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vrijdag 26 januari 2018

The Lancet: [Comment] Vaginal microbes, inflammation, and HIV risk in African women

[Comment] Vaginal microbes, inflammation, and HIV risk in African women
Women from sub-Saharan Africa have a disproportionately higher risk of becoming infected with HIV than their male counterparts. Having bacterial vaginosis, a heterogeneous vaginal microbial dysbiosis, increases a woman's risk of acquiring HIV infection1 and the risk of transmitting the virus to their partners2 or their children during childbirth.3 Although bacterial vaginosis is highly prevalent and recurrent in reproductive-aged women worldwide, the composition of organisms that constitute this condition might differ regionally and ethnically.
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[Comment] Norovirus surveillance comes of age: the impact of NoroNet
Noroviruses are associated with a staggering number of illnesses worldwide annually.1 The typical clinical case is an acute and self-limiting gastroenteritis that can be managed by rehydration therapy. However, illness can become life-threatening in the young and old and in patients with underlying disease, supporting the need for vaccines.2 Vaccine design has been challenging, in part, because of the genotypic diversity of norovirus strains.3 Findings presented by Janko van Beek and colleagues4 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases show the importance of global norovirus surveillance to the development of vaccines and for sustaining successful immunisation programmes.
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[Articles] Evaluation of the association between the concentrations of key vaginal bacteria and the increased risk of HIV acquisition in African women from five cohorts: a nested case-control study
Differences in the vaginal microbial diversity and concentrations of key bacteria were associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition in women. Defining vaginal bacterial taxa associated with HIV risk could point to mechanisms that influence HIV susceptibility and provide important targets for future prevention research.
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[Articles] Rapid increase in non-vaccine serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales, 2000–17: a prospective national observational cohort study
Both PCV7 and PCV13 have had a major effect in reducing the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales; however, rapid increases in some non-PCV13 serotypes are compromising the benefits of the programme.
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[Articles] Molecular surveillance of norovirus, 2005–16: an epidemiological analysis of data collected from the NoroNet network
Continuous changes in the global norovirus genetic diversity highlight the need for sustained global norovirus surveillance, including assessment of possible immune escape and evolution by recombination, to provide a full overview of norovirus epidemiology for future vaccine policy decisions.
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