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dinsdag 15 augustus 2017

The Lancet: [Articles] Trends in antimicrobial resistance in bloodstream infection isolates at a large urban hospital...

[Articles] Trends in antimicrobial resistance in bloodstream infection isolates at a large urban hospital in Malawi (1998–2016): a surveillance study
The rapid expansion of ESBL and fluoroquinolone resistance among common Gram-negative pathogens, and the emergence of MRSA, highlight the growing challenge of bloodstream infections that are effectively impossible to treat in this resource-limited setting.
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[Articles] Understanding threats to polio vaccine commitment among caregivers in high-priority areas of Afghanistan: a polling study
To enhance OPV commitment, it might be useful to consider a multifactorial approach that highlights building trust in vaccinators, providing facts about transmission, sharing positive messages to overcome key rumours, and strengthening community support for vaccination.
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[Articles] Glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection in adults with compensated cirrhosis (EXPEDITION-1): a single-arm, open-label, multicentre phase 3 trial
Our results show that 99% of patients treated with once-daily glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir achieved a sustained virological response at 12 weeks. Furthermore, this drug regimen had a favourable safety profile in previously treated or untreated patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection and compensated cirrhosis. These findings could help simplify treatment algorithms and reduce treatment burden.
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[Comment] Understanding commitment to polio vaccination
The goal of polio eradication is edging ever closer to reality. There is much to celebrate; data from Nigeria suggest limited transmission of wild-type and vaccine-derived polio virus in the northern states despite the perilous security situation, while in Pakistan and Afghanistan inaccessible populations are becoming smaller and efforts to improve managerial and operational capacity have resulted in a substantial reduction of wild-type cases.1 Although these improvements have been welcomed, the Independent Monitoring Board of Polio Eradication described in 2015 the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) as having not "reached peak performance".
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[Comment] New anti-HCV drug combinations: who will benefit?
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C has evolved rapidly. The first two direct-acting antiretroviral drugs were approved in 2011; just 2 years later the first interferon-free regimen was introduced. Now, 3 and a half years later, seven highly effective combinations of direct-acting antiretroviral drugs are available, the most recent being glecaprevir (a second-generation protease inhibitor) coformulated with pibrentasvir (a second-generation NS5A inhibitor; Maviret; Abbvie, North Chicago, IL, USA) and sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir (Vosevi; Gilead, Foster City, CA, USA).
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