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woensdag 16 augustus 2017

Nature contents: 17 August 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 548 Issue 7667
This Week  
Against discrimination
Science cannot and should not be used to justify prejudice.
Budget cuts fuel frustration among Japan’s academics
Funding trouble at flagship research centre reflects a broader malaise in the country’s scientific priorities that must be addressed.
A*STAR Research - Highlighting the latest breakthroughs at the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore's premier research organization
Recent Highlights
Microscopy: Microscale lens realizes nanoscale imaging | Biocomputing: DNA gives a logical solution | Energy: Hybrid zinc battery beats its rivals
Download the A*STAR Research app now!
World View  
A little democracy could go a long way
The Middle East is freezing out Qatar. A science academy could help — and would set an important precedent for the region, says Ehsan Masood.
Seven Days  
Opioid emergency, climate language and a frozen fruit cake
The week in science: 11–17 August 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
A supplement to Nature Biotechnology| Nature Medicine | Nature Reviews Drug Discovery

Medtech Dealmakers explores the dealmaking strategies of the growing medical technology industry, and provides in-depth analysis of emerging technologies, as well as showcase innovative companies seeking partners. Check out the latest issue for medtech dealmaking and financing trends in 2016, and diagnostics deals from the past year- particularly for immuno oncology applications.

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News in Focus
California’s scientists push to create massive climate-research programme
Effort backed by the state’s flagship universities comes as US President Donald Trump shrugs off global warming.
Jeff Tollefson
  China launches brain-imaging factory
Hub aims to make industrial-scale high-resolution brain mapping a standard tool for neuroscience
David Cyranoski
Massive El Niño sent greenhouse-gas emissions soaring
Disruptive weather pattern in 2014–2016 spurred tropical forests to pump out 3 billion tonnes of carbon.
Gabriel Popkin
  Thousands across India march in support of science
Protesters demand respect for research — but some scientists were told to stay away.
T. V. Padma
US biomedical-research facilities unprepared for attacks and natural disasters
Science panel says institutions need to do more to prevent and mitigate damage to research equipment and animals.
Sara Reardon
  Why 14 ecology labs teamed up to watch grass grow
Multi-lab efforts point the way to shoring up the reliability of field studies.
Ewen Callaway
China’s embrace of embryo selection raises thorny questions
Fertility centres are making a massive push to increase preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a bid to eradicate certain diseases.
David Cyranoski
Nature Podcast 17 August 2017
This week, preventing genetic diseases in China, a red supergiant star's mystery, and the algal boom.
Revitalize the world’s countryside
A rural revival is needed to counter urbanization across the globe, say Yansui Liu and Yuheng Li.
Yansui Liu, Yuheng Li
Books and Arts  
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Seismology: Quake news from America
Roger Bilham savours two rich accounts of seismicity across the continent.
Roger Bilham
Data sharing: guard the privacy of donors
Shirley Y. Hill
  Data sharing: do scientists know best?
David Lambert, Craig Millar, Eske Willerslev
Climate adaptation: Past US floods give lessons in retreat
A. R. Siders
  Carbon emissions: More nuclear power can speed CO2 cuts
Richard Rhodes
History: Ingenious solutions sparked by a crisis
Biswa Prasun Chatterji
Biogeochemistry: Food for early animal evolution
A revised timeline for when algae became ecologically important among plankton in the ancient oceans reveals a link between chemical changes in those waters and the emergence of animals in marine ecosystems.
Global health: Probiotic prevents infections in newborns
A major cause of death and disease in babies is the failure of their developing immune systems to block life-threatening infections. A clinical trial reports that the use of a probiotic can help to prevent such infections.
Biochemistry: A toxin that fuels metabolism
