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woensdag 16 augustus 2017

Nature Communications - 16 August 2017

Nature Communications
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16 August 2017 
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Nature Research symposium: Metamaterials and Grand Challenges

Nature Communications, Nature Materials and Nature Photonics present a symposium which will cover the potential of metamaterials to address the so-called "grand challenges" in research. The symposium will take place at the upcoming Metamaterials'2017 conference in Marseille, 28 August — 2 September. 

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Pathogenic bacteria enhance dispersal through alteration of Drosophila social communication OPEN
Ian W. Keesey, Sarah Koerte, Mohammed A. Khallaf, Tom Retzke, Aurélien Guillou, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, Nicolas Buchon, Markus Knaden & Bill S. Hansson

Behavioral manipulation of host by pathogens has been observed in vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Here the authors show that in Drosophila, infection with pathogenic bacteria leads to increased pheromone release, which attracts healthy flies. This process benefits the pathogen since it enhances bacterial dispersal, but is detrimental to the host.

16 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00334-9
Evolution  Neuroscience 

Micromotor-enabled active drug delivery for in vivo treatment of stomach infection OPEN
Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Pavimol Angsantikul, Jinxing Li, Miguel Angel Lopez-Ramirez, Doris E. Ramírez-Herrera, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Chuanrui Chen, Jorge Delezuk, Richard Samakapiruk, Valentin Ramez, Liangfang Zhang & Joseph Wang

Nano- and micromotors have been demonstrated in vitro for a range of applications. Here the authors demonstrate the in-vivo therapeutic use of micromotors to treat H. pylori infection.

16 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00309-w
Nanobiotechnology  Translational research 

Genetic regulatory effects modified by immune activation contribute to autoimmune disease associations OPEN
Sarah Kim-Hellmuth, Matthias Bechheim, Benno Pütz, Pejman Mohammadi, Yohann Nédélec, Nicholas Giangreco, Jessica Becker, Vera Kaiser, Nadine Fricker, Esther Beier, Peter Boor, Stephane E. Castel, Markus M. Nöthen, Luis B. Barreiro, Joseph K. Pickrell, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Tuuli Lappalainen, Johannes Schumacher & Veit Hornung

Insight into the genetic influence on the immune response is important for the understanding of interindividual variability in human pathologies. Here, the authors generate transcriptome data from human blood monocytes stimulated with various immune stimuli and provide a time-resolved response eQTL map.

16 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00366-1
Gene expression profiling  Immunogenetics 

Gelsolin dysfunction causes photoreceptor loss in induced pluripotent cell and animal retinitis pigmentosa models OPEN
Roly Megaw, Hashem Abu-Arafeh, Melissa Jungnickel, Carla Mellough, Christine Gurniak, Walter Witke, Wei Zhang, Hemant Khanna, Pleasantine Mill, Baljean Dhillon, Alan F. Wright, Majlinda Lako & Charles ffrench-Constant

Mutations in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) cause retinal dystrophy, but how this arises at a molecular level is unclear. Here, the authors show in induced pluripotent stem cells and mouse knockouts that RPGR mediates actin dynamics in photoreceptors via the actin-severing protein, gelsolin.

16 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00111-8
Experimental models of disease  Retinal diseases 

Lithium enrichment in intracontinental rhyolite magmas leads to Li deposits in caldera basins OPEN
Thomas R. Benson, Matthew A. Coble, James J. Rytuba & Gail A. Mahood

Lithium is increasingly being utilized for modern technology in the form of lithium-ion batteries. Here, using in situ measurements of quartz-hosted melt inclusions, the authors demonstrate that preserved lake sediments within rhyolitic calderas have the potential to host large lithium-rich clay deposits.

16 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00234-y
Economic geology  Geology  Petrology  Volcanology 

Spatial genomic heterogeneity in multiple myeloma revealed by multi-region sequencing OPEN
L. Rasche, S. S. Chavan, O. W. Stephens, P. H. Patel, R. Tytarenko, C. Ashby, M. Bauer, C. Stein, S. Deshpande, C. Wardell, T. Buzder, G. Molnar, M. Zangari, F. Rhee, S. Thanendrarajan, C. Schinke, J. Epstein, F. E. Davies, B. A. Walker, T. Meissner et al.

