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donderdag 30 november 2017

Nature contents: 30 November 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 551 Issue 7682
This Week  
Traditional Chinese medicine needs proper scrutiny
New laws that promote centuries-old herbal remedies are a backwards step for China. Only controlled clinical trials can satisfy concerns.
Opiate deaths demand serious action
Epidemic of painkiller addiction and overdoses in the United States needs a wide-ranging response.
London scientists feel the noise
Researchers join those donning headphones to cope with open-plan chatter.
World View  
Pro-science budget is not enough for a Brexit world
Clarity in UK and EU policy must come soon, so science funds can be spent well, says Venki Ramakrishnan.
Seven Days  
Illicit gene therapies, forensic data and Australia’s water woes
The week in science: 24–30 November 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.

Better Visualize, Analyze, and Phenotype Immune Cells in situ in FFPE Tissue Sections and TMAs

Learn how Vectra Polaris™ quantitative pathology imaging system provides unparalleled speed and performance for extracting proteomic and morphometric information from tissue sections. Download Application Note
News in Focus
AI-controlled brain implants for mood disorders tested in people
Researchers funded by the US military are developing appliances to record neural activity and automatically stimulate the brain to treat mental illness.
Sara Reardon
  ‘Alien’ DNA makes proteins in living cells for the first time
Expanded genetic alphabet could allow for the production of new protein-based drugs.
Ewen Callaway
United Kingdom relies on science to revive flagging economy
Long-awaited industrial strategy pins hopes on commercial gains from research.
Elizabeth Gibney
  China to roll back regulations for traditional medicine despite safety concerns
Scientists fear plans to abandon clinical trials of centuries-old remedies will put people at risk.
David Cyranoski
Supercomputing poised for a massive speed boost
Plans to build ‘exascale’ machines are moving forward, but still face major technological challenges.
Katherine Bourzac
Nature Podcast, 30 November 2017
This week, reading unnatural DNA, and young worm mothers explain a wriggly riddle.
Five ways to fix statistics
As debate rumbles on about how and how much poor statistics is to blame for poor reproducibility, Nature asked influential statisticians to recommend one change to improve science. The common theme? The problem is not our maths, but ourselves.
Jeff Leek, Blakeley B. McShane, Andrew Gelman et al.
Books and Arts  
How to mobilize group intelligence
Beth Simone Noveck enjoys a seasoned wonk’s analysis of the potential and pitfalls of large-scale collaboration.
Beth Simone Noveck
What makes teams tick
Kara L. Hall examines a study of current research on scientific collaboration.
Kara L. Hall
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Clinical records: Thirty years of Dutch embryo selection
Joep Geraedts
  Landmark contributions: Credit pioneer in plate tectonics
William Kidd, Kevin Burke
Research papers: Lifetime word limits would unleash woe
Robert Gooding-Townsend
  Trophy hunting: Science on its own can’t dictate policy
Chris Darimont
Gilbert Stork (1921–2017)
Chemist who revolutionized molecular synthesis.
Paul A. Wender
The microscope makers
A small community of scientists has taken a do-it-yourself approach to microscopy: when the right tool for the job doesn’t exist, make it.
Brian Owens
Outlook: Energy transitions  
Energy transitions
Michelle Grayson
  Power through the ages
Stephanie Pain
Energize the people to effect policy change
Craig Morris, Arne Jungjohann
  Make low-carbon energy an integral part of the knowledge economy
Roger Fouquet
How social scientists can help to shape climate policy
Michael Eisenstein
  The real cost of energy
Erica Gies
The next step on the energy ladder
Lucas Laursen
  The complex web behind the siting of power plants
Peter Fairley
Produced with support from: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Blood boosts bids to unpick membrane science
Fresh techniques are opening the world of the cell up to a range of disciplines.
Anna Petherick
A day in the life of a cell biologist
Anima Chaudhuri talks membrane fusion and lab collaboration.
A transfer-RNA-derived small RNA regulates ribosome biogenesis
A 22-nucleotide fragment of a transfer RNA regulates translation by binding to the mRNA of a ribosomal protein and increasing its expression, and downregulation of the fragment in patient-derived liver tumour cells reduces tumour growth in mice.