Formaldehyde, a DNA-damaging agent formed in cells, has now been shown to support metabolic processes that involve molecular units containing a single carbon atom — linking metabolism to a DNA-protection mechanism.
A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent sepsis among infants in rural India
A synbiotic preparation of Lactobacillus plantarum and fructooligosaccharide was found to significantly reduce sepsis and infections of the lower respiratory tract in a trial involving rural Indian newborns.
Mammals divert endogenous genotoxic formaldehyde into one-carbon metabolism
The mechanism by which formaldehyde, a potent DNA and protein crosslinking agent, is generated from folate is described, with implications for the treatment of certain cancers.
The primed SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin complex for neuronal exocytosis
An atomic model of the primed pre-fusion SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex in neuronal exocytosis accounting for vesicle priming and cooperation in synchronizing and activating evoked release on the sub-millisecond timescale.
The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals
Steroid biomarkers provide evidence for a rapid rise of marine planktonic algae between 659 and 645 million years ago, establishing more efficient energy transfers and driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms.
Vaccine-driven pharmacodynamic dissection and mitigation of fenethylline psychoactivity
A vaccine-driven approach shows that the prominent stimulant features of the psychoactive profile of fenethylline can be attributed to amphetamine, with synergistic support from theophylline, and no direct contributions from the parent drug molecule.
CDK4/6 inhibition triggers anti-tumour immunity
Mouse models of breast carcinoma and other solid tumours show that selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors not only induce tumour cell cycle arrest but also promote anti-tumour immunity.
Stromal R-spondin orchestrates gastric epithelial stem cells and gland homeostasis
Myofibroblast-derived R-spondin 3 orchestrates regeneration of antral stomach epithelium via Wnt signalling in Axin2+ stem cells.
CMTM6 maintains the expression of PD-L1 and regulates anti-tumour immunity
CMTM6 maintains PD-L1 at the plasma membrane by inhibiting its lysosome-mediated degradation and promoting its recycling.
Mechanism of intracellular allosteric β2AR antagonist revealed by X-ray crystal structure
The authors report the crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor in complex with compound 15, an allosteric modulator that binds to an alternative binding pocket.
Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo
An artificial recombination locus, Polylox, that can generate hundreds of thousands of individual barcodes is used to trace the fates of haematopoietic stem cells in mice.
Identification of CMTM6 and CMTM4 as PD-L1 protein regulators
CMTM6 and CMTM4 bind to and stabilize the inhibitory receptor PD-L1 and regulate PD-L1 levels at the surface of human tumour and immune cells.
News and Views  
Neurobiology: A bitter–sweet symphony
Jiefu Li, Liqun Luo
Cancer genomics: Human metastases under scrutiny
G. Steven Bova
Climate science: Origins of Atlantic decadal swings
Gabriel A. Vecchi, Thomas L. Delworth, Ben Booth
For use with LC-MS/MS instruments, Shimadzu's Noviplex Cards allow for rapid collection of a volumetric sample of plasma from an unmeasured amount of whole blood within minutes. They can be used as a single step, solid-phase method for sample preparation and analyte extraction.
Astronomy: A turbulent stellar atmosphere in full view
Gail H. Schaefer
Cell biology: Healthy skin rejects cancer
Joseph Burclaff, Jason C. Mills
New gliding mammaliaforms from the Jurassic
Maiopatagium, a haramiyid from the Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation (around 160 million years ago) of China was specialised for gliding with a patagium (wing membrane) and a fused wishbone, reminiscent of that of birds.
Qing-Jin Meng, David M. Grossnickle, Di Liu et al.
Integrative clinical genomics of metastatic cancer
Clinical exome and transcriptome sequencing of 500 adult patients with metastatic solid tumours of diverse lineage and biopsy site, as part of the Michigan Oncology Sequencing (MI-ONCOSEQ) Program.
Dan R. Robinson, Yi-Mi Wu, Robert J. Lonigro et al.
Vigorous atmospheric motion in the red supergiant star Antares
