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vrijdag 24 februari 2017

The Lancet: [Comment] Anal cancer: from an orphan disease to a curable malignancy?

[Comment] Anal cancer: from an orphan disease to a curable malignancy?
Squamous cell carcinoma of the canal anal (SCCA) is rare, accounting for roughly 2% of all gastrointestinal cancers.1 It is mainly caused by infection with human papillomavirus followed by immune deficiency such as that induced by immunosoppressive treatments after organ transplantation or HIV infection.2
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[Comment] Predicting outcomes after a positive interim FDG-PET scan in advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma
It has long been appreciated that further advances in the treatment of advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma need to strike a balance between improved efficacy and increased short-term toxic effects and late effects (eg, infertility, second cancers, and haematological cancers).1 Data from early reports suggested that FDG-PET scanning after two cycles of chemotherapy (PET-2) might be the most promising method available to clinicians to identify patients at risk of treatment failure, independent of other prognostic factors,2 and to potentially guide treatment intensification to those who might need it most.
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[Articles] Progression-free survival of early interim PET-positive patients with advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with BEACOPP alone or in combination with rituximab (HD18): an open-label, international, randomised phase 3 study by the German Hodgkin Study Group
The addition of rituximab to BEACOPPescalated did not improve the progression-free survival of PET-2 positive patients with advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, progression-free survival for PET-2 positive patients was much better than expected, exceeding even the outcome of PET-2-unselected patients in the previous HD15 trial. Thus, PET-2 cannot identify patients at high-risk for treatment failure in the context of the very effective German Hodgkin Study Group standard treatment for advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.
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HER2-enriched subtype as a predictor of pathological complete response following trastuzumab and lapatinib without chemotherapy in early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer (PAMELA): an open-label, single-group, multicentre, phase 2 trial
The HER2-enriched subtype can identify patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who are likely to benefit from dual HER2 blockade therapies.
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[Comment] Carcinoid syndrome in neuroendocrine tumors: a prognostic effect?
Carcinoid syndrome has been known for more than 75 years.1 However, it was regarded for a long time as merely a syndrome linked to diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), without any other relevance in treatment of the disease. The proportion of patients presenting with carcinoid syndrome varies from 3% to 21%; one review2 stated a quite reliable percentage of 18%. In The Lancet Oncology, Daniel Halperin and colleagues3 present a large population-based study of nearly 10 000 patients with NETs, providing an unbiased estimate of the number of patients presenting with carcinoid syndrome at diagnosis (1786 [19%] of 9512 patients with NETs).
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