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donderdag 1 februari 2018

Nature contents: 01 February 2018

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Nature Volume 554 Issue 7690
This Week  
The serendipity test
Scientists often herald the role of chance in research. A project in Britain aims to test the popular idea with evidence.
The scientist who predicted ice-sheet collapse — 50 years ago
A seminal 1968 study warned of the demise of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Nature journals tighten rules on non-financial conflicts
Authors will be asked to declare any interests that might cloud objectivity.
World View  
Take peer pressure out of peer review
Until we study the social dynamics of review panels, assessments will be suboptimal, explains Gemma Derrick.
Seven Days  
Doomsday approaches, Moon prize cancelled and sci-fi icon dies
The week in science: 26 January – 2 February 2018.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Highlighting the latest breakthroughs at the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR),
Singapore's premier research organization
Recent Highlights
Download the A*STAR Research app now! 
News in Focus
As Cape Town water crisis deepens, scientists prepare for ‘Day Zero’
Researchers make plans to modify studies and prioritize public health as city reservoirs run dry.
Amy Maxmen
  Gender bias goes away when grant reviewers focus on the science
But female scientists suffer when their research proposals are judged primarily on the strength of their CVs.
Giorgia Guglielmi
Israeli fossils are the oldest modern humans ever found outside of Africa
Jaw and teeth mark Homo sapiens' early arrival on the Arabian Peninsula.
Ewen Callaway
  Anti-Darwin comments in India outrage scientists
Researchers and government officials have condemned the statements of a junior minister who questioned the theory of evolution.
T.V. Padma
Unique oil spill in East China Sea frustrates scientists
The lighter petroleum that spilled has never before been released in such massive quantities in the ocean.
Cally Carswell
How warp-speed evolution is transforming ecology
Darwin thought evolution was too slow to change the environment on observable timescales. Ecologists are discovering that he was wrong.
Rachael Lallensack
Owls for peace: how conservation science is reaching across borders in the Middle East
A programme that uses birds of prey in place of pesticides has inspired international collaboration.
Josie Glausiusz
Nature Podcast 1 February 2018
This week, reframing humans' arrival in India, and the many hazards facing coral reefs.
The dark side of light
The struggle to do no harm
A bioinformatics workshop in a box
Can you trust your Antibody? Implications for disease research.

A recent publication in Scientific Reports rigorously tested nine commercially available antibodies for specificity and sensitivity and found that only one, from Cell Signaling Technology, met all validation criteria. Read this open-access article to explore the potentially serious implications of non-specific antibodies and disease research.

