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Nature contents: 08 February 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 554 Issue 7691
This Week  
Restore justice in Turkey
Hundreds of academics and scientists are caught up in political crackdowns in the wake of petitions for peace.
Big data needs a hardware revolution
Artificial intelligence is driving the next wave of innovations in the semiconductor industry.
Maths classification is getting a revision
New categories of mathematics will be added to the 2020 update of the standard mathematical taxonomy.
World View  
Let’s move beyond the rhetoric: it’s time to change how we judge research
Five years ago, the Declaration on Research Assessment was a rallying point. It must now become a tool for fair evaluation, urges Stephen Curry.
Seven Days  
Truck tracks, wolf lawsuit and a fertility first
The week in science: 2–8 February 2018.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
Debate blooms over anatomy of the world’s first flower
Some researchers say that statistical prediction of the ancestral blossom yielded an unlikely structure.
Heidi Ledford
  Kid co-authors in South Korea spur government probe
Researchers sought to boost their children’s chances in university admissions.
Mark Zastrow
UN agency targets black-carbon pollution from ships
Governments are slowly advancing efforts to reduce climate and health impacts of soot.
Jeff Tollefson
  Bulgaria in the cold as European Union freezes its innovation funding
The trading bloc has withheld two-fifths of its expected grants.
Inga Vesper
Geneticists unravel secrets of super-invasive crayfish
DNA analysis suggests the self-cloning species is a genetic hybrid that emerged in an aquarium in the 1990s.
Ewen Callaway
How decolonization could reshape South African science
A generation of black scientists is gearing up to transform the research landscape.
Linda Nordling
Nature Podcast: 8 February 2018
This week, crayfish clones, the social smarts of magpies, and building tougher timber.
The science that’s never been cited
Strategy for making safer opioids bolstered

The Vilcek Foundation congratulates the recipients of the 2018 Vilcek Prizes in Biomedical Science.

Alexander Rudensky (Sloan Kettering Institute) receives $100,000 Vilcek Prize.
Polina Anikeeva (Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
Sergiu P. Pasca (Stanford University),
and Feng Zhang (Broad Institute) each win $50,000 Vilcek Prize for Creative Promise in Biomedical Science.

