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dinsdag 5 december 2017

Nature Physics December Issue

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Nature Physics

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Nature Physics and Nature Materials Insight explores the physics of quantum materials, their discovery and development, the control over their properties, and potential future applications 

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Produced with support from: 
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation 
Simons Foundation
TABLE OF CONTENTS

December 2017 Volume 13, Issue 12

Editorial
Thesis
Books and Arts
Research Highlights
News and Views
Letters
Articles
Errata
Measure for Measure
 
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Access this collection of articles from Nature Research to celebrate the award of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics to Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish and Kip Thorne - who are recognized "for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves".
 
 
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Editorial

 

Heisenberg's uncertain legacy    p1143
doi:10.1038/nphys4330

Thesis

 

Energy transitions    p1144
Mark Buchanan
doi:10.1038/nphys4329

Books and Arts

 

Portraits of physicists    pp1145 - 1146
Marco Bentivenga, Richard Brierley & Nina Meinzer
doi:10.1038/nphys4324

Research Highlights

 

Flocking: Cloud of bugs    p1147
Federico Levi
doi:10.1038/nphys4332

Condensed-matter physics: Weyl metamaterials    p1147
David Abergel
doi:10.1038/nphys4333

Ice nucleation: Rain before six    p1147
Andreas H. Trabesinger
doi:10.1038/nphys4334

Quantum spin liquids: To be or not to be    p1147
Yun Li
doi:10.1038/nphys4335

Biomaterials: Spidey sense    p1147
Abigail Klopper
doi:10.1038/nphys4336

News and Views

 

Quantum computing: Quantum advantage deferred    p1148
Andrew M. Childs
doi:10.1038/nphys4272

Self-assembly: Misfits unite    pp1149 - 1150
Gregory M. Grason
doi:10.1038/nphys4201

Physics
JOBS of the week
Tenure-track assistant professor of experimental high-energy physics
EPFL Lausanne
Faculty Positions in the Department of Physics of SUSTech
Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech)
Lecturer in Experimental Solid State Physics
Imperial College London
Professor and Physics Chair
Khalifa University of Science and Technology
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Physics
EVENT
" 6th Annual International Conference on Physics"
23.07.18
Athens, Greece
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Letters

 

Classical boson sampling algorithms with superior performance to near-term experiments    pp1153 - 1157
Alex Neville, Chris Sparrow, Raphaël Clifford, Eric Johnston, Patrick M. Birchall et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4270
A classical algorithm solves the boson sampling problem for 30 bosons with standard computing hardware, suggesting that a much larger experimental effort will be needed to reach a regime where quantum hardware outperforms classical methods.

Efficient tomography of a quantum many-body system    pp1158 - 1162
B. P. Lanyon, C. Maier, M. Holzäpfel, T. Baumgratz, C. Hempel et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4244
Traditionally quantum state tomography is used to characterize a quantum state, but it becomes exponentially hard with the system size. An alternative technique, matrix product state tomography, is shown to work well in practical situations.

Faithful conversion of propagating quantum information to mechanical motion    pp1163 - 1167
A. P. Reed, K. H. Mayer, J. D. Teufel, L. D. Burkhart, W. Pfaff et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4251
Combining micrometre-sized mechanical resonators with superconducting quantum circuits, quantum information encoded with photons now can be converted to the motion of a macroscopic object.

Berry phase and anomalous transport of the composite fermions at the half-filled Landau level    pp1168 - 1172
W. Pan, W. Kang, K. W. Baldwin, K. W. West, L. N. Pfeiffer et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4231
Experimental signatures of a Berry phase for composite fermions in the fractional quantum Hall effect provide support for the predictions that these composite fermions are Dirac particles.

Molecules cooled below the Doppler limit    pp1173 - 1176
S. Truppe, H. J. Williams, M. Hambach, L. Caldwell, N. J. Fitch et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4241
Magneto-optical trapping and sub-Doppler cooling of atoms has been instrumental for research in ultracold atomic physics. This regime has now been reached for a molecular species, CaF.

