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woensdag 23 augustus 2017

Nature contents: 24 August 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 548 Issue 7668
This Week  
Head injuries in sport must be taken more seriously
Sports organizations are only starting to understand the harm that can be inflicted by high-contact activities. Science must play its part in highlighting the problem and in aiding diagnosis.
Magnetic antiparticle expands strange field of swirling science
Antiskyrmion offers promise for superfast spintronic computers.

Cancer Evolution Collection

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EMD Serono 
World View  
To reduce gender biases, acknowledge them
A former Google engineer’s memo on diversity reveals psychological blind spots, not biological differences, says Debbie Chachra.
Seven Days  
Oldest ice, censorship row and Yemen's cholera emergency
The week in science: 18–24 August 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.

Publishing online monthly, Nature Astronomy aims to bring together astronomers, astrophysicists and planetary scientists. In addition to the latest advances in research, we offer Comment and Opinion pieces on topical subjects of relevance to our community, including the societal impact of astronomy and updates on telescopes and space missions.

News in Focus
How machine learning could help to improve climate forecasts
Mixing artificial intelligence with climate science helps researchers to identify previously unknown atmospheric processes and rank climate models.
Nicola Jones
  Supernova’s messy birth casts doubt on reliability of astronomical yardstick
Brightness of exploding stars may vary more than researchers realized.
Shannon Hall
Ecologists protest Australia’s plans to cut funding for environment-monitoring network
Scientists say the move will reduce the country’s capacity to predict future ecosystem changes.
Nicky Phillips
  Mysteries of turbulence unravelled
Simulations follow how swirls in a fluid transfer and dissipate energy.
Davide Castelvecchi
Theft of South African relics riles researchers
Efforts to relocate artefacts to sites of origin could stall after gold robbery at national park.
Sarah Wild
Creeping earth could hold secret to deadly landslides
Scientists investigate why mountain slopes can slip slowly for years and then suddenly speed up, with potentially fatal effects.
Jane Palmer
Nature Podcast 24 August 2017
The creeping danger of slow landslides, and what worms can teach us about the wriggly problem of reproducibility.
Nature Index: Melbourne Interactive Map 2017

The Nature Index Melbourne interactive map enables you to explore the scientific job opportunities, collaborations and partnerships at the centre of Australia's life science and healthcare epicentre. Use the interactive map to benchmark the global reach of the Melbourne's key institutions and to view key connections at the heart of Melbourne's success.

