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Nature Medicine Contents: January 2018 Volume 24 Number 1 pp 1-112

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

January 2018 Volume 24, Issue 1

Editorial
News
Correction
News and Views
Review
Articles
Letter
Resource

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Nature Outline: Non-union bone fracture 

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Editorial

Top

Thinking big in mental health   p1
doi:10.1038/nm.4471
Mental illnesses impose a grave disease burden worldwide, yet progress in managing and treating them has largely stalled. Harnessing the power of big data may break the current impasse and open new avenues for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these devastating illnesses.

News

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Puzzling over privilege: How the immune system protects[mdash]and fails[mdash]the testes   pp2 - 5
Shraddha Chakradhar
doi:10.1038/nm0118-2

Correction

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Correction   p5
doi:10.1038/nm0118-5

News and Views

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Lipid metabolic reprogramming in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury   pp6 - 7
Satdarshan P Monga
doi:10.1038/nm.4468
In a recent study of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), Zhang et al. use tandem 'omics' approaches in mice, pigs, and nonhuman primates to identify lipid metabolic reprogramming as a key determinant of IRI, thus providing novel mechanistic and therapeutic insights.

See also: Article by Zhang et al.

Genomics in childhood acute myeloid leukemia comes of age   pp7 - 9
Andrew M Brunner and Timothy A Graubert
doi:10.1038/nm.4469
A Children's Oncology Group study of nearly 1,000 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases reveals marked differences between the genomic landscapes of pediatric and adult AML and offers directions for future work.

See also: Resource by Bolouri et al.

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Review

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The role of vaccines in preventing bacterial antimicrobial resistance   pp10 - 19
Kathrin U Jansen, Charles Knirsch and Annaliesa S Anderson
doi:10.1038/nm.4465
One strategy to counter the rise of antimicrobial resistance is the development of vaccines against resistant pathogens, preventing further infection and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

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Articles

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CD22-targeted CAR T cells induce remission in B-ALL that is naive or resistant to CD19-targeted CAR immunotherapy   pp20 - 28
Terry J Fry, Nirali N Shah, Rimas J Orentas, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson, Constance M Yuan et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4441
Fry et al. report the first results from a human trial of a CD22-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy providing evidence of efficacy in the treatment of pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia that is immunotherapy-naive or resistant to CD19-directed CAR T cells.

Amyloid-[beta] plaques enhance Alzheimer's brain tau-seeded pathologies by facilitating neuritic plaque tau aggregation   pp29 - 38
Zhuohao He, Jing L Guo, Jennifer D McBride, Sneha Narasimhan, Hyesung Kim et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4443
Through injection of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain extracts containing pathological tau protein into transgenic mouse lines harboring different levels of amyloid plaque burden, the authors find that the presence of amyloid plaques modifies endogenous pools of tau protein, creating a unique environment required for the seeding and spreading of distinct tau pathologies.

Thyroid hormone inhibits lung fibrosis in mice by improving epithelial mitochondrial function   pp39 - 49
Guoying Yu, Argyris Tzouvelekis, Rong Wang, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Gabriel H Ibarra et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4447
Thyroid hormone improves mitochondrial function and dynamics in lung epithelium to reduce pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

cGAS drives noncanonical-inflammasome activation in age-related macular degeneration   pp50 - 61
Nagaraj Kerur, Shinichi Fukuda, Daipayan Banerjee, Younghee Kim, Dongxu Fu et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4450
Degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium is a hallmark of geographic atrophy, a type of age-related macular degeneration. Kerur et al. show that this degeneration results from a multistep pathway in which mitochondrial dysfunction in RPE cells, triggered by accumulation of Alu RNA, leads to activation of the noncanonical inflammasome via a cGAS-STING-IRF3 signaling axis.

A proteolytic fragment of histone deacetylase 4 protects the heart from failure by regulating the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway   pp62 - 72
Lorenz H Lehmann, Zegeye H Jebessa, Michael M Kreusser, Axel Horsch, Tao He et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4452
A proteolytically derived fragment of the epigenetic regulator HDAC4 protects the heart through transcriptional repression of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, thereby inhibiting protein O-GlcNAcylation and maintaining normal calcium handling and contractility of cardiomyocytes.

An ALOX12-12-HETE-GPR31 signaling axis is a key mediator of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury   pp73 - 83
Xiao-Jing Zhang, Xu Cheng, Zhen-Zhen Yan, Jing Fang, Xiaozhan Wang et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4451
ALOX12-mediated generation of 12-HETE leads to GPR31 activation and liver injury in ischemia-reperfusion, which can be targeted in a nonhuman primate model to improve outcome.

The deubiquitinating enzyme TNFAIP3 mediates inactivation of hepatic ASK1 and ameliorates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis   pp84 - 94
Peng Zhang, Pi-Xiao Wang, Ling-Ping Zhao, Xin Zhang, Yan-Xiao Ji et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4453
The deubiquitinase TNFAIP3 suppresses the kinase ASK1 to ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

See also: News and Views by Monga

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Letter

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Granulocyte-derived TNF[alpha] promotes vascular and hematopoietic regeneration in the bone marrow   pp95 - 102
Emily Bowers, Anastasiya Slaughter, Paul S Frenette, Rork Kuick, Oscar M Pello et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4448
In the bone marrow, granulocyte-derived TNF[alpha] acts on endothelial cells to maintain the vasculature under steady-state conditions and to promote its regeneration after injury or transplantation.

Resource

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The molecular landscape of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia reveals recurrent structural alterations and age-specific mutational interactions   pp103 - 112
Hamid Bolouri, Jason E Farrar, Timothy Triche Jr, Rhonda E Ries, Emilia L Lim et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4439
A comprehensive molecular analysis of almost 1,000 pediatric subjects with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uncovers widespread differences in pediatric AML as compared to adult AML, including a higher frequency of structural variants and different mutational patterns and epigenetic signatures. Future studies are needed to characterize the functional relevance of these alterations and to explore age-tailored therapies to improve disease control in younger patients.

See also: News and Views by Brunner & Graubert

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Nature Collection: 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

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