories on why or how they think that the physical brain can bring the metaphysical mind into being. In American philosopher Daniel Dennett's latest book, From Bacteria to Bach and Back: Evolution of Minds, he grandly attempts to unify a lifetime of his thoughts to convince the reader how human cognition has evolved.
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[Correspondence] Increasing understanding of encephalitis
The work of the Encephalitis Society continues to raise important awareness of this condition globally. World Encephalitis Day (February 22) has been a key component of this awareness campaign, reaching more than 60 million people since its launch in 2014. Two reasons drive the campaign: first, the incidence of encephalitis is higher than the incidence of some other conditions (eg, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and some forms of meningitis), which continue to have higher profiles among the public and clinicians.
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