Read more now. 
Steps to the digital Silk Road
Sharing big data from satellite imagery and other Earth observations across Asia, the Middle East and east Africa is key to sustainability, urges Guo Huadong.
Guo Huadong
Books and Arts  
How the planet’s poles keep trading places
Peter Olson savours a study of Earth’s protective magnetic field — and the people who discovered it.
Peter Olson
Isaac Newton in the round, a migratory road trip and the downside of positive thinking: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week’s best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
The messy biological basis of culture
Adrian Woolfson heralds Antonio Damasio’s bold argument that emotions define us.
Adrian Woolfson
Don't reject evidence from CFS therapies
Michael Sharpe, Trudie Chalder, Jon Stone
  Include mentoring skills in hiring and promotion criteria
Steven B. Oppenheimer
Better mentoring stands to boost junior researchers’ mental health
Tatyana Perlova
  Dispense with redundant P values
Joachim Goedhart
Re-evaluate yellow fever risk in Asia-Pacific region
Paul T. Brey, Didier Fontenille, Hong Tang
Pamela Sklar (1959–2017)
Psychiatrist who sought the genetic roots of mental illness.
Mark Daly
Data visualization tools drive interactivity and reproducibility in online publishing
New tools for building interactive figures and software make scientific data more accessible, and reproducible.
Jeffrey M. Perkel
HER kinase inhibition in patients with HER2- and HER3-mutant cancers
In a basket trial design, the efficacy of the pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib is tested in patients with 21 different tumour types, and responses are determined by mutation and tissue type, and are restricted to HER2-mutant cancers.
Dynamic basis for dG•dT misincorporation via tautomerization and ionization
A kinetic model is proposed to predict the probability of dG•dT misincorporation across different polymerases, and provides mechanisms for sequence-dependent misincorporation.
A clumpy and anisotropic galaxy halo at redshift 1 from gravitational-arc tomography
The halo of gas around a galaxy at redshift 1 is clumpy and anisotropic, with little variation in gas velocity, suggesting that it consists of entrained recycled material.
High performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease
Measurement of human plasma amyloid-β biomarkers using immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry reliably predicts individual brain amyloid-β status and has potential clinical utility.
Dopamine neuron activity before action initiation gates and invigorates future movements
The activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta before movement initiation affects the probability and vigour of future movements.
Enhancer redundancy provides phenotypic robustness in mammalian development
Gene enhancer knockout phenotypes and analysis of enhancer activity patterns show that developmental genes are regulated by multiple redundant enhancers in mouse embryos.
Dynamics and number of trans-SNARE complexes determine nascent fusion pore properties
Analysis at high temporal and spatial resolution shows that the number and dynamics of SNARE proteins available during exocytosis determines the size and stability of fusion pores.
Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China
A dated phylogeny and spatial distribution data for Chinese angiosperms show that eastern China has tended to act as a refugium for older taxa whereas western China has acted as a centre for their evolutionary diversification.
Enhancing the potential of enantioselective organocatalysis with light
This Review discusses recent developments in the combination of organocatalysis and photochemistry for the activation of molecules, which has enabled previously inaccessible reaction pathways and influenced many fields of chemical research.
Mattia Silvi, Paolo Melchiorre
The axolotl genome and the evolution of key tissue formation regulators OPEN
Sequencing and assembly of the 32-Gb genome of the Mexican axolotl reveals that it lacks the developmental gene Pax3, which is essential in other vertebrates; the genome sequence could improve our understanding of the evolution of the axolotl’s remarkable regenerative capabilities.
Sergej Nowoshilow, Siegfried Schloissnig, Ji-Feng Fei et al.
The genome of Schmidtea mediterranea and the evolution of core cellular mechanisms OPEN
An improved genome assembly for Schmidtea mediterranea shows that the genome is highly polymorphic and repetitive, and lacks multiple genes encoding core components of cell biological mechanisms.
Markus Alexander Grohme, Siegfried Schloissnig, Andrei Rozanski et al.
Evolutionary routes and KRAS dosage define pancreatic cancer phenotypes
Oncogenic dosage variation along distinct evolutionary routes defines fundamental aspects of pancreatic cancer biology and phenotypic diversification.
Sebastian Mueller, Thomas Engleitner, Roman Maresch et al.
Strong disk winds traced throughout outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries
