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woensdag 31 januari 2018

The Lancet: [Review] Development of vaccines against Zika virus

[Review] Development of vaccines against Zika virus
Zika virus is an emerging pathogen of substantial public health concern to human beings. Although most infections are asymptomatic or present with benign, self-limited symptoms, a small percentage of patients have complications, such as congenital anomalies in the developing fetus of pregnant women infected with the virus and neurological complications (eg, Guillain-Barré syndrome). To date, there is no vaccine, antiviral drug, or other modality available to prevent or treat Zika virus infection.
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[Comment] WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System early implementation 2016–17
On Oct 22, 2015, WHO launched the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS), the first global collaborative effort to standardise antimicrobial resistance surveillance.1 GLASS supports the strategic objective of WHO's Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance to strengthen the evidence base.2 GLASS provides a standardised approach to the collection, analysis, and sharing of antimicrobial resistance data by countries, and seeks to document the status of existing or newly developed national surveillance systems.
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[Series] Burden, pathology, and costs of malaria in pregnancy: new developments for an old problem
Over the past 10 years, knowledge of the burden, economic costs, and consequences of malaria in pregnancy has improved, and the prevalence of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has declined substantially in some geographical areas. In particular, studies outside of Africa have increased the evidence base of Plasmodium vivax in pregnancy. Rapid diagnostic tests have been poor at detecting malaria in pregnant women, while PCR has shown a high prevalence of low density infection, the clinical importance of which is unknown.
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[Comment] Putting malaria in pregnancy back in the spotlight
In 2007 The Lancet Infectious Diseases published a special issue focussing on malaria in pregnancy. This highlighted that slow progress on prevention was being made at the time and that there were many research gaps needing to be addressed. A decade later we update readers with a new Series of three reports covering the burden, pathology, costs, prevention, and treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria during pregnancy.
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[Series] Prevention of malaria in pregnancy
Malaria remains one of the most preventable causes of adverse birth outcomes. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine is used to prevent malaria, but resistance to this drug combination has decreased its efficacy and new alternatives are needed. In Africa, a meta-analysis showed three-course or monthly IPTp with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine to be safe and more effective than the original two-course sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine strategy, prompting WHO to update its policy in 2012.
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