In multiple myeloma, malignant cells expand within bone marrow. Here, the authors use multi-region sequencing in patient samples to analyse spatial clonal architecture and heterogeneity, providing novel insight into multiple myeloma progression and evolution.

16 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00296-y
Cancer genomics  Myeloma 

Adaptive and non-adaptive divergence in a common landscape OPEN
Joost A. M. Raeymaekers, Anurag Chaturvedi, Pascal I. Hablützel, Io Verdonck, Bart Hellemans, Gregory E. Maes, Luc Meester & Filip A. M. Volckaert

The three-spined stickleback is a model species for the study of adaptive divergence. Here, Raeymaekers et al. compare how the three-spined stickleback and its relative the nine-spined stickleback vary at the phenotypic and genomic levels in response to the same spatial and environmental drivers.

16 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00256-6
Evolutionary ecology  Molecular ecology  Population genetics 

Mast cells decrease efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy by secreting matrix-degrading granzyme B OPEN
M. Wroblewski, R. Bauer, M. Cubas Córdova, F. Udonta, I. Ben-Batalla, K. Legler, C. Hauser, J. Egberts, M. Janning, J. Velthaus, C. Schulze, K. Pantel, C. Bokemeyer & S. Loges

Resistance towards VEGF-centered anti-angiogenic therapy is an important clinical challenge. Here, the authors show that mast cells mediate resistance to anti-angiogenetic inhibitors by altering the proliferative and organizational state of endothelial cells through mobilization of FGF-1 and GM-CSF from the tumor matrix and secretion of FGF-2.

16 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00327-8
Cancer microenvironment  Pancreatic cancer  Targeted therapies  Tumour angiogenesis 

Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac fermions in transition metal dichalcogenide PtTe2  OPEN
Mingzhe Yan, Huaqing Huang, Kenan Zhang, Eryin Wang, Wei Yao, Ke Deng, Guoliang Wan, Hongyun Zhang, Masashi Arita, Haitao Yang, Zhe Sun, Hong Yao, Yang Wu, Shoushan Fan, Wenhui Duan & Shuyun Zhou

Whether the spin-degenerate counterpart of Lorentz-violating Weyl fermions, the Dirac fermions, can be realized remains as an open question. Here, Yan et al. report experimental evidence of such type-II Dirac fermions in bulk PtTe2 single crystal with a pair of strongly tilted Dirac cones.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00280-6
Electronic properties and materials  Topological insulators 

Transcriptional response to stress is pre-wired by promoter and enhancer architecture OPEN
Anniina Vihervaara, Dig Bijay Mahat, Michael J. Guertin, Tinyi Chu, Charles G. Danko, John T. Lis & Lea Sistonen

Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) is a regulator of stress-induced transcription. Here, the authors investigate changes to transcription and chromatin organization upon stress and find that activated HSF1 binds to transcription-primed promoters and enhancers, and to CTCF occupied, untranscribed chromatin.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00151-0
Chromatin structure  Gene regulation  Histone post-translational modifications  Stress signalling 

Formation pathways of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with dodecagonal tiling OPEN
Yao Sun, Kai Ma, Teresa Kao, Katherine A. Spoth, Hiroaki Sai, Duhan Zhang, Lena F. Kourkoutis, Veit Elser & Ulrich Wiesner

Probing the growth pathways of quasicrystalline materials, where tiling units arrange with local but no long-range order, remains challenging. Here, the authors demonstrate that dodecagonal tiling of mesoporous silica nanoparticles occurs via irreversible packing of micelles with non-uniform size distribution.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00351-8
Materials chemistry  Molecular self-assembly  Nanoparticles  Synthesis and processing 

Time-lapse crystallography snapshots of a double-strand break repair polymerase in action OPEN
Joonas A. Jamsen, William A. Beard, Lars C. Pedersen, David D. Shock, Andrea F. Moon, Juno M. Krahn, Katarzyna Bebenek, Thomas A. Kunkel & Samuel H. Wilson