Access the free Interactive Map
A long journey to reproducible results
Replicating our work took four years and 100,000 worms but brought surprising discoveries, explain Gordon J. Lithgow, Monica Driscoll and Patrick Phillips.
Gordon J. Lithgow, Monica Driscoll, Patrick Phillips
Books and Arts  
Evolution: Darwin's domestic discoveries
Henry Nicholls relishes a book on how the biologist's home became a lab for dazzling experimentation.
Henry Nicholls
Conservation: The great US land grab
Kierán Suckling extols a study of looming threats to the country's publicly owned territory.
Kierán Suckling
Space science: Voyager at 40
Alexandra Witze applauds a documentary on the twin NASA probes as they sail out of the Solar System.
Alexandra Witze
UK regulations: Could fracking creep under the radar?
David Smythe, Stuart Haszeldine
  Counterfeit reagents: Fake serum has telltale fingerprint
Robert Curry
Scientific journals: Rename the impact factor
Ajit Varki
  Water management: Signing up to safe water for billions
Quentin Grafton, Asit K. Biswas, Cecilia Tortajada
Patrick Bateson (1938–2017)
Biologist who unravelled how animal behaviour develops.
Kevin N. Laland
Reproducibility: Check your chemistry
Chemical probes and screening libraries can easily get mixed up or messed up, causing misleading results for unwary biologists.
Monya Baker
Critical limb ischaemia: artery repair
David Holmes
  Saving life and limb
David Holmes
Plant science: Sexual attraction channelled in moss
An analysis reveals that both sexual reproduction and early-embryo development in the moss Physcomitrella patens are controlled by cellular calcium influxes through ion-channel proteins.
Heart disease: Putative medicines that mimic mutations
Molecules that block the activity or production of the protein ANGPTL3 have now been found to lower blood levels of lipoproteins and cholesterol in mice and healthy humans, mimicking the protective effects of genetic mutations in ANGPTL3.
A heterochromatin-dependent transcription machinery drives piRNA expression
Transcription of Drosophila PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) clusters is enforced through RNA polymerase II pre-initiation complex formation within repressive heterochromatin, accomplished through the transcription factor IIA subunit paralogue Moonshiner.
Magnetic antiskyrmions above room temperature in tetragonal Heusler materials
Antiskyrmions, in which the magnetization rotates both as a transverse helix and as a cycloid, are found in acentric tetragonal Heusler compounds over a wide range of temperatures.
Lhx6-positive GABA-releasing neurons of the zona incerta promote sleep
GABAergic Lhx6+ neurons in the ventral zona incerta promote both rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep and inhibit the activity of wake-promoting GABAergic and Hcrt+ neurons of the lateral hypothalamus.
Homeostatic control of metabolic and functional fitness of Treg cells by LKB1 signalling
The tumour suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1) regulates the metabolic and functional fitness of regulatory T cells in the control of immune tolerance and homeostasis.
Public antibodies to malaria antigens generated by two LAIR1 insertion modalities
Up to 10% of individuals in malaria-endemic regions produce antibodies that react to malaria antigens through an additional LAIR1 domain that is inserted by two different insertion modalities.
Feedback regulation of steady-state epithelial turnover and organ size
Steady-state turnover of the Drosophila midgut arises through an intercellular, E-cadherin–EGFR relay that couples the death of individual enterocytes to the divisions of nearby stem cells.
Kinetic analysis of a complete nitrifier reveals an oligotrophic lifestyle
A pure culture of the complete nitrifier Nitrospira inopinata shows a high affinity for ammonia, low maximum rate of ammonia oxidation, high growth yield compared to canonical nitrifiers and genomic potential for alternative metabolisms, probably reflecting an important role in nitrification in oligotrophic environments.
Erratum: Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals
Erratum: Mammals divert endogenous genotoxic formaldehyde into one-carbon metabolism
Corrigendum: Complex pectin metabolism by gut bacteria reveals novel catalytic functions
News and Views  
Neurobiology: Diversity reaches the stars
Laura E. Clarke, Shane A. Liddelow
Gravitational waves: History of black holes revealed by their spin
Steinn Sigurðsson
Biotechnology: At the heart of gene edits in human embryos
Nerges Winblad, Fredrik Lanner
Materials science: Magnetic molecules back in the race
Roberta Sessoli
Genetics: Role of mutation in fly-wing evolution
James Cheverud
Atmospheric science: Ancient ice and the global methane cycle
Peter Hopcroft
Global health: Probiotic prevents infections in newborns
Daniel J. Tancredi
A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent sepsis among infants in rural India
A synbiotic preparation of Lactobacillus plantarum and fructooligosaccharide was found to significantly reduce sepsis and infections of the lower respiratory tract in a trial involving newborns from rural India.
Pinaki Panigrahi, Sailajanandan Parida, Nimai C. Nanda et al.
Correction of a pathogenic gene mutation in human embryos
CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing is used to induce a DNA repair response and correct a disease-causing heterozygous mutation in human embryos with reduced mosaicism and preferential repair using the wild-type copy of the gene.
Hong Ma, Nuria Marti-Gutierrez, Sang-Wook Park et al.
The primed SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin complex for neuronal exocytosis
An atomic model of the primed pre-fusion SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex in neuronal exocytosis accounting for vesicle priming and cooperation in synchronizing and activating evoked release on the sub-millisecond timescale.
Qiangjun Zhou, Peng Zhou, Austin L. Wang et al.
Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies
Large haloes of diffuse molecular gas discovered around high-redshift starburst galaxies show that galactic feedback, coupled to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase instead of quenching it.
E. Falgarone, M. A. Zwaan, B. Godard et al.
Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices
A finely tuned growth strategy to generate nanowire networks that fulfil all the prerequisites for braiding may lead to a demonstration of Majorana braiding.
Sasa Gazibegovic, Diana Car, Hao Zhang et al.
Molecular magnetic hysteresis at 60 kelvin in dysprosocenium
Magnetic hysteresis is observed in a dysprosocenium complex at temperatures of up to 60 kelvin, the origin of which is the localized metal–ligand vibrational modes unique to dysprosocenium.
Conrad A. P. Goodwin, Fabrizio Ortu, Daniel Reta et al.
Minimal geological methane emissions during the Younger Dryas–Preboreal abrupt warming event
Measurements from Antarctic ice suggest that geological methane emissions are much lower than previously thought, and that methane emissions from hydrates and permafrost in response to climate warming are minimal.
Vasilii V. Petrenko, Andrew M. Smith, Hinrich Schaefer et al.
Mutation predicts 40 million years of fly wing evolution
A detailed analysis of fly wing phenotypes reveals a strong positive relationship between variation produced by mutation, standing genetic variation, and evolutionary rate over the past 40 million years.
David Houle, Geir H. Bolstad, Kim van der Linde et al.
Stromal R-spondin orchestrates gastric epithelial stem cells and gland homeostasis
Myofibroblast-derived R-spondin 3 orchestrates regeneration of antral stomach epithelium via Wnt signalling in Axin2+ stem cells.
Michael Sigal, Catriona Y. Logan, Marta Kapalczynska et al.
Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo
An artificial recombination locus, Polylox, that can generate hundreds of thousands of individual barcodes is used to trace the fates of haematopoietic stem cells in mice.
Weike Pei, Thorsten B. Feyerabend, Jens Rössler et al.
cGAS surveillance of micronuclei links genome instability to innate immunity
The cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS detects DNA in ruptured micronuclei and activates an innate immune response.
Karen J. Mackenzie, Paula Carroll, Carol-Anne Martin et al.
Mitotic progression following DNA damage enables pattern recognition within micronuclei
The authors report a link between mitosis, the formation of micronuclei and DNA-damage-induced cGAS-dependent inflammation.
Shane M. Harding, Joseph L. Benci, Jerome Irianto et al.
CDK4/6 inhibition triggers anti-tumour immunity
Mouse models of breast carcinoma and other solid tumours show that selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors not only induce tumour cell cycle arrest but also promote anti-tumour immunity.
Shom Goel, Molly J. DeCristo, April C. Watt et al.
Vaccine-driven pharmacodynamic dissection and mitigation of fenethylline psychoactivity
A vaccine-driven approach shows that the prominent stimulant features of the psychoactive profile of fenethylline can be attributed to amphetamine, with synergistic support from theophylline, and no direct contributions from the parent drug molecule.
Cody J. Wenthur, Bin Zhou, Kim D. Janda
Mechanism of intracellular allosteric β2AR antagonist revealed by X-ray crystal structure
The authors report the crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor in complex with compound 15, an allosteric modulator that binds to an alternative binding pocket.
Xiangyu Liu, Seungkirl Ahn, Alem W. Kahsai et al.
Careers & Jobs
Career development: A plan for action
Julie Gould
It's good to have lots of bad ideas
John Kirwan
Excerpts from the 100-day food diary of Angela Meyer
The road to change.
Beth Cato


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