Analysis of the light curves of outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries suggests that throughout the accretion process mass is lost from the accretion disks through strong, magnetically driven disk winds.
B. E. Tetarenko, J.-P. Lasota, C. O. Heinke et al.
A large oxygen-dominated core from the seismic cartography of a pulsating white dwarf
Asteroseismic ‘sounding’ reveals the internal chemical stratification of the white dwarf KIC08626021, which has a central homogeneous core—composed of 86 per cent oxygen—that has a mass of 0.45 solar masses.
N. Giammichele, S. Charpinet, G. Fontaine et al.
Centimetre-scale electron diffusion in photoactive organic heterostructures
For a suitably designed organic multilayer structure, optically or electrically generated electrons confined to a thin fullerene channel can diffuse over surprisingly long distances of several centimetres.
Quinn Burlingame, Caleb Coburn, Xiaozhou Che et al.
Small-scale soft-bodied robot with multimodal locomotion
A tiny soft-bodied robot is described that can be magnetically actuated to swim, climb, roll, walk and jump, while carrying a load.
Wenqi Hu, Guo Zhan Lum, Massimo Mastrangeli et al.
Generating carbyne equivalents with photoredox catalysis
A photocatalytic strategy is described that generates diazomethyl radicals as direct equivalents of carbynes, which are often too reactive to use, enabling the functionalization of a range of medically useful compounds.
Zhaofeng Wang, Ana G. Herraiz, Ana M. del Hoyo et al.
Reconciling divergent trends and millennial variations in Holocene temperatures
Analysis of pollen records from North America and Europe reveals a warming trend over the Holocene, consistent with climate-model simulations.
Jeremiah Marsicek, Bryan N. Shuman, Patrick J. Bartlein et al.
Early Middle Palaeolithic culture in India around 385–172 ka reframes Out of Africa models
Lithic assemblages from the archaeological site of Attirampakkam, India, document processes of transition from Acheulian to Middle Palaeolithic cultures and substantial behavioural changes around 385,000 years ago and thereafter.
Kumar Akhilesh, Shanti Pappu, Haresh M. Rajapara et al.
The honeycomb maze provides a novel test to study hippocampal-dependent spatial navigation
A newly designed honeycomb maze presents several advantages over current spatial navigation assays that include greater control over the rat’s choices throughout the task and the collection of electrophysiological data during navigation.
Ruth A. Wood, Marius Bauza, Julija Krupic et al.
Hierarchically related lineage-restricted fates of multipotent haematopoietic stem cells
Analysis of transplantation of single haematopoietic stem cells in mice defines stable lineage-restricted fates in long-term self-renewing multipotent stem cells, including a class of multipotent stem cells that exclusively replenishes the megakaryocyte/platelet lineage.
Joana Carrelha, Yiran Meng, Laura M. Kettyle et al.
Tissue-selective effects of nucleolar stress and rDNA damage in developmental disorders
Mutations associated with Treacher Collins syndrome perturb the subnuclear localization of an RNA helicase involved in ribosome biogenesis through activation of p53 protein, illustrating how disruption in general regulators that compromise nucleolar homeostasis can result in tissue-selective malformations.
Eliezer Calo, Bo Gu, Margot E. Bowen et al.
A major lineage of non-tailed dsDNA viruses as unrecognized killers of marine bacteria
Members of a family of marine dsDNA non-tailed bacterial viruses have short, 10-kb genomes, infect a broader range of hosts than tailed viruses and belong to the double jelly roll capsid lineage of viruses, which are associated with diverse bacterial and archaeal hosts.
Kathryn M. Kauffman, Fatima A. Hussain, Joy Yang et al.
Tet2 promotes pathogen infection-induced myelopoiesis through mRNA oxidation
A report of RNA 5-methylcytosine oxidation by mammalian Tet2, showing that Tet2 promotes infection-induced myelopoiesis in mice via a mechanism involving the repression of Socs3 mRNA, a previously unknown regulatory role of Tet2 at the epitranscriptomic level.
Qicong Shen, Qian Zhang, Yang Shi et al.
Mitochondrial translation requires folate-dependent tRNA methylation
Mammalian mitochondria use folate-bound one-carbon units generated by the enzyme SHMT2 to methylate tRNA, and this modification is required for mitochondrial translation and thus oxidative phosphorylation.
Raphael J. Morscher, Gregory S. Ducker, Sophia Hsin-Jung Li et al.
News and Views  
Regeneration writ large
G. Parker Flowers, Craig M. Crews
A rude awakening from tumour cells
Fatima Cardoso, Giuseppe Curigliano
Reactive carbon species tamed for synthesis
Rohan E. J. Beckwith
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A non-tailed twist in the viral tale
Julio Cesar Ignacio-Espinoza, Jed A. Fuhrman
Pollen weighs in on a climate conundrum
Jeremy D. Shakun
Research and Commentary reflecting on the evolution and future of Sanger DNA sequencing
Careers & Jobs
Why science blogging still matters
Eryn Brown, Chris Woolston
Make your science count
Sarah Hamylton
Seven point two
Contact has been made.
Marissa Lingen


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