DNA polymerase (pol) μ functions in DNA double-strand break repair. Here the authors use time-lapse X-ray crystallography to capture the states of pol µ during the conversion from pre-catalytic to product complex and observe a third transiently bound metal ion in the product state.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00271-7
Enzyme mechanisms  X-ray crystallography 

The origin of a primordial genome through spontaneous symmetry breaking OPEN
Nobuto Takeuchi, Paulien Hogeweg & Kunihiko Kaneko

Early molecules of life likely served both as templates and catalysts, raising the question of how functionally distinct genomes and enzymes arose. Here, the authors show that conflict between evolution at the molecular and cellular levels can drive functional differentiation of the two strands of self-replicating molecules and lead to copy number differences between the two.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00243-x
Computational models  Evolutionary theory  Chemical origin of life 

Vertical ocean heat redistribution sustaining sea-ice concentration trends in the Ross Sea OPEN
Olivier Lecomte, Hugues Goosse, Thierry Fichefet, Casimir de Lavergne, Antoine Barthélemy & Violette Zunz

The mechanisms responsible for the overall expansion of Antarctic sea-ice in recent decades remain unclear. Here, using observations and model results, the authors show that ice-ocean feedbacks, triggered by an external perturbation, could be responsible for changes in sea-ice extent observed in the Ross Sea.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00347-4
Climate and Earth system modelling  Cryospheric science  Physical oceanography 

A light-regulated host–guest-based nanochannel system inspired by channelrhodopsins protein OPEN
Yue Sun, Junkai Ma, Fan Zhang, Fei Zhu, Yuxiao Mei, Lu Liu, Demei Tian & Haibing Li

Light-controlled gating of ion transport across membranes occurs in nature via channelrhodopsin nanochannels. Here, the authors show facile non-covalent approach towards light-responsive biomimetic nanochannels using host–guest interactions between a negative pillararene host and a positive azobenzene guest.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00330-z
Photobiology  Self-assembly  Surface assembly 

Plant-made polio type 3 stabilized VLPs—a candidate synthetic polio vaccine OPEN
Johanna Marsian, Helen Fox, Mohammad W. Bahar, Abhay Kotecha, Elizabeth E. Fry, David I. Stuart, Andrew J. Macadam, David J. Rowlands & George P. Lomonossoff

Despite the success of current vaccination against poliomyelitis, safe, cheap and effective vaccines remain sought for continuing eradication effort. Here the authors use plants to express stabilized virus-like particles of type 3 poliovirus that can induce a protective immune response in mice transgenic for the human poliovirus receptor.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00090-w
Biotechnology  Expression systems  Vaccines  Virus structures 

Reduced and unstratified crust in CV chondrite parent body OPEN
Clément Ganino & Guy Libourel

Meteorites may unlock the history of the early solar system. Here, the authors find, through Ca-Fe-rich secondary phases, that the distinction between reduced and oxidized CV chondrites is invalid; therefore, CV3 chondrites are asteroid fragments that percolated heterogeneously via porous flow of hydrothermal fluid.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00293-1
Meteoritics  Petrology  Planetary science 

The mycobacterial phosphatase PtpA regulates the expression of host genes and promotes cell proliferation OPEN
Jing Wang, Pupu Ge, Lihua Qiang, Feng Tian, Dongdong Zhao, Qiyao Chai, Mingzhao Zhu, Rongbin Zhou, Guangxun Meng, Yoichiro Iwakura, George Fu Gao & Cui Hua Liu

Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretes a protein, PtpA, that dephosphorylates proteins in the host cell cytoplasm, weakening immune responses. Here, the authors show that PtpA also enters the nucleus, affects the expression of several host genes, and promotes proliferation and migration of a cancer cell line.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00279-z
Cellular microbiology  Pathogens 

A new class of hybrid secretion system is employed in Pseudomonas amyloid biogenesis OPEN
Sarah L. Rouse, William J. Hawthorne, Jamie-Lee Berry, Dror S. Chorev, Sandra A. Ionescu, Sebastian Lambert, Fisentzos Stylianou, Wiebke Ewert, Uma Mackie, R. Marc L. Morgan, Daniel Otzen, Florian-Alexander Herbst, Per H. Nielsen, Morten Dueholm, Hagan Bayley, Carol V. Robinson, Stephen Hare & Stephen Matthews

