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donderdag 7 december 2017

Nature Medicine Contents: December 2017 Volume 23 Number 12 pp 1385-1499

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

December 2017 Volume 23, Issue 12

Editorial
News
Correction
Correspondence
News and Views
Articles
Letters
Technical Report
Corrigenda

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Nature Index 2017 Science Inc. 

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Editorial

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Cutting out the liver fat   p1385
doi:10.1038/nm.4459
Better animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are needed to more fully understand the disease and to identify potential new therapeutic treatments for this increasingly common condition.

News

Top

The Yearbook   p1386
Shraddha Chakradhar
doi:10.1038/nm1217-1386
From policy advisors who resigned in protest to an agency trying to settle a patent dispute, many of the newsmakers in our 2017 Yearbook made notable decisions.

Notable advances 2017   pp1387 - 1389
Tanya Bondar, Javier Carmona, Kate Gao, Brett Benedetti, Michael Basson et al.
doi:10.1038/nm1217-1387
This past year included numerous research studies that broke the mold and elucidated new biology and drug targets. Here are some of the exciting papers from 2017 that moved biomedicine forward.

Timeline of events   pp1390 - 1391
Shraddha Chakradhar
doi:10.1038/nm1217-1390
From a worldwide march in favor of science to an increased focus on diversity and gender equality in the workplace, 2017 was a year that was dominated by activism and social causes. Amidst these events, however, were concerns over unproven treatments and emergency funding.

Drugs that made headlines in 2017   pp1392 - 1393
Shraddha Chakradhar
doi:10.1038/nm1217-1392
In 2017, cancer drugs once again dominated the news, with many of these medications making headlines for being the first of their kind to gain approval. Beyond cancer, drugs for inflammatory diseases also received attention, for both their successes and their failures.

Correction

Top

Correction   p1391
doi:10.1038/nm1217-1391

Correspondence

Top

The small molecule CLP257 does not modify activity of the K+-Cl- co-transporter KCC2 but does potentiate GABAA receptor activity   pp1394 - 1396
Ross A Cardarelli, Karen Jones, Lucie I Pisella, Heike J Wobst, Lisa J McWilliams et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4442

Reply to The small molecule CLP257 does not modify activity of the K+-Cl- co-transporter KCC2 but does potentiate GABAA receptor activity   pp1396 - 1398
Martin Gagnon, Marc J Bergeron, Jimena Perez-Sanchez, Isabel Plasencia-Fernandez, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4449

News and Views

Top

Organoids lead the cancer attack   pp1399 - 1400
Amber R Smith and Calvin J Kuo
doi:10.1038/nm.4454
In an article published recently in Nature Medicine, the authors generate organoid models of liver neoplasia. In doing so, they highlight both the diversity of current organoid methodologies and their application to cancer modeling and therapeutics discovery.

See also: Article by Hosen et al.

Recognition of self-DNA drives cardiac inflammation: why broken hearts fail   pp1400 - 1401
Kory J Lavine and Douglas L Mann
doi:10.1038/nm.4455
Signals that govern immune cells in the heart remain poorly defined. A new report in mice shows that pathways involved in sensing viruses orchestrate monocyte and macrophage activation through recognition of DNA derived from dying cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction.

See also: Letter by King et al.

Targeted cellular immunotherapy for T cell malignancies   pp1402 - 1403
Teresa Palomero and Adolfo Ferrando
doi:10.1038/nm.4458
In a recent study, Maciocia et al. develop a novel T cell receptor beta (TCRB) constant C1-chain-directed cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of T cell malignancies.

See also: Article by Maciocia et al.

Fattening the role of Ca2+ cycling in adaptive thermogenesis   pp1403 - 1404
Daniel Gamu and A Russell Tupling
doi:10.1038/nm.4457
A new study shows that deleting uncoupling protein 1 activates Ca2+ cycling thermogenesis within beige fat, protecting mice against cold-induced hypothermia and dysglycemia following diet-induced obesity.

See also: Article by Ikeda et al.

