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donderdag 11 januari 2018

Nature contents: 11 January 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 553 Issue 7687
This Week  
Mystery funders of Arecibo radio telescope can celebrate an early success
Dish saved from demolition gets best look yet at fast radio bursts.
Protect the high seas from harm
Discussions on a United Nations treaty to safeguard the open ocean offer an opportunity for scientists.
Chemists go green to make better blue jeans
An environmentally friendly way to dye denim could usher in a long-overdue new fashion.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
is blazing a new trail in biomedical research.

The school is a partnership between The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, the nation's leading cancer hospital, and The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), one of the primary resources for health care education, scientific discovery and patient care in Texas.

With more than 600 labs in research areas including immunology, genetics, neuroscience and cancer, students can find the discipline that ignites their interest and passion.
World View  
Funders should mandate open citations
All publishers must make bibliographic references free to access, analyse and reuse, argues David Shotton.
Seven Days  
Typhoid vaccine, dementia research and discrimination in science
The week in science: 5–11 January 2018.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
Scientific ballooning takes off
Commercial providers open the market for new types of research flight.
Alexandra Witze
  Silicon gains ground in quantum-computing race
The manufacturing techniques behind classical computing are making their way into quantum devices.
Davide Castelvecchi
Germany vs Elsevier: universities win temporary journal access after refusing to pay fees
Scientists in Germany can still read journals even though institutions there have not renewed their subscriptions.
Quirin Schiermeier
  Tooth scratches reveal new clues to pterosaur diets
Analysis puts paid to theory that most prehistoric flying reptiles ate fish.
John Pickrell
Indonesian scientists embrace preprint server
The site's creators want to open up the country's science to a wider audience.
Ivy Shih
  Climate scientists unlock secrets of 'blue carbon'
Survey results could bolster efforts to monitor and protect marine ecosystems around the globe.
Jeff Tollefson
Step aside CERN: There's a cheaper way to break open physics
How tabletop experiments could find evidence of new particles, offering a glimpse beyond the standard model.
Gabriel Popkin
How to see a memory
Every memory leaves its own imprint in the brain, and researchers are starting to work out what one looks like.
Helen Shen
Nature Podcast 11 January 2018
This week, tabletop physics, what a memory looks like, and conflict's toll on wildlife.
Learning from leaves: Going green with artificial photosynthesis
To turn troublesome carbon dioxide into useful chemicals, scientists have been taking a leaf out of plants' book. They've now developed a complete 'artificial photosynthesis' system that could work on large scales, and fight climate change.
Images of the year
Combinations on trial
Tumour lymph vessels boost immunotherapy
Exoplanet science 2.0
The study of life on and off Earth needs unified funding and a coherent plan, say Caleb Scharf, Debra Fischer and Victoria Meadows.
Caleb Scharf, Debra Fischer, Victoria Meadows
Books and Arts  
The bitter brawl over humanity's future
Adam Rome assesses a study of two scientists who have polarized attitudes to sustainability since the 1960s.
Adam Rome
Frankenstein's monster, inside our senses and an end to epidemics: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
When suffragists kicked open the lab door
Elizabeth Bruton lauds a book tracing how women in wartime science blazed a path to the vote and beyond.
Elizabeth Bruton
A quality-control test for predatory journals
Steven N. Goodman
  Telling details of breast-cancer recurrence
Balkees Abderrahman, V. Craig Jordan
Test climate targets using fragile ecosystems
Ignacio Palomo
  Gene-drive e-mails were legally requested
Jim Thomas
A large oxygen-dominated core from the seismic cartography of a pulsating white dwarf
Asteroseismic 'sounding' reveals the internal chemical stratification of the white dwarf KIC08626021, which has a central homogeneous core—composed of 86 per cent oxygen—that has a mass of 0.45 solar masses.
Systems of mechanized and reactive droplets powered by multi-responsive surfactants
Droplets covered with surfactants that respond to multiple stimuli can assemble into hierarchical assemblies or non-spherical, patchy structures, mimic systems of mechanical gears, and even harbour sequences of chemical reactions.
Pharmacological activation of REV-ERBs is lethal in cancer and oncogene-induced senescence
REV-ERBs, nuclear hormone receptors that regulate transcription as part of the circadian clock cell machinery, inhibit autophagy and lipogenesis in premalignant and malignant cells and impair tumour growth in vivo.
A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015
Travel time to cities in 2015 is quantified in a high-resolution global map that will be useful for socio-economic policy design and conservation research.
An extracellular network of Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases
A high-throughput assay is used to analyse 40,000 potential extracellular domain interactions of a large family of plant cell surface receptors (LRR-RKs) and provide a cell surface interaction network for these receptors.
High response rate to PD-1 blockade in desmoplastic melanomas
Immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 agents produces a high response rate in patients with desmoplastic melanoma.
Paternal chromosome loss and metabolic crisis contribute to hybrid inviability in Xenopus
In hybrid inviability between Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, genomic regions on two X. laevis chromosomes are incompatible with the X. tropicalis cytoplasm and are mis-segregated during mitosis, leading to unbalanced gene expression at the maternal to zygotic transition, followed by cell-autonomous catastrophic embryo death.
Architecture of a channel-forming O-antigen polysaccharide ABC transporter
The crystal structure of a channel-forming O-antigen polysaccharide ABC transporter suggests a novel biopolymer translocation mechanism.
Warfare and wildlife declines in Africa's protected areas
Assessment of the impact of armed conflict on large herbivores in Africa between 1946 and 2010 reveals that high conflict frequency is an important predictor of wildlife population declines.
Erratum: Runx3 programs CD8+ T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours
Neurexin controls plasticity of a mature, sexually dimorphic neuron
The DVB neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans shows male-specific morphological plasticity that is controlled by neurexin and influences mating behaviour.
Michael P. Hart, Oliver Hobert
Alcohol and endogenous aldehydes damage chromosomes and mutate stem cells
Endogenous and alcohol-derived acetaldehyde causes a specific pattern of DNA damage in haemopoietic stem cells; the effects are mitigated by detoxification, specific DNA repair mechanisms and a p53 response.
Juan I. Garaycoechea, Gerry P. Crossan, Frédéric Langevin et al.
Opening of the human epithelial calcium channel TRPV6
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the calcium channel TRPV6 in its open and closed states demonstrates a novel gating mechanism involving an alanine hinge.
Luke L. McGoldrick, Appu K. Singh, Kei Saotome et al.
An extreme magneto-ionic environment associated with the fast radio burst source FRB 121102
Polarimetric observations of the repeating fast radio burst source FRB 121102 suggest that the bursts may originate from a neutron star in the extreme magneto-ionic environment of an accreting massive black hole or supernova remnant.
D. Michilli, A. Seymour, J. W. T. Hessels et al.
Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites
The lowest-energy exciton state in caesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is shown to be a bright triplet state, contrary to expectations that lowest-energy excitons should always be dark.
Michael A. Becker, Roman Vaxenburg, Georgian Nedelcu et al.
Fire frequency drives decadal changes in soil carbon and nitrogen and ecosystem productivity
A meta-analysis and field data show that frequent fires in savannas and broadleaf forests decrease soil carbon and nitrogen over many decades; modelling shows that nitrogen loss drives carbon loss by reducing net primary productivity.
Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Anders Ahlström, Sarah E. Hobbie et al.
Treatment of autosomal dominant hearing loss by in vivo delivery of genome editing agents
CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing is used to correct a dominant-negative mutation in a mouse model of inherited deafness, resulting in improvements in cochlear function and hearing.
Xue Gao, Yong Tao, Veronica Lamas et al.
Selective silencing of euchromatic L1s revealed by genome-wide screens for L1 regulators
The retrotransposition of L1 is controlled by functionally diverse genes at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels, and its silencing can lead to the downregulation of host gene expression.
Nian Liu, Cameron H. Lee, Tomek Swigut et al.
Rotation in [C ɪɪ]-emitting gas in two galaxies at a redshift of 6.8
The emission of singly ionized carbon is used to identify two galaxies with redshifts of nearly 7—corresponding to the Universe's first billion years—and with velocity structures suggestive of rotation.
Renske Smit, Rychard J. Bouwens, Stefano Carniani et al.
Clonal analysis of lineage fate in native haematopoiesis
Transposon tagging to clonally trace progenitors and stem cells provides evidence for a substantially revised roadmap for unperturbed haematopoiesis, and highlights unique properties of multipotent progenitors and haematopoietic stem cells in situ.
Alejo E. Rodriguez-Fraticelli, Samuel L. Wolock, Caleb S. Weinreb et al.
Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans
An Ancient Beringian population from Late Pleistocene Alaska and the ancestors of other Native American groups descended from a single founding population that diversified around twenty thousand years ago.
J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Ben A. Potter, Lasse Vinner et al.
Precision editing of the gut microbiota ameliorates colitis
Tungstate inhibits molybdenum-cofactor-dependent microbial respiratory pathways and shows potential as a selective treatment for microbial imbalances that occur during inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Wenhan Zhu, Maria G. Winter, Mariana X. Byndloss et al.
Successful conservation of global waterbird populations depends on effective governance
Statistical modelling of global survey datasets of waterbirds as an indicator taxon for biodiversity changes in wetland ecosystems demonstrates that effective governance is the strongest predictor of species abundance increases and conservation benefits.
Tatsuya Amano, Tamás Székely, Brody Sandel et al.
A rapid decrease in the rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák
The rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák decreased rapidly between March and May 2017, owing to gas emission from the comet aligning to produce an anomalously strong torque.
Dennis Bodewits, Tony L. Farnham, Michael S. P. Kelley et al.
A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer
Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions signal through phosphorylated PIN4 to trigger biogenesis of peroxisomes and synthesis of new proteins, enabling mitochondrial respiration and tumour growth.
Véronique Frattini, Stefano M. Pagnotta, Tala et al.
Corrigendum: A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent sepsis among infants in rural India
Pinaki Panigrahi, Sailajanandan Parida, Nimai C. Nanda et al.
Erratum: PD-1 is a haploinsufficient suppressor of T cell lymphomagenesis
Tim Wartewig, Zsuzsanna Kurgyis, Selina Keppler et al.
Erratum: Quark-level analogue of nuclear fusion with doubly heavy baryons
Marek Karliner, Jonathan L. Rosner
News and Views  
Cometary spin-down
Jessica Agarwal
Neuronal plasticity in nematode worms
Scott W. Emmons
Dogma-breaking catalysis
Douglas W. Stephan
An ode to gene edits that prevent deafness
Fyodor Urnov
Rule-breaking perovskites
Michele Saba
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Careers & Jobs
When sickness interrupts science
Emily Sohn
Career Briefs  
Gender pay gap persists
Male scientists given more opportunities to address colloquia
A street but half made up
Meet the literary agent.
Anna Zumbro


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