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Nature contents: 04 January 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 553 Issue 7686
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorials  
 
 
 
Reward research that changes society
Tracking societal impacts encourages academics to pursue them. The launch of three new Nature journals should also help.
 
 
This supplement investigates the changing role of corporate institutions in the world of science and the costs and benefits to high-quality research of these evolving arrangements.
 
World View  
 
 
 
Put telescopes on the far side of the Moon
Current proposals for lunar development neglect our best chance to glimpse the beginnings of the Universe, says Joseph Silk.
 
Seven Days  
 
 
 
Ben Barres, NASA missions and compulsory vaccines
The week in science.
 
 
Advertising.
 
 
News in Focus
 
Deep learning sharpens views of cells and genes
​​​​​​​Neural networks are making biological images easier to process.
Amy Maxmen
  Facebook billionaire pours funds into high-risk research
Silicon Valley philanthropy project revives some grants rejected by a mainstream US biomedical funder.
Ewen Callaway
US government lifts ban on risky pathogen research
The National Institutes of Health will again fund research that makes viruses more dangerous.
Sara Reardon
  What to expect in 2018: science in the new year
Moon missions, ancient genomes and a publishing showdown are set to shape the new year.
Elizabeth Gibney
Features  
 
 
 
A reboot for chronic fatigue syndrome research
Research into this debilitating disease has a rocky past. Now scientists may finally be finding their footing.
Amy Maxmen
 
 
Advertising.
 
 
Comment
 
How the Chan Zuckerberg Science Initiative plans to solve disease by 2100
Its president, Cori Bargmann, sets out three ways to accelerate science — creativity, openness and shareable resources.
Cori Bargmann
Build a global Earth observatory
Markku Kulmala calls for continuous, comprehensive monitoring of interactions between the planet's surface and atmosphere.
Markku Kulmala
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
Antarctic dinosaurs, fashion from fruit, NASA at 60 — hot tickets for 2018
What the cultured scientist will see and do this year.
Nicola Jones
Correspondence  
 
 
 
Climate engineering is not just about the atmosphere
Chris Vivian, Phillip Williamson, Philip Boyd
  Poaching Lake Victoria's fish for traditional Chinese medicine
Andrew Brierley
'4 per 1,000' initiative will boost soil carbon for climate and food security
Cornelia Rumpel, Johannes Lehmann, Abad Chabbi
  Brexit must protect UK–EU research collaborations
Günter Stock
Correction
 
 
Specials
 
TOOLBOX  
 
 
 
The research hardware in your video-game system
Motion sensors don't just drive gameplay. With the right software, they can scan dinosaur skulls, monitor glaciers and help robots to see.
Anna Nowogrodzki
Clarification
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
Alcohol and endogenous aldehydes damage chromosomes and mutate stem cells
Endogenous and alcohol-derived acetaldehyde causes a specific pattern of DNA damage in haematopoietic stem cells; the effects are mitigated by detoxification, specific DNA repair mechanisms and a p53 response.
Dietary trehalose enhances virulence of epidemic Clostridium difficile
Two hypervirulent ribotypes of the enteric pathogen Clostridium difficile, RT027 and RT078, have independently acquired unique mechanisms to metabolize low concentrations of the disaccharide trehalose, suggesting a correlation between the emergence of these ribotypes and the widespread adoption of trehalose in the human diet.
Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies
The star formation histories of galaxies, as encapsulated in their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the black holes present at their centres.
A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2 from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts
Deep-ocean O2 concentrations over the past 3.5 billion years are estimated using the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts and indicate that deep-ocean oxygenation occurred in the Phanerozoic eon.
Clonal analysis of lineage fate in native haematopoiesis
Transposon tagging to clonally trace progenitors and stem cells provides evidence for a substantially revised roadmap for unperturbed haematopoiesis, and highlights unique properties of multipotent progenitors and haematopoietic stem cells in situ.
A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer
Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions signal through phosphorylated PIN4 to trigger biogenesis of peroxisomes and synthesis of new proteins, enabling mitochondrial respiration and tumour growth.
Precision editing of the gut microbiota ameliorates colitis
Tungstate inhibits molybdenum-cofactor-dependent microbial respiratory pathways and shows potential as a selective treatment for microbial imbalances that occur during inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans
An Ancient Beringian population from Late Pleistocene Alaska and the ancestors of other Native American groups descended from a single founding population that diversified around twenty thousand years ago.
AMD1 mRNA employs ribosome stalling as a mechanism for molecular memory formation
A regulatory mechanism that limits the number of complete protein molecules that can be synthesized from a single mRNA molecule of the human AMD1 gene encoding adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1.
Hierarchically related lineage-restricted fates of multipotent haematopoietic stem cells
Articles  
 
 
 
Mean global ocean temperatures during the last glacial transition
Noble gases trapped in ice cores are used to show that the mean global ocean temperature increased by 2.6 degrees Celsius over the last glacial transition and is closely correlated with Antarctic temperature.
Bernhard Bereiter, Sarah Shackleton, Daniel Baggenstos et al.
Convergent evolution of bilaterian nerve cords
In bilaterian animals, the final configurations of central nervous systems seem unrelated to neuroectodermal patterning systems, so it is likely that the various architectures of the ventral nerve cords evolved convergently, many times.
José M. Martín-Durán, Kevin Pang, Aina Børve et al.
Letters  
 
 
 
Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history
Two extremely massive galaxies are seen 800 million years after the Big Bang, showing the rapid growth of early structure and marking the most massive halo known in that era.
D. P. Marrone, J. S. Spilker, C. C. Hayward et al.
Exploring 4D quantum Hall physics with a 2D topological charge pump
By implementing a 2D topological charge pump using ultracold bosonic atoms, the theoretically predicted 4D integer quantum Hall effect is confirmed experimentally.
Michael Lohse, Christian Schweizer, Hannah M. Price et al.
Photonic topological boundary pumping as a probe of 4D quantum Hall physics
A 2D topological charge pump in a photonic waveguide array is used to observe boundary physics associated with the 4D quantum Hall effect experimentally.
Oded Zilberberg, Sheng Huang, Jonathan Guglielmon et al.
One-pot growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures via sequential edge-epitaxy
An approach is developed for the continuous fabrication of lateral multi-junction heterostructures of transition-metal dichalcogenides, in which the sequential formation of heterojunctions is achieved solely by changing the composition of the reactive gas environment in the presence of water vapour.
Prasana K. Sahoo, Shahriar Memaran, Yan Xin et al.
Perovskite nickelates as electric-field sensors in salt water
Application of an electric field changes the transport and optical properties of samarium nickelate submerged in water, making it a suitable passive sensor of weak electric fields in salt water.
Zhen Zhang, Derek Schwanz, Badri Narayanan et al.
Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass
Analyses of potential and actual biomass stocks indicate that trade-offs exist between conserving carbon stocks on managed land and raising the contribution of biomass to raw material and energy supply for the mitigation of climate change.
Karl-Heinz Erb, Thomas Kastner, Christoph Plutzar et al.
Sooty mangabey genome sequence provides insight into AIDS resistance in a natural SIV host OPEN
Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of immune-related genes of Cercocebus atys and Macaca mulatta identify candidate genes, such as ICAM2 and TLR4, that may explain the AIDS resistance of C. atys.
David Palesch, Steven E. Bosinger, Gregory K. Tharp et al.
MicroRNAs from the parasitic plant Cuscuta campestris target host messenger RNAs
A parasitic plant produces microRNAs that target host messenger RNAs, causing them to be processed into small interfering RNAs.
Saima Shahid, Gunjune Kim, Nathan R. Johnson et al.
Acoustic reporter genes for noninvasive imaging of microorganisms in mammalian hosts
Heterologous expression of engineered gas vesicles allows noninvasive, deep-tissue ultrasound visualization of engineered bacteria in vivo in mouse tumour models and in the gastrointestinal tract.
Raymond W. Bourdeau, Audrey Lee-Gosselin, Anupama Lakshmanan et al.
Cyclin D–CDK4 kinase destabilizes PD-L1 via cullin 3–SPOP to control cancer immune surveillance
Abundance of PD-L1, the ligand of the anti-cancer immunotherapy target PD-1, is negatively regulated by poly-ubiquitination via the cyclin D–CDK4/cullin 3–SPOP axis and PD-1 blockade treatment in mice improved survival when combined with CDK4/6 inhibitors.
Jinfang Zhang, Xia Bu, Haizhen Wang et al.
Senescence-associated reprogramming promotes cancer stemness
Cellular senescence induced by chemotherapy leads to the acquisition of stemness in cancer cells, which results in enhanced tumour-promoting capacity after forced release or spontaneous escape from the senescent cell-cycle arrest.
Maja Milanovic, Dorothy N. Y. Fan, Dimitri Belenki et al.
Therapeutic targeting of ependymoma as informed by oncogenic enhancer profiling
Super enhancers regulate oncogenes and other molecular targets in ependymomas, and identification of these genes provides potential therapeutic targets.
Stephen C. Mack, Kristian W. Pajtler, Lukas Chavez et al.
Structure of the glucagon receptor in complex with a glucagon analogue
The crystal structure of the full-length glucagon receptor in complex with the glucagon analogue NNC1702 reveals how the peptide ligand interacts with its target and shows the conformational changes required for receptor activation.
Haonan Zhang, Anna Qiao, Linlin Yang et al.
Structure of the complement C5a receptor bound to the extra-helical antagonist NDT9513727
The crystal structure of the complement receptor C5aR1 bound to a small-molecule antagonist provides insights into this receptor class and how they could be better targeted therapeutically.
Nathan Robertson, Mathieu Rappas, Andrew S. Doré et al.
News and Views  
 
 
 
Ocean thermometer from the past
Rachel H. R. Stanley
A bloody brake on myelin repair
Klaus-Armin Nave, Hannelore Ehrenreich
50 & 100 years ago
 

 
40 years of Sanger DNA sequencing

Research and Commentary reflecting on the evolution and future of Sanger DNA sequencing
Nanoscale interfaces made easily
Weijie Zhao, Qihua Xiong
 
More than one way to a central nervous system
Caroline B. Albertin, Clifton W. Ragsdale
Ultrasound approach tracks gut microbes
Ricard Solé, Nuria Conde-Pueyo
 
Escape from senescence boosts tumour growth
Jan Paul Medema
 
 
 
Nature Research is pleased to present this Collection of Commentary, News and Research from across the Nature journals for the second phase of the GTEx project.
 
 
 
Careers & Jobs
 
Feature  
 
 
 
Put it on camera: How to get into scientific film- and video-making
Roberta Kwok
Career Briefs  
 
 
 
Medical research often ignores differing health outcomes for men and women
US universities to provide tools for post-PhD life
Futures  
 
 
Universal Parking, Inc.
Driving a hard bargain.
James Anderson
Correction
 
 
 
 
 

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