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Articles

Top

ADAM10-mediated ephrin-B2 shedding promotes myofibroblast activation and organ fibrosis   pp1405 - 1415
David Lagares, Parisa Ghassemi-Kakroodi, Caroline Tremblay, Alba Santos, Clemens K Probst et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4419
TGF-[beta] induces expression of ADAM10, which results in greater shedding of ephrin-B2. This shedding promotes the chemotaxis and activation of myofibroblasts and thus the progression of organ fibrosis.

Targeting the T cell receptor [beta]-chain constant region for immunotherapy of T cell malignancies   pp1416 - 1423
Paul M Maciocia, Patrycja A Wawrzyniecka, Brian Philip, Ida Ricciardelli, Ayse U Akarca et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4444
Pule and colleagues identify the TCR [beta]-chain constant region as a new target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in treatment of T cell cancers while potentially preserving a healthy T cell repertoire. They demonstrate that anti-TCRB1 CAR T cells eliminate cancerous TCRB1+ T cells while sparing nearly one-third of normal TCRB2+ T cells.

See also: News and Views by Palomero & Ferrando

Human primary liver cancer-derived organoid cultures for disease modeling and drug screening   pp1424 - 1435
Laura Broutier, Gianmarco Mastrogiovanni, Monique MA Verstegen, Hayley E Francies, Lena Morrill Gavarro et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4438
Tumor organoids derived from the most common subtypes of primary liver cancer recapitulate the histologic and molecular features of the tissues of origin, even after long-term culture. These in vitro models, as well as those for colorectal cancer reported in Crespo et al. in a previous issue, are amenable for drug screening and allow the identification of therapeutic approaches with potential for cancer treatment.

The activated conformation of integrin [beta]7 is a novel multiple myeloma-specific target for CAR T cell therapy   pp1436 - 1443
Naoki Hosen, Yukiko Matsunaga, Kana Hasegawa, Hiroshi Matsuno, Yuki Nakamura et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4431
Hosen et al. identify an active conformation of integrin beta-7 as a cancer-associated antigen in multiple myeloma, and engineer a CAR-T cell that shows efficacy against MM in a mouse model. These findings describe the first conformation-specific CAR-T cell and highlight the potential of conformational targets in cancer immunotherapy.

See also: News and Views by Smith & Kuo

Asprosin is a centrally acting orexigenic hormone   pp1444 - 1453
Clemens Duerrschmid, Yanlin He, Chunmei Wang, Chia Li, Juan C Bournat et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4432
Asprosin, a recently identified secreted hormone from adipose tissue, acts centrally to promote food intake.

UCP1-independent signaling involving SERCA2b-mediated calcium cycling regulates beige fat thermogenesis and systemic glucose homeostasis   pp1454 - 1465
Kenji Ikeda, Qianqian Kang, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Joao Paulo Camporez, Hiroko Maki et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4429
Calcium cycling induced by the SERCA2b-RyR2 pathway in beige fat cells allows for thermogenic activity independent of UCP1.

See also: News and Views by Gamu & Tupling

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Letters

Top

A microRNA screen reveals that elevated hepatic ectodysplasin A expression contributes to obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle   pp1466 - 1473
Motoharu Awazawa, Paula Gabel, Eva Tsaousidou, Hendrik Nolte, Marcus Kruger et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4420
Screening reveals that obesity induces the expression of liver ectodysplasin A, which acts on the muscle to induce insulin resistance.

Selective neuronal lapses precede human cognitive lapses following sleep deprivation   pp1474 - 1480
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4433
In humans, a full night of sleep deprivation causes attenuated and delayed neuronal responses that correlate with impaired cognitive performance.

IRF3 and type I interferons fuel a fatal response to myocardial infarction   pp1481 - 1487
Kevin R King, Aaron D Aguirre, Yu-Xiang Ye, Yuan Sun, Jason D Roh et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4428
The massive cell death that occurs during myocardial infarction releases self-DNA and triggers an interferon response in infiltrating leukocytes via a cGAS-STING-IRF3 pathway. Interference with this response[mdash]either by genetic disruption of the pathway or antibody blockade of the type I interferon receptor[mdash]is beneficial in mice subjected to myocardial infarction.

See also: News and Views by Lavine & Mann

Technical Report

Top

Enhancing the precision of genetic lineage tracing using dual recombinases   pp1488 - 1498
Lingjuan He, Yan Li, Yi Li, Wