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Nature Medicine Contents: January 2018 Volume 24 Number 1 pp 1-112

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January 2018 Volume 24, Issue 1

News and Views

Presented by: Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center | Nature

This conference will facilitate discussion of current challenges that clinicians are facing to improve maternal and child health, from conception to early years.
March 22-24, 2018 | Guangzhou, China

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Nature Outline: Non-union bone fracture 

Bone fractures that fail to heal with conventional treatment are known as non-union bone fractures. They cause prolonged pain and disability. Work is under way to improve the success rate of surgical repair and to accelerate the bone-healing process. 

Access the Outline >> 

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Kobe University Orthopaedic Surgery 



Thinking big in mental health   p1
Mental illnesses impose a grave disease burden worldwide, yet progress in managing and treating them has largely stalled. Harnessing the power of big data may break the current impasse and open new avenues for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these devastating illnesses.



Puzzling over privilege: How the immune system protects[mdash]and fails[mdash]the testes   pp2 - 5
Shraddha Chakradhar



Correction   p5

News and Views


Lipid metabolic reprogramming in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury   pp6 - 7
Satdarshan P Monga
In a recent study of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), Zhang et al. use tandem 'omics' approaches in mice, pigs, and nonhuman primates to identify lipid metabolic reprogramming as a key determinant of IRI, thus providing novel mechanistic and therapeutic insights.

See also: Article by Zhang et al.

Genomics in childhood acute myeloid leukemia comes of age   pp7 - 9
Andrew M Brunner and Timothy A Graubert
A Children's Oncology Group study of nearly 1,000 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases reveals marked differences between the genomic landscapes of pediatric and adult AML and offers directions for future work.

See also: Resource by Bolouri et al.

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The role of vaccines in preventing bacterial antimicrobial resistance   pp10 - 19
Kathrin U Jansen, Charles Knirsch and Annaliesa S Anderson
One strategy to counter the rise of antimicrobial resistance is the development of vaccines against resistant pathogens, preventing further infection and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

An online-only, open access journal publishing high-quality original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of digital medicine and health, npj Digital Medicine has now published its first articles. Part of the Nature Partner Journals series, npj Digital Medicine is published in partnership with the Scripps Translational Science Institute.
Explore all articles available >>> 



CD22-targeted CAR T cells induce remission in B-ALL that is naive or resistant to CD19-targeted CAR immunotherapy   pp20 - 28
Terry J Fry, Nirali N Shah, Rimas J Orentas, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson, Constance M Yuan et al.
Fry et al. report the first results from a human trial of a CD22-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy providing evidence of efficacy in the treatment of pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia that is immunotherapy-naive or resistant to CD19-directed CAR T cells.

Amyloid-[beta] plaques enhance Alzheimer's brain tau-seeded pathologies by facilitating neuritic plaque tau aggregation   pp29 - 38
Zhuohao He, Jing L Guo, Jennifer D McBride, Sneha Narasimhan, Hyesung Kim et al.
Through injection of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain extracts containing pathological tau protein into transgenic mouse lines harboring different levels of amyloid plaque burden, the authors find that the presence of amyloid plaques modifies endogenous pools of tau protein, creating a unique environment required for the seeding and spreading of distinct tau pathologies.

Thyroid hormone inhibits lung fibrosis in mice by improving epithelial mitochondrial function   pp39 - 49
Guoying Yu, Argyris Tzouvelekis, Rong Wang, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Gabriel H Ibarra et al.
Thyroid hormone improves mitochondrial function and dynamics in lung epithelium to reduce pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

cGAS drives noncanonical-inflammasome activation in age-related macular degeneration   pp50 - 61
Nagaraj Kerur, Shinichi Fukuda, Daipayan Banerjee, Younghee Kim, Dongxu Fu et al.
Degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium is a hallmark of geographic atrophy, a type of age-related macular degeneration. Kerur et al. show that this degeneration results from a multistep pathway in which mitochondrial dysfunction in RPE cells, triggered by accumulation of Alu RNA, leads to activation of the noncanonical inflammasome via a cGAS-STING-IRF3 signaling axis.

A proteolytic fragment of histone deacetylase 4 protects the heart from failure by regulating the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway   pp62 - 72
Lorenz H Lehmann, Zegeye H Jebessa, Michael M Kreusser, Axel Horsch, Tao He et al.
A proteolytically derived fragment of the epigenetic regulator HDAC4 protects the heart through transcriptional repression of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, thereby inhibiting protein O-GlcNAcylation and maintaining normal calcium handling and contractility of cardiomyocytes.

An ALOX12-12-HETE-GPR31 signaling axis is a key mediator of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury   pp73 - 83
Xiao-Jing Zhang, Xu Cheng, Zhen-Zhen Yan, Jing Fang, Xiaozhan Wang et al.
ALOX12-mediated generation of 12-HETE leads to GPR31 activation and liver injury in ischemia-reperfusion, which can be targeted in a nonhuman primate model to improve outcome.

The deubiquitinating enzyme TNFAIP3 mediates inactivation of hepatic ASK1 and ameliorates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis   pp84 - 94
Peng Zhang, Pi-Xiao Wang, Ling-Ping Zhao, Xin Zhang, Yan-Xiao Ji et al.
The deubiquitinase TNFAIP3 suppresses the kinase ASK1 to ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

See also: News and Views by Monga

A new open access journal dedicated to publishing the most important scientific advances in all aspects of genomics and its application in the practice of medicine. Part of the Nature Partner Journals series, the journal is published in partnership with the Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research.



Granulocyte-derived TNF[alpha] promotes vascular and hematopoietic regeneration in the bone marrow   pp95 - 102
Emily Bowers, Anastasiya Slaughter, Paul S Frenette, Rork Kuick, Oscar M Pello et al.
In the bone marrow, granulocyte-derived TNF[alpha] acts on endothelial cells to maintain the vasculature under steady-state conditions and to promote its regeneration after injury or transplantation.



The molecular landscape of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia reveals recurrent structural alterations and age-specific mutational interactions   pp103 - 112
Hamid Bolouri, Jason E Farrar, Timothy Triche Jr, Rhonda E Ries, Emilia L Lim et al.
A comprehensive molecular analysis of almost 1,000 pediatric subjects with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uncovers widespread differences in pediatric AML as compared to adult AML, including a higher frequency of structural variants and different mutational patterns and epigenetic signatures. Future studies are needed to characterize the functional relevance of these alterations and to explore age-tailored therapies to improve disease control in younger patients.

See also: News and Views by Brunner & Graubert

Nature Collection: 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young for their pioneering work in Drosophila that elucidated the molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm. 

Access this collection free online>>

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