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Nature contents: 25 January 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 553 Issue 7689
This Week  
Science has a gambling problem
Researchers and government agencies pay too little attention to pathological gambling. This must change.
Science must get ready for the next global flu crisis
A universal flu vaccine is the only serious defence against a future flu pandemic.
Science after a year of President Trump
After 12 months in office, Trump’s effects on science have been as bad as feared.

Learn about topics every 21st century citizen should know.

The MIT Press Essential Knowledge series offers concise, accessible overviews of compelling topics. Written by leading thinkers, these books provide expert syntheses of subjects ranging from Synesthesia, Machine Translation and Neuroplasticity to the Future and Post-Truth.

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World View  
Don’t attack science agencies for political gain
Eroding trust in regulatory agencies will not improve democratic accountability, warns Bernhard Url.
Seven Days  
Brief US shutdown, harassment data and electric fishing
The week in science: 19–25 January 2018.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep
Chinese scientists create cloned primates that could revolutionize studies of human disease.
David Cyranoski
  German scientists hope for windfall from incoming government
Research budget could rise to 3.5% of gross domestic product if agreement struck during coalition talks holds.
Quirin Schiermeier
US researchers relieved as government shutdown ends
Science agencies poised to resume normal operations after lawmakers agree on stopgap budget measure that expires on 8 February.
Lauren Morello, Sara Reardon, Heidi Ledford
  China declared world’s largest producer of scientific articles
Report shows increasing international competition, but suggests that United States remains a scientific powerhouse.
Jeff Tollefson
Controversial femur could belong to ancient human relative
Few scientists have had access to a thigh bone kept in a French collection for over a decade.
Ewen Callaway
Bashing holes in the tale of Earth’s troubled youth
New analyses undermine a popular theory about an intense asteroid storm 4 billion years ago.
Adam Mann
The lost art of looking at plants
Advances in genomics and imaging are reviving a fading discipline.
Heidi Ledford
Nature Podcast 25 January 2018
This week, a mini all-terrain robot, 3D painting with light, and a new maze for rats.
Vaccine boosters
The NYSCF Investigator Program supports top early career neuroscientists and stem cell researchers around the world through the:
Robust research needs many lines of evidence
Replication is not enough. Marcus R. Munafò and George Davey Smith state the case for triangulation.
Marcus R. Munafò, George Davey Smith
Books and Arts  
Virtual reality comes of age
Ramin Skibba weighs up a hymn to applications from school to sports.
Ramin Skibba
Unending expansion, the wonder of beetles and YouTube from the inside: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week’s best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Test proxy carbon prices as decision-making tools
Alexander R. Barron, Breanna J. Parker
  Most popular public searches on gene names
Kuan-lin Huang
Regulate prescription of Chinese medicines
Zhijie Xu, Lizheng Fang, Dingzhi Pan
  Gene names can confound most-searched listings
Mark B. Gerstein, Fabio C. P. Navarro
China’s ban on imported plastic waste could be a game changer
Tony R. Walker
Calestous Juma (1953–2017)
International-affairs scholar who championed science for African development.
Linda Nordling
Technology to watch in 2018
Thought leaders reveal the technologies and topics likely totransform life-science research in the year ahead.
Kendall Powell
Frontiers in biology
Nathalie Le Bot, Barbara Marte, Ursula Weiss
The axolotl genome and the evolution of key tissue formation regulators OPEN
Sequencing and assembly of the 32-Gb genome of the Mexican axolotl reveals that it lacks the developmental gene Pax3, which is essential in other vertebrates; the genome sequence could improve our understanding of the evolution of the axolotl’s remarkable regenerative capabilities.
Evolutionary routes and KRAS dosage define pancreatic cancer phenotypes
Oncogenic dosage variation along distinct evolutionary routes defines fundamental aspects of pancreatic cancer biology and phenotypic diversification.
The genome of Schmidtea mediterranea and the evolution of core cellular mechanisms OPEN
An improved genome assembly for Schmidtea mediterranea shows that the genome is highly polymorphic and repetitive, and lacks multiple genes encoding core components of cell biological mechanisms.
Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala
Analysis and modelling of locomotor characteristics of two pursuit predator–prey pairs show that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival.
Structure and mechanogating mechanism of the Piezo1 channel
The atomic structure of a eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase complex
Strong disk winds traced throughout outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries
Analysis of the light curves of outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries suggests that throughout the accretion process mass is lost from the accretion disks through strong, magnetically driven disk winds.
