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vrijdag 6 oktober 2017

The Lancet: [Comment] Typhoid vaccine development with a human challenge model

[Comment] Typhoid vaccine development with a human challenge model
Experimental human typhoid fever challenge was first described in 1896 by Wright, who vaccinated two men against typhoid fever and challenged one with what was then known as Salmonella typhosa.1 While challenge models are sometimes controversial, they offer enormous potential to study the pathogenesis of disease and to accelerate vaccine development, particularly in human-restricted pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The Maryland typhoid human challenge model, which ran from 1952 to 1974, led to insights into typhoid fever and facilitated the development of live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty21a.
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[The Lancet Commissions] Commission: Stem cells and regenerative medicine
In this Commission, we argue that a combination of poor quality science, unclear funding models, unrealistic hopes, and unscrupulous private clinics threatens regenerative medicine's social licence to operate. If regenerative medicine is to shift from mostly small-scale bespoke experimental interventions into routine clinical practice, substantial rethinking of the social contract that supports such research and clinical practice in the public arena will be required.
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[Department of Error] Department of Error
Lear SA, Hu W, Rangarajan S, et al. The effect of physical activity on mortality and cardiovascular disease in 130 000 people from 17 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: the PURE study. Lancet 2017; published online Sept 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31634-3—In figure 1 of this Article, the labels "lower" and "higher" were incorrectly reversed below the axis. This correction has been made to the online version as of Oct 5, 2017, and will be made to the printed Article.
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[Correspondence] Treating cholera in severely malnourished children in the Horn of Africa and Yemen
Populations in Yemen, South Sudan, Somalia, and Ethiopia are experiencing starvation and concurrent outbreaks of confirmed or suspected cholera (acute watery diarrhoea [AWD]).1 Drought, conflict, and population displacement in these countries have led to increased food insecurity and a higher incidence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM).1 Limited access to safe water and poor sanitation have exacerbated cholera and AWD outbreaks and led to the dangerous comorbidity of cholera and SAM in young children.
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[Articles] Nivolumab in patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer refractory to, or intolerant of, at least two previous chemotherapy regimens (ONO-4538-12, ATTRACTION-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial
In this phase 3 study, the survival benefits indicate that nivolumab might be a new treatment option for heavily pretreated patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer. Ongoing trials that include non-Asian patients are investigating nivolumab for advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer in various settings and earlier treatment lines.
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