Click here for more information.
Protect the neglected half of our blue planet
Maintaining momentum is crucial as nations build a treaty to safeguard the high seas, argue Glen Wright, Julien Rochette, Kristina M. Gjerde and Lisa A. Levin.
Glen Wright, Julien Rochette, Kristina M. Gjerde et al.
Books and Arts  
Taking Greenland’s geology to another dimension
Ted Nield admires a layered exploration of research in the edgelands.
Ted Nield
Far-flung futurism, the secrets of the raven and what’s wrong with metrics: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week’s best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
The wilder shores of brain boosting
Trevor Robbins lauds a personal take on cognitive enhancement.
Trevor Robbins
Baleen whale species on brink of extinction for first time in 300 years
Peter Corkeron, Scott D. Kraus
  Bitcoin’s alarming carbon footprint
Spyros Foteinis
Quest for publication metrics undermines regional research
Mark Neff
  Existing rules cover gene-drive applications
Swantje Strassheim, Werner Schenkel
Don’t belittle junior researchers in meetings
Anand Kumar Sharma
Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus OPEN
The origin, evolution and domestication of Citrus and the genealogy of the most important wild and cultivated citrus varieties.
Teneurin-3 controls topographic circuit assembly in the hippocampus
The transmembrane protein teneurin-3 is expressed in multiple topographically interconnected areas of the hippocampal region and acts in both projection and target neurons to control wiring specificity from CA1 to the subiculum.
Southern Hemisphere climate variability forced by Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet topography
An Antarctic ice core reveals that, during the last ice age, the topography of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets shifted tropical Pacific convection eastward, increasing climate variability in the high southern latitudes.
Global patterns of declining temperature variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene
Temperature variability decreased globally by a factor of four between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene epoch, as a result of changes in the meridional temperature gradient.
Asparagine bioavailability governs metastasis in a model of breast cancer
In a mouse model of breast cancer, asparagine bioavailability strongly influences metastasis and this is correlated with the production of proteins that regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which provides at least one potential mechanism for how a single amino acid could regulate metastatic progression.
Structural basis for DNMT3A-mediated de novo DNA methylation
A crystal structure of DNMT3A and its regulatory partner DNMT3L bound to DNA reveals the mechanistic basis for DNMT3A-mediated DNA methylation and establishes its aetiological link to human disease.
c-MAF-dependent regulatory T cells mediate immunological tolerance to a gut pathobiont
The transcription factor c-MAF is required for the generation of Helicobacter-specific regulatory T cells that selectively restrain pro-inflammatory TH17 cells; the absence of c-MAF in mouse regulatory T cells results in pathobiont-dependent inflammatory bowel disease.
Cognitive performance is linked to group size and affects fitness in Australian magpies
Wild Australian magpies (Cracticus tibicen dorsalis) living in large groups show increased cognitive performance, which is associated with increased reproductive success.
Fluctuating interaction network and time-varying stability of a natural fish community
A method for modelling time-varying dynamic stability in a natural marine fish community finds that seasonal patterns in community stability are driven by species diversity and interspecific interactions.
Posterior parietal cortex represents sensory history and mediates its effects on behaviour
A working memory task in rats demonstrates that the posterior parietal cortex is a critical locus for the representation and use of prior stimulus information.
Mechanical regulation of stem-cell differentiation by the stretch-activated Piezo channel
Stem cells of the Drosophila midgut sense mechanical signals in vivo through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo, which is expressed on previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells.
Brief Communications Arising  
Contesting early archaeology in California
Joseph V. Ferraro, Katie M. Binetti, Logan A. Wiest et al.
Holen et al. reply
Steven R. Holen, Thomas A. Deméré, Daniel C. Fisher et al.
Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala
Analysis and modelling of locomotor characteristics of two pursuit predator–prey pairs show that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival.
Alan M. Wilson, Tatjana Y. Hubel, Simon D. Wilshin et al.
HER kinase inhibition in patients with HER2- and HER3-mutant cancers
In a basket trial design, the efficacy of the pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib is tested in patients with 21 different tumour types, and responses are determined by mutation and tissue type, and are restricted to HER2-mutant cancers.
David M. Hyman, Sarina A. Piha-Paul, Helen Won et al.
Dynamic basis for dG•dT misincorporation via tautomerization and ionization
A kinetic model is proposed to predict the probability of dG•dT misincorporation across different polymerases, and provides mechanisms for sequence-dependent misincorporation.
Isaac J. Kimsey, Eric S. Szymanski, Walter J. Zahurancik et al.
Cryo-EM shows how dynactin recruits two dyneins for faster movement
Cryo-electron microscopy and single-molecule studies reveal that the adaptors BICDR1 and HOOK3 recruit two dynein molecules to dynactin and thereby increase the force and speed of the dynein–dynactin microtubule motor.
Linas Urnavicius, Clinton K. Lau, Mohamed M. Elshenawy et al.
A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW170817
The observed electromagnetic emission from GW170817 suggests that a ‘cocoon’ of mildly relativistic material was released as a jet transferred its energy to the neutron-rich dynamical ejecta from the merger.
K. P. Mooley, E. Nakar, K. Hotokezaka et al.
Magnetic cage and rope as the key for solar eruptions
Measurements and modelling of a large confined eruption on the Sun show that its evolution is controlled by a multilayer magnetic cage containing a twisted flux rope, which can sometimes be ejective.
Tahar Amari, Aurélien Canou, Jean-Jacques Aly et al.
Isomer depletion as experimental evidence of nuclear excitation by electron capture
Experimental evidence is presented for isomer depletion through nuclear excitation by electron capture in molybdenum-93 nuclei.
C. J. Chiara, J. J. Carroll, M. P. Carpenter et al.
Experimental observation of Bethe strings
Many-body two- and three-string states are realized experimentally in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg–Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields.
Zhe Wang, Jianda Wu, Wang Yang et al.
Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material
A process is described for the transformation of bulk wood into a low-cost, strong, tough, lightweight structural material, by the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose followed by hot-pressing to densify the natural wood.
Jianwei Song, Chaoji Chen, Shuze Zhu et al.
Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions
Contrary to the hopes of policymakers, fossil fuel subsidy removal would have only a small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030.
Jessica Jewell, David McCollum, Johannes Emmerling et al.
Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China
A dated phylogeny and spatial distribution data for Chinese angiosperms show that eastern China has tended to act as a refugium for older taxa whereas western China has acted as a centre for their evolutionary diversification.
Li-Min Lu, Ling-Feng Mao, Tuo Yang et al.
Enhancer redundancy provides phenotypic robustness in mammalian development
Gene enhancer knockout phenotypes and analysis of enhancer activity patterns show that developmental genes are regulated by multiple redundant enhancers in mouse embryos.
Marco Osterwalder, Iros Barozzi, Virginie Tissières et al.
Dopamine neuron activity before action initiation gates and invigorates future movements
The activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta before movement initiation affects the probability and vigour of future movements.
Joaquim Alves da Silva, Fatuel Tecuapetla, Vitor Paixão et al.
High performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease
Measurement of human plasma amyloid-β biomarkers using immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry reliably predicts individual brain amyloid-β status and has potential clinical utility.
Akinori Nakamura, Naoki Kaneko, Victor L. Villemagne et al.
Innate and adaptive lymphocytes sequentially shape the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism
Distinct populations of lymphocytes act sequentially during development to direct maturation of the mammalian gut microbiota.
Kairui Mao, Antonio P. Baptista, Samira Tamoutounour et al.
Dynamics and number of trans-SNARE complexes determine nascent fusion pore properties
Analysis at high temporal and spatial resolution shows that the number and dynamics of SNARE proteins available during exocytosis determines the size and stability of fusion pores.
Huan Bao, Debasis Das, Nicholas A. Courtney et al.
Corrigendum: Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution
Christopher Abbosh, Nicolai J. Birkbak, Gareth A. Wilson et al.
News and Views  
Wood made denser and stronger
Peter Fratzl
Many mutations in one clinical-trial basket
Elaine Mardis
Fossil-fuel subsidies assessed
Ian Parry

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Evolutionary race as predators hunt prey
Andrew A. Biewener
A chirp, a roar and a whisper
Ralph Wijers
Solitons divide and conquer
Frank W. Wise
Smoking gun for a rare mutation mechanism
Myron F. Goodman
Careers & Jobs
How going green can raise cash for your lab
Elie Dolgin
Saving lives and property with accurate flood forecasts
Sarah Boon
These 5 books go 6 feet deep
Unearthing the truth.
Ted Hayden


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