A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Observations of a highly collimated, parsec-scale jet emitted from a massive young stellar object in the Large Magellanic Cloud indicate that jet launching and collimation are independent of stellar mass.
The honeycomb maze provides a novel test to study hippocampal-dependent spatial navigation
A newly designed honeycomb maze presents several advantages over current spatial navigation assays that include greater control over the rat’s choices throughout the task and the collection of electrophysiological data during navigation.
Tet2 promotes pathogen infection-induced myelopoiesis through mRNA oxidation
A report of RNA 5-methylcytosine oxidation by mammalian Tet2, showing that Tet2 promotes infection-induced myelopoiesis in mice via a mechanism involving the repression of Socs3 mRNA, a previously unknown regulatory role of Tet2 at the epitranscriptomic level.
Innate and adaptive lymphocytes sequentially shape the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism
Distinct populations of lymphocytes act sequentially during development to direct maturation of the mammalian gut microbiota.
Small-scale soft-bodied robot with multimodal locomotion
A tiny soft-bodied robot is described that can be magnetically actuated to swim, climb, roll, walk and jump, while carrying a load.
Tissue-selective effects of nucleolar stress and rDNA damage in developmental disorders
Mutations associated with Treacher Collins syndrome perturb the subnuclear localization of an RNA helicase involved in ribosome biogenesis through activation of p53 protein, illustrating how disruption in general regulators that compromise nucleolar homeostasis can result in tissue-selective malformations.
Mitochondrial translation requires folate-dependent tRNA methylation
Mammalian mitochondria use folate-bound one-carbon units generated by the enzyme SHMT2 to methylate tRNA, and this modification is required for mitochondrial translation and thus oxidative phosphorylation.
A major lineage of non-tailed dsDNA viruses as unrecognized killers of marine bacteria
Members of a family of marine dsDNA non-tailed bacterial viruses have short, 10-kb genomes, infect a broader range of hosts than tailed viruses and belong to the double jelly roll capsid lineage of viruses, which are associated with diverse bacterial and archaeal hosts.
Mitochondria–lysosome contacts regulate mitochondrial fission via RAB7 GTP hydrolysis
Formation of inter-organelle contacts between mitochondria and lysosomes, regulated by lysosomal RAB7 GTP hydrolysis, allows for bidirectional regulation of mitochondrial and lysosomal dynamics.
Sequences enriched in Alu repeats drive nuclear localization of long RNAs in human cells
Structure of the D2 dopamine receptor bound to the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone
From haematopoietic stem cells to complex differentiation landscapes
Elisa Laurenti, Berthold Göttgens
Skin microbiota–host interactions
Y. Erin Chen, Michael A. Fischbach, Yasmine Belkaid
The rise of three-dimensional human brain cultures
Sergiu P. Pașca
The biology and management of non-small cell lung cancer
Roy S. Herbst, Daniel Morgensztern, Chris Boshoff
Midbrain circuits that set locomotor speed and gait selection
Speed and gait selection in mice are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons in the cuneiform nucleus and the pedunculopontine nucleus, which act in conjunction to select context-dependent locomotor behaviours.
V. Caggiano, R. Leiras, H. Goñi-Erro et al.
α-Klotho is a non-enzymatic molecular scaffold for FGF23 hormone signalling
The crystal structure of shed ectodomain of α-klotho bound to the FGFR1c ligand-binding domain and FGF23 unveils the mechanism by which klotho co-receptors promote hormonal FGF signalling.
Gaozhi Chen, Yang Liu, Regina Goetz et al.
Chromosomal instability drives metastasis through a cytosolic DNA response
In chromosomally unstable tumour cells, rupture of micronuclei exposes genomic DNA and activates the cGAS–STING cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, thereby promoting metastasis.
Samuel F. Bakhoum, Bryan Ngo, Ashley M. Laughney et al.
An 800-million-solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5
Observations of a quasar at redshift 7.54, when the Universe was just five per cent of its current age, suggest that the Universe was significantly neutral at this epoch.
Eduardo Bañados, Bram P. Venemans, Chiara Mazzucchelli et al.
Monitoring T cell–dendritic cell interactions in vivo by intercellular enzymatic labelling
Interactions between receptors and ligands on immune cells are visualized in vivo and in vitro using an enzyme-tagged ligand that, when cells interact, leaves behind a detectable label on the receptor-expressing cell.