Direct detection of a break in the teraelectronvolt cosmic-ray spectrum of electrons and positrons
A direct measurement of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons with unprecedentedly high energy resolution reveals a spectral break at about 0.9 teraelectronvolts, confirming the evidence found by previous indirect measurements.
Reconciling taxon senescence with the Red Queen’s hypothesis
Focusing attention on the expansion of taxa, rather than their survival, resolves the apparent contradiction between seemingly deterministic patterns of waxing and waning of taxa over time and the randomness of extinction implied by the Red Queen’s hypothesis.
Inactivation of DNA repair triggers neoantigen generation and impairs tumour growth
The inactivation of DNA mismatch repair in cancer cells produces dynamic mutational profiles and generates neoantigens, which result in improved immune surveillance against these cells.
Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos
Exit of epiblasts from an unrestricted naive pluripotent state is required for epithelialization and generation of the pro-amniotic cavity in mouse embryos and for amniotic cavity formation in human embryos and human embryonic stem cells.
Promoter-bound METTL3 maintains myeloid leukaemia by m6A-dependent translation control
The methyltransferase METTL3 promotes the leukaemic state in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) by catalysing the m6A RNA modification through its recruitment on the transcription start sites of AML-associated genes.
Immune evasion of Plasmodium falciparum by RIFIN via inhibitory receptors
Proteins expressed on the surfaces of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum help the parasite to evade the host immune system by acting as ligands for immune inhibitory receptors and thereby downregulating the immune response.
Genetic diversity of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae
Genome sequencing analyses from 765 specimens of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii from 15 locations across Africa characterize patterns of gene flow and variations in population size, and provide a resource for studying the evolution of natural malaria vector populations.
Genetically programmed chiral organoborane synthesis
A genetically encoded platform can produce chiral organoboranes in bacteria with high turnover, enantioselectivity and chemoselectivity, and can be tuned and configured through DNA manipulation.
RNA polymerase III limits longevity downstream of TORC1
RNA polymerase III is a key evolutionarily conserved regulator of longevity that may have potential as a therapeutic target for age-related conditions.
Maternal age generates phenotypic variation in Caenorhabditis elegans
Maternal age is found to be a major source of phenotypic variation in isogenic C. elegans populations living in a controlled environment, with the progeny of young mothers impaired for multiple fitness traits.
Erratum: Quark-level analogue of nuclear fusion with doubly heavy baryons
Erratum: PD-1 is a haploinsufficient suppressor of T cell lymphomagenesis
Corrigendum: RNA m6A methylation regulates the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response
Corrigendum: Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade
Corrigendum: Mega-evolutionary dynamics of the adaptive radiation of birds
Corrigendum: A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent sepsis among infants in rural India
News and Views  
Archaeology: Inequality has deep roots in Eurasia
Michelle Elliott
Microbiota: A high-pressure situation for bacteria
David A. Relman
Cell biology: Bulky tether proteins aid membrane fusion
Anne Spang
Large quantum systems tamed
Christine Muschik
Contactless health-care sensing
Leena Ukkonen, Lauri Sydänheimo
Methane upgraded by rhodium
Ive Hermans
Mechanism of tandem duplication formation in BRCA1-mutant cells
BRCA1, but not BRCA2, suppresses the formation of tandem duplications at stalled replication forks in primary mammalian cells.
Nicholas A. Willis, Richard L. Frock, Francesca Menghi et al.
Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator
Programmable quantum simulations of many-body systems are demonstrated using a reconfigurable array of 51 individually trapped cold atoms with strong, coherent interactions controlled via excitation to Rydberg states.
Hannes Bernien, Sylvain Schwartz, Alexander Keesling et al.
Salt-responsive gut commensal modulates TH17 axis and disease
High salt intake changed the gut microbiome and increased TH17 cell numbers in mice, and reduced intestinal survival of Lactobacillus species, increased the number of TH17 cells and increased blood pressure in humans.
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G. Matus, Sean M. Kearney et al.
Mild oxidation of methane to methanol or acetic acid on supported isolated rhodium catalysts
Single-site isolated rhodium species anchored on zeolites or titanium dioxide are shown to catalyse the direct conversion of methane to methanol and acetic acid, using oxygen and carbon monoxide under mild conditions.