Gram-negative bacteria assemble biofilms from amyloid fibres, which translocate across the outer membrane as unfolded amyloid precursors through a secretion system. Here, the authors characterise the structural details of the amyloid transporter FapF in Pseudomonas.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00361-6
Biofilms  Membrane proteins  X-ray crystallography 

Human microcephaly protein RTTN interacts with STIL and is required to build full-length centrioles OPEN
Hsin-Yi Chen, Chien-Ting Wu, Chieh-Ju C. Tang, Yi-Nan Lin, Won-Jing Wang & Tang K. Tang

Mutations in many centriolar protein-encoding genes cause primary microcephaly. Here the authors show that human microcephaly protein RTTN directly interacts with STIL and acts downstream of STIL-mediated centriole assembly, contributing to building full-length centrioles

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00305-0
Centrosome  Mechanisms of disease  Mitotic spindle 

Diagnosing peri-implant disease using the tongue as a 24/7 detector OPEN
J. Ritzer, T. Lühmann, C. Rode, M. Pein-Hackelbusch, I. Immohr, U. Schedler, T. Thiele, S. Stübinger, B. v. Rechenberg, J. Waser-Althaus, F. Schlottig, M. Merli, H. Dawe, M. Karpíšek, R. Wyrwa, M. Schnabelrauch & L. Meinel

Early detection of gum inflammation caused by dental implants helps prevent tissue damage. Here, the authors present a peptide sensor that generates a bitter taste when cleaved by proteases present in peri-implant disease, embed it in a chewing gum, and compare the probe to existing sensors using patient saliva.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00340-x
Diagnosis  Diagnostic markers 

Dirac point induced ultralow-threshold laser and giant optoelectronic quantum oscillations in graphene-based heterojunctions OPEN
Golam Haider, Rini Ravindranath, Tzu-Pei Chen, Prathik Roy, Pradip Kumar Roy, Shu-Yi Cai, Huan-Tsung Chang & Yang-Fang Chen

In graphene, electrons possess zero effective mass in proximity to the Dirac point, an unusual feature that could trigger the development of novel photonic devices. Here, the authors combine graphene quantum dots with two graphene layers and observe laser action with ultralow threshold.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00345-6
Electronic properties and devices  Optical properties and devices  Photonic devices  Solid-state lasers 

Bias induced up to 100% spin-injection and detection polarizations in ferromagnet/bilayer-hBN/graphene/hBN heterostructures OPEN
M. Gurram, S. Omar & B. J. van Wees

In 2D spin-valve devices, effective spin injection and detection can be potentially realised combining graphene with an ideal hBN tunnel barrier. Here, the authors report that a bilayer hBN tunnel barrier allows up to 100% spin-injection and detection in a fully hBN-encapsulated graphene heterostructure.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00317-w
Electronic properties and devices  Electronic properties and materials  Spintronics 

The mTORC1-4E-BP-eIF4E axis controls de novo Bcl6 protein synthesis in T cells and systemic autoimmunity OPEN
Woelsung Yi, Sanjay Gupta, Edd Ricker, Michela Manni, Rolf Jessberger, Yurii Chinenov, Henrik Molina & Alessandra B. Pernis

Excessive expansion of the T follicular helper (TFH) cell pool is associated with autoimmune disease and Def6 has been identified as an SLE risk variant. Here the authors show that Def6 limits proliferation of TFH cells in mice via alteration of mTORC1 signaling and inhibition of Bcl6 expression.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00348-3
Follicular T-helper cells  Immune tolerance  Systemic lupus erythematosus 

Sparse orthogonal population representation of spatial context in the retrosplenial cortex OPEN
Dun Mao, Steffen Kandler, Bruce L. McNaughton & Vincent Bonin

Neurons in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) encode spatial and navigational signals. Here the authors use calcium imaging to show that, similar to the hippocampus, RSC neurons also encode place cell-like activity in a sparse orthogonal representation, partially anchored to the allocentric cues on the linear track.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00180-9
Cortex  Hippocampus  Neural circuits 

Genome re-sequencing reveals the history of apple and supports a two-stage model for fruit enlargement OPEN
Naibin Duan, Yang Bai, Honghe Sun, Nan Wang, Yumin Ma, Mingjun Li, Xin Wang, Chen Jiao, Noah Legall, Linyong Mao, Sibao Wan, Kun Wang, Tianming He, Shouqian Feng, Zongying Zhang, Zhiquan Mao, Xiang Shen, Xiaoliu Chen, Yuanmao Jiang, Shujing Wu et al.