Current-phase relations of few-mode InAs nanowire Josephson junctions    pp1177 - 1181
Eric M. Spanton, Mingtang Deng, Saulius Vaitiekenas, Peter Krogstrup, Jesper Nygård et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4224
Semiconductor nanowires with superconducting leads are considered promising for quantum computation. The current-phase relation is systematically explored in gate-tunable InAs Josephson junctions, and is shown to provide a clean handle for characterizing the transport properties of these structures.

Superballistic flow of viscous electron fluid through graphene constrictions    pp1182 - 1185
R. Krishna Kumar, D. A. Bandurin, F. M. D. Pellegrino, Y. Cao, A. Principi et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4240
Graphene systems are clean platforms for studying electron-electron (e-e) collisions. Electron transport in graphene constrictions is now found to behave anomalously due to e-e interactions: conductance values exceed the maximum free-electron value.

Instability in dynamic fracture and the failure of the classical theory of cracks    pp1186 - 1190
Chih-Hung Chen, Eran Bouchbinder & Alain Karma
doi:10.1038/nphys4237
Understanding crack formation is important for improving the mechanical performance of materials. A new theory is now presented for the description of cracks propagating at high speeds, with elastic nonlinearity as the underlying principle.

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Articles

 

Determining the quantum expectation value by measuring a single photon    pp1191 - 1194
Fabrizio Piacentini, Alessio Avella, Enrico Rebufello, Rudi Lussana, Federica Villa et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4223
A photonic experiment demonstrates protective measurements, a type of weak measurements. These make it possible to determine the expectation value of the polarization of a photon from a single measurement.

Four-body ring-exchange interactions and anyonic statistics within a minimal toric-code Hamiltonian    pp1195 - 1200
Han-Ning Dai, Bing Yang, Andreas Reingruber, Hui Sun, Xiao-Fan Xu et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4243
Ring-exchange interactions are basic elements needed for realizing topological quantum computation. These interactions and anyonic statistics have been engineered using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice.

Influence of apical oxygen on the extent of in-plane exchange interaction in cuprate superconductors    pp1201 - 1206
Y. Y. Peng, G. Dellea, M. Minola, M. Conni, A. Amorese et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4248
A detailed resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) study of a series of well-known cuprate superconductors reveals a correlation between the number of apical oxygens in these systems, and the strength of their in-plane exchange interaction.

Electron-hole collision limited transport in charge-neutral bilayer graphene    pp1207 - 1214
Youngwoo Nam, Dong-Keun Ki, David Soler-Delgado & Alberto F. Morpurgo
doi:10.1038/nphys4218
Whether ballistic transport can occur in a system is usually governed by the number of impurities, but a ballistic transport regime is seen in charge-neutral graphene that is limited not by impurities or phonons, but electron-hole collisions.

Spontaneous formation and dynamics of half-skyrmions in a chiral liquid-crystal film    pp1215 - 1220

doi:10.1038/nphys4245
Spontaneous formation of a half-skyrmion lattice is observed in a thin-film chiral liquid crystal. The dynamics are shown to be thermally driven - presenting a platform to study the thermal fluctuations of topological defects.

Active tension network model suggests an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues    pp1221 - 1226

doi:10.1038/nphys4219
Determining how cellular activity affects the collective properties of growing tissues is key to understanding morphogenesis. An epithelial tissue model shows how active tension can give rise to striking mechanical behaviours seen in experiments.

Thermonuclear reactions probed at stellar-core conditions with laser-based inertial-confinement fusion    pp1227 - 1231
D. T. Casey, D. B. Sayre, C. R. Brune, V. A. Smalyuk, C. R. Weber et al.
doi:10.1038/nphys4220
Nuclear reactions taking place in stars are not straightforward to study in laboratories on Earth. Now, inertial-confinement fusion implosion experiments are reported that mimic the conditions for the hydrogen-burning phase in main-sequence stars.

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Errata

 

Erratum: Structural and quantum-state phase transitions in van der Waals layered materials    p1232
Heejun Yang, Sung Wng Kim, Manish Chhowalla & Young Hee Lee
doi:10.1038/nphys4315

Erratum: Structural and quantum-state phase transitions in van der Waals layered materials    p1232
Heejun Yang, Sung Wng Kim, Manish Chhowalla & Young Hee Lee
doi:10.1038/nphys4328

Measure for Measure

 

A matter of time    p1234
Helen Margolis
doi:10.1038/nphys4327

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