Mapping the velocity of the gas at the surface and in the atmosphere of the nearby red supergiant star Antares reveals vigorous motion of several huge gas clumps in an extended atmosphere, which cannot be fully explained by convection.
K. Ohnaka, G. Weigelt, K.-H. Hofmann
Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5
Electronic nematicity is observed in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CeRhIn5, suggesting a close link between unconventional superconductivity and the appearance of nematicity.
F. Ronning, T. Helm, K. R. Shirer et al.
Ram-pressure feeding of supermassive black holes
The majority of ‘jellyfish’ galaxies, characterized by long ‘tentacles’ of gas, also have active nuclei, indicating that gas is being fed to the central supermassive black hole by ram pressure.
Bianca M. Poggianti, Yara L. Jaffé, Alessia Moretti et al.
Chaotic dynamics in nanoscale NbO2 Mott memristors for analogue computing
A relaxation oscillator incorporating nanoscale niobium dioxide memristors that exhibit both a current- and a temperature-controlled negative differential resistance produces chaotic dynamics that aid biomimetic computing.
Suhas Kumar, John Paul Strachan, R. Stanley Williams
An early modern human presence in Sumatra 73,000–63,000 years ago
Morphological analysis of teeth found at Lida Ajer shows that these belong to Homo sapiens, indicating that modern humans were in Sumatra between 73,000 and 63,000 years ago.
K. E. Westaway, J. Louys, R. Due Awe et al.
New evidence for mammaliaform ear evolution and feeding adaptation in a Jurassic ecosystem
The fossil of a gliding mammal from the Tiaojishan Formation of China displays many unique features of its ears, teeth and tooth-replacement pattern, illustrating the great diversity of stem mammals living in the Jurassic period.
Zhe-Xi Luo, Qing-Jin Meng, David M. Grossnickle et al.
Rewiring the taste system
Taste-receptor cells use distinct semaphorins to guide wiring of the peripheral taste system; targeted ectopic expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A leads to bitter neurons responding to sweet tastes or sweet neurons responding to bitter tastes.
Hojoon Lee, Lindsey J. Macpherson, Camilo A. Parada et al.
Correction of aberrant growth preserves tissue homeostasis
Intravital imaging reveals unanticipated plasticity of adult skin epithelium in mice when faced with mutational or non-mutational insults, and elucidates the dynamic cellular behaviours used for its return to a homeostatic state.
Samara Brown, Cristiana M. Pineda, Tianchi Xin et al.
m6A mRNA methylation controls T cell homeostasis by targeting the IL-7/STAT5/SOCS pathways
The authors assess the role of N 6-methyladenosine in T cell development and function, and show that RNA methylation controls T cell homeostasis by regulating IL-7-mediated STAT5 activation.
Hua-Bing Li, Jiyu Tong, Shu Zhu et al.
Genome-scale activation screen identifies a lncRNA locus regulating a gene neighbourhood
Long noncoding RNAs are investigated using a CRISPR–Cas9 activation screen and shown to confer BRAF inhibitor resistance on melanoma cells through various local mechanisms.
Julia Joung, Jesse M. Engreitz, Silvana Konermann et al.
mRNA 3′ uridylation and poly(A) tail length sculpt the mammalian maternal transcriptome
TUT4 and TUT7 mediate 3′ uridylation of mRNA transcripts, preferentially those with short poly(A) tails; in the absence of TUT4 and TUT7, oocytes cannot mature and female mice are infertile.
Marcos Morgan, Christian Much, Monica DiGiacomo et al.
Cryo-EM structure of the protein-conducting ERAD channel Hrd1 in complex with Hrd3
The structure of yeast Hrd1 in complex with Hrd3 shows that Hrd1 forms an aqueous cavity with a lateral seal within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, shedding light on how misfolded proteins are transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Stefan Schoebel, Wei Mi, Alexander Stein et al.
Structural insights into ligand recognition by the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA6
Determination of the crystal structure of the zebrafish LPA6 receptor shows that the lipid ligand binds to an unusual ligand-binding pocket in the receptor that is laterally accessible through the membrane.
Reiya Taniguchi, Asuka Inoue, Misa Sayama et al.

Focus on Disease models: reproducibility and translation

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Virginia Gewin
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Julie Gould
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