Apple is one of the most important fruit crops. Here, the authors perform deep genome resequencing of 117 diverse accessions and reveal comprehensive models of apple origin, speciation, domestication, and fruit size evolution as well as candidate genes associated with important agronomic traits.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00336-7
Agricultural genetics  Plant domestication  Population genetics 

Two-magnon scattering in the 5d all-in-all-out pyrochlore magnet Cd2Os2O7  OPEN
Thi Minh Hien Nguyen, Luke J. Sandilands, C. H. Sohn, C. H. Kim, Aleksander L. Wysocki, In-Sang Yang, S. J. Moon, Jae-Hyeon Ko, J. Yamaura, Z. Hiroi & Tae Won Noh

Pyrochlore 5d transition metal oxides are expected to have interesting forms of magnetic order but are hard to study with conventional probes. Here the authors show that Raman scattering can be used to measure magnetic excitations in Cd2Os2O7 and that it exhibits complex spin-charge-lattice coupling.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00228-w
Electronic properties and materials  Magnetic properties and materials 

Lyn and Fyn function as molecular switches that control immunoreceptors to direct homeostasis or inflammation OPEN
Sanae Ben Mkaddem, Amaya Murua, Héloise Flament, Dimitri Titeca-Beauport, Carine Bounaix, Luca Danelli, Pierre Launay, Marc Benhamou, Ulrich Blank, Eric Daugas, Nicolas Charles & Renato C. Monteiro

Src-family kinases Fyn and Lyn are signaling components downstream of ITAM-bearing antigen receptors. Here the authors show that by phosphorylating SHP-1 at different residues, Lyn and Fyn can have opposing regulatory effects on ITAM receptors.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00294-0
Immunological disorders  Signal transduction 

Observation of hybrid Tamm-plasmon exciton- polaritons with GaAs quantum wells and a MoSe2 monolayer OPEN
Matthias Wurdack, Nils Lundt, Martin Klaas, Vasilij Baumann, Alexey V. Kavokin, Sven Höfling & Christian Schneider

Light and matter excitations from host media can hybridize in the strong coupling regime, resulting in the formation of hybrid polariton modes. Here, the authors demonstrate hybridization between tightly bound excitons in a MoSe2 monolayer and excitons in GaAs quantum wells via coupling to a cavity resonance.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00155-w
Microresonators  Nanophotonics and plasmonics  Two-dimensional materials 

Membrane-free culture and real-time barrier integrity assessment of perfused intestinal epithelium tubes OPEN
Sebastiaan J. Trietsch, Elena Naumovska, Dorota Kurek, Meily C. Setyawati, Marianne K. Vormann, Karlijn J. Wilschut, Henriëtte L. Lanz, Arnaud Nicolas, Chee Ping Ng, Jos Joore, Stefan Kustermann, Adrian Roth, Thomas Hankemeier, Annie Moisan & Paul Vulto

Efforts to determine the effects of drugs on epithelial barriers could benefit from better in vitro models. Here the authors develop a microfluidic device supporting the growth and function of extracellular matrix-supported intestinal tubules, and evaluate the effect of staurosporine and acetylsalicylic acid on barrier integrity.

15 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00259-3
Gastrointestinal models  Lab-on-a-chip 

ATR inhibition facilitates targeting of leukemia dependence on convergent nucleotide biosynthetic pathways OPEN
Thuc M. Le, Soumya Poddar, Joseph R. Capri, Evan R. Abt, Woosuk Kim, Liu Wei, Nhu T. Uong, Chloe M. Cheng, Daniel Braas, Mina Nikanjam, Peter Rix, Daria Merkurjev, Jesse Zaretsky, Harley I. Kornblum, Antoni Ribas, Harvey R. Herschman, Julian Whitelegge, Kym F. Faull, Timothy R. Donahue, Johannes Czernin et al.