Junjun Shan, Mengwei Li, Lawrence F. Allard et al.
Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica
Analyses of house-size distributions in the Old and New World showed that wealth disparities increased with the domestication of plants and animals and with increased sociopolitical scale.
Timothy A. Kohler, Michael E. Smith, Amy Bogaard et al.
Orthogonal muscle fibres have different instructive roles in planarian regeneration
Longitudinal and circular muscle fibres have distinct regulatory roles during planarian regeneration.
M. Lucila Scimone, Lauren E. Cote, Peter W. Reddien
Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion
Halogen abundances in chondrites are 6 to 37 times lower than previously reported, which is consistent with the low abundances of these elements found in Earth.
Patricia L. Clay, Ray Burgess, Henner Busemann et al.
A gut bacterial pathway metabolizes aromatic amino acids into nine circulating metabolites
A pathway for the production of aromatic amino acid metabolites in Clostridium sporogenes is described; modulation of serum levels of these metabolites in gnotobiotic mice affects intestinal permeability and systemic immunity.
Dylan Dodd, Matthew H. Spitzer, William Van Treuren et al.
Structural basis for the initiation of eukaryotic transcription-coupled DNA repair
Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of yeast Rad26 bound to RNA polymerase II provides insight into the initiation of the transcription-coupled DNA repair mechanism in eukaryotes.
Jun Xu, Indrajit Lahiri, Wei Wang et al.
Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption
IceCube has measured the absorption of atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos in the Earth, and found that the interaction cross-section of multi-TeV neutrinos is within 50 per cent of the predictions of the standard model.
The IceCube Collaboration
Observation of a many-body dynamical phase transition with a 53-qubit quantum simulator
Many-body dynamical phases in an Ising-like quantum spin model with long-range interactions are observed by measuring correlations in single shots, using a quantum simulator composed of 53 qubits.
J. Zhang, G. Pagano, P. W. Hess et al.
Site-selective and stereoselective functionalization of non-activated tertiary C–H bonds
The functionalization of specific inert C–H bonds avoids the need for functional groups in organic synthesis and here the challenges of this approach are overcome using a dirhodium catalyst that is capable of C–H bond site-selectivity.
Kuangbiao Liao, Thomas C. Pickel, Vyacheslav Boyarskikh et al.
A lysosomal switch triggers proteostasis renewal in the immortal C. elegans germ lineage
Sperm-activated lysosomes enhance proteostasis in nematode oocytes just before fertilization; this could prevent transmission of damaged proteins to the next generation and may explain the immortality of the germ-cell lineage.
K. Adam Bohnert, Cynthia Kenyon
A tethering complex drives the terminal stage of SNARE-dependent membrane fusion
Tethering proteins, known to mediate initial recognition and attachment during membrane fusion, are essential for driving the transition from the hemifused state to fusion pore formation.
Massimo D’Agostino, Herre Jelger Risselada, Anna Lürick et al.
NFS1 undergoes positive selection in lung tumours and protects cells from ferroptosis
Cancers growing in high-oxygen environments, such as lung adenocarcinomas, select for the iron–sulfur cluster synthesizing enzyme NFS1 to support malignant proliferation and to protect from oxidative damage.
Samantha W. Alvarez, Vladislav O. Sviderskiy, Erdem M. Terzi et al.
A semi-synthetic organism that stores and retrieves increased genetic information
A modified Escherichia coli is used to demonstrate that semi-synthetic organisms can use non-natural hydrophobic base pairs to genetically encode for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins.
Yorke Zhang, Jerod L. Ptacin, Emil C. Fischer et al.
Corrigendum: Widespread movement of meltwater onto and across Antarctic ice shelves
Jonathan Kingslake, Jeremy C. Ely, Indrani Das et al.
Erratum: Enhanced sensitivity at higher-order exceptional points
Hossein Hodaei, Absar U. Hassan, Steffen Wittek et al.
Erratum: The neuropeptide NMU amplifies ILC2-driven allergic lung inflammation
Antonia Wallrapp, Samantha J. Riesenfeld, Patrick R. Burkett et al.
Careers & Jobs
Put safety first
Elizabeth Orr
Turning point: Empathetic outreach
Virginia Gewin
Powers of observation
How to be a scientist.
Beth Cato


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