Giulia Pasqual, Aleksey Chudnovskiy, Jeroen M. J. Tas et al.
Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star
Mapping the three-dimensional trajectory of a Neptune-mass exoplanet across the disk of its cool star reveals that its orbit is nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator, implying the existence of a yet-undetected outer companion planet.
Vincent Bourrier, Christophe Lovis, Hervé Beust et al.
Enhancement and sign change of magnetic correlations in a driven quantum many-body system
By periodically modulating the position of degenerate fermions unidirectionally in a three-dimensional optical lattice, antiferromagnetic correlations in this many-body system can be reduced, enhanced or even switched to ferromagnetic correlations.
Frederik Görg, Michael Messer, Kilian Sandholzer et al.
Regulation of embryonic haematopoietic multipotency by EZH1
The production of haematopoietic stem cells is repressed during early mammalian embryogenesis by an epigenetic mechanism that involves the action of the Polycomb protein EZH1.
Linda T. Vo, Melissa A. Kinney, Xin Liu et al.
Clonal evolution mechanisms in NT5C2 mutant-relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Mutations in the nucleotidase-encoding gene NT5C2 drive chemotherapy resistance in relapsed acute lymphoid leukaemia but the mutations also lead to a loss-of-fitness phenotype and to collateral drug sensitivity, which could be exploited for therapy.
Gannie Tzoneva, Chelsea L. Dieck, Koichi Oshima et al.
Structures of β-klotho reveal a ‘zip code’-like mechanism for endocrine FGF signalling
Crystal structures of free and ligand-bound β-klotho reveal that it acts as a primary receptor for FGF21, and demonstrate how a sugar-cutting enzyme has evolved to become a receptor for hormones that regulate metabolic processes.
Sangwon Lee, Jungyuen Choi, Jyotidarsini Mohanty et al.
A photophoretic-trap volumetric display
Photophoretic optical trapping of cellulose particles and persistence of vision are used to produce real-space volumetric images that can be viewed from all angles, in geometries unachievable by holograms and light-field technologies.
D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire et al.
Early episodes of high-pressure core formation preserved in plume mantle
Xenon isotopic anomalies found in modern plume rocks are explained as the result of iodine-to-plutonium fractionations during early, high-pressure episodes of core formation.
Colin R. M. Jackson, Neil R. Bennett, Zhixue Du et al.
A Myc enhancer cluster regulates normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies
A blood enhancer cluster forms a highly combinatorial system that allows precise control of Myc expression across normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies.
Carsten Bahr, Lisa von Paleske, Veli V. Uslu et al.
Structure and mutagenesis reveal essential capsid protein interactions for KSHV replication
Cryo-electron microscopy reveals the structure of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsid, and experiments with polypeptides that mimic the smallest capsid protein demonstrate the potential for structure-derived insights to help to develop antiviral agents.
Xinghong Dai, Danyang Gong, Hanyoung Lim et al.
Atomic structure of the eukaryotic intramembrane RAS methyltransferase ICMT
The X-ray structure of the integral membrane protein isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase suggests mechanisms by which it recognizes both water-soluble and membrane-bound reactants to catalyse the methylation of RAS and other CAAX proteins at the membrane-cytosol interface.
Melinda M. Diver, Leanne Pedi, Akiko Koide et al.
Corrigendum: Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending
Anthony Waldron, Daniel C. Miller, Dave Redding et al.
Erratum: Observation of the hyperfine spectrum of antihydrogen
M. Ahmadi, B. X. R. Alves, C. J. Baker et al.
Erratum: Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues
GTEx Consortium
News and Views  
Trapped particle makes 3D images
Barry G. Blundell
Ageing-related receptors resolved
Makoto Kuro-o
A beacon at the dawn of the Universe
Eliat Glikman
Satellite images show China going green
Marc Macias-Fauria
50 & 100 years ago
Eighty years of superfluidity
William P. Halperin
Kiss-and-tell way to track cell contacts
Aaron P. Esser-Kahn
Research and Commentary reflecting on the evolution and future of Sanger DNA sequencing
Careers & Jobs
Meet the street animals that stole scientists’ hearts
Traci Watson
Career Briefs  
US ecologists earn more in government than in academia
Undergraduate physics labs don’t improve US students’ exam scores
Clocking out
Time to go.
Preston Grassmann


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