Leukemic cells depend on the nucleotide synthesis pathway to proliferate. Here the authors use metabolomics and proteomics to show that inhibition of ATR reduced the activity of these pathways thus providing a valuable therapeutic target in leukemia.

14 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00221-3
Acute lymphocytic leukaemia  DNA metabolism  DNA synthesis  Metabolomics 

Habituation based synaptic plasticity and organismic learning in a quantum perovskite OPEN
Fan Zuo, Priyadarshini Panda, Michele Kotiuga, Jiarui Li, Mingu Kang, Claudio Mazzoli, Hua Zhou, Andi Barbour, Stuart Wilkins, Badri Narayanan, Mathew Cherukara, Zhen Zhang, Subramanian K. R. S. Sankaranarayanan, Riccardo Comin, Karin M. Rabe, Kaushik Roy & Shriram Ramanathan

Habituation is a learning mechanism that enables control over forgetting and learning. Zuo, Panda et al., demonstrate adaptive synaptic plasticity in SmNiO3 perovskites to address catastrophic forgetting in a dynamic learning environment via hydrogen-induced electron localization.

14 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00248-6
Electronic devices  Electronic properties and materials 

Critical role for arginase 2 in obesity-associated pancreatic cancer OPEN
Tamara Zaytouni, Pei-Yun Tsai, Daniel S. Hitchcock, Cory D. DuBois, Elizaveta Freinkman, Lin Lin, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Patrick J. Lenehan, Brian M. Wolpin, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Eduardo M. Torres, Nicholas Stylopoulos, Clary B. Clish & Nada Y. Kalaany

Obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Here the authors show that obesity induces the expression of the mitochondrial form of arginase ARG2 in PDA and that ARG2 silencing or loss results in ammonia accumulation and suppression of obesity-driven PDA tumor growth.

14 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00331-y
Cancer metabolism  Metabolism  Pancreatic cancer 

SRSF1 promotes vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through a Δ133p53/EGR1/KLF5 pathway OPEN
Ning Xie, Min Chen, Rilei Dai, Yan Zhang, Hanqing Zhao, Zhiming Song, Lufeng Zhang, Zhenyan Li, Yuanqing Feng, Hua Gao, Li Wang, Ting Zhang, Rui-Ping Xiao, Jianxin Wu & Chun-Mei Cao

The hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells underlies many vascular diseases. Here Xie et al. show that the splicing factor SRSF1 is an endogenous stimulator of human and mouse aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation via the Δ133p53/EGR1/KLF5 signalling axis, identifying potential therapeutic targets for vascular proliferative disorders.

11 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16016
Cardiovascular biology  Cell signalling 

Metallic ferromagnetic films with magnetic damping under 1.4 × 10−3  OPEN
Aidan J. Lee, Jack T. Brangham, Yang Cheng, Shane P. White, William T. Ruane, Bryan D. Esser, David W. McComb, P. Chris Hammel & Fengyuan Yang

Owing to their conductivity, low-damping metallic ferromagnets are preferred to insulating ferromagnets in charge-based spintronic devices, but are not yet well developed. Here the authors achieve low magnetic damping in CoFe epitaxial films which is comparable to conventional insulating ferromagnetic YIG films.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00332-x
Ferromagnetism  Magnetic properties and materials  Spintronics  Surfaces, interfaces and thin films 

Absence of Grail promotes CD8+ T cell anti-tumour activity OPEN
Cara Haymaker, Yi Yang, Junmei Wang, Qiang Zou, Anupama Sahoo, Andrei Alekseev, Divyendu Singh, Krit Ritthipichai, Yared Hailemichael, Oanh N. Hoang, Hong Qin, Kimberly S. Schluns, Tiejun Wang, Willem W. Overwijk, Shao-Cong Sun, Chantale Bernatchez, Larry W. Kwak, Sattva S. Neelapu & Roza Nurieva

Grail is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that inhibits T-cell receptor signalling in CD4+ T cells. Here the authors show Grail also limits IL-21 receptor expression and function in CD8+ T cells, is overactive in these cells in patients with lymphoma, and promotes tumour development in a lymphoma transplant mouse model.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00252-w
CD8-positive T cells  Tumour immunology 

Autonomous model protocell division driven by molecular replication OPEN
J. W. Taylor, S. A. Eghtesadi, L. J. Points, T. Liu & L. Cronin

Coupling compartmentalisation and molecular replication is essential for the development of evolving chemical systems. Here the authors show an oil-in-water droplet containing a self-replicating amphiphilic imine that can undergo repeated droplet division.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00177-4
Chemical origin of life  Supramolecular chemistry 

Oxidative coupling of sp 2 and sp 3 carbon–hydrogen bonds to construct dihydrobenzofurans OPEN
Jiang-Ling Shi, Ding Wang, Xi-Sha Zhang, Xiao-Lei Li, Yu-Qin Chen, Yu-Xue Li & Zhang-Jie Shi

Cross-dehydrogenative coupling is finding increasing application in synthesis, but coupling two chemically distinct sites remains a challenge. Here, the authors report an oxidative coupling between sp 2 and sp 3 carbons by sequentially activating the more active aryl site followed by the alkyl position.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00078-6
Catalysis  Organic chemistry 

Structure of the magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9  OPEN
Saya Ito, Nobuyuki Kurita, Hidekazu Tanaka, Seiko Ohira-Kawamura, Kenji Nakajima, Shinichi Itoh, Keitaro Kuwahara & Kazuhisa Kakurai

Two-dimensional frustrated magnets are heavily studied because theories predict that quantum effects may lead to the emergence of fractionalized excitations. Ito et al. use inelastic neutron scattering to show that the excitation spectrum of Ba3CoSb2O9 disagrees with current theoretical expectations.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00316-x
Magnetic properties and materials 

Nutrient limitation determines the fitness of cheaters in bacterial siderophore cooperation OPEN
D. Joseph Sexton & Martin Schuster

Cooperative behaviour among individuals provides a collective benefit, but is considered costly. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model system, the authors show that secretion of the siderophore pyoverdine only incurs a fitness cost and favours cheating when its building blocks carbon or nitrogen are growth-limiting.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00222-2
Bacterial secretion  Bacterial systems biology  Microbial ecology 

TDP2 suppresses chromosomal translocations induced by DNA topoisomerase II during gene transcription OPEN
Fernando Gómez-Herreros, Guido Zagnoli-Vieira, Ioanna Ntai, María Isabel Martínez-Macías, Rhona M. Anderson, Andrés Herrero-Ruíz & Keith W. Caldecott

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by topoisomerase II (TOP2) are rejoined by TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) but whether this promotes or suppresses translocations is not clear. Here the authors show that TDP2 suppresses chromosome translocations from DSBs introduced during gene transcription.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00307-y
Cancer genomics  Chromosomes  DNA damage and repair 

Serial processing of kinematic signals by cerebellar circuitry during voluntary whisking OPEN
Susu Chen, George J. Augustine & Paul Chadderton

Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) linearly encode whisker position but the precise circuit mechanisms that generate these signals are not well understood. Here the authors use patch clamp recordings to show that selective tuning of granule cell inputs and bidirectional tuning of interneuron inputs are required to generate the kinematic representations in PCs.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00312-1
Cerebellum  Neural circuits  Sensorimotor processing 

IL-7Rα glutamylation and activation of transcription factor Sall3 promote group 3 ILC development OPEN
Benyu Liu, Buqing Ye, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Guanling Huang, Liuliu Yang, Pingping Zhu, Ying Du, Jiayi Wu, Shu Meng, Yong Tian & Zusen Fan

Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are important regulators of mucosal immunity, but how their development and homeostasis are modulated is still unclear. Here the authors show that the differentiation of group 3 ILCs is controlled by the glutamylation of IL-7Rα and the induction of transcription factor Sall3.

10 August 2017 | doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00235-x
Gene regulation in immune cells  Innate lymphoid cells  Lymphopoiesis  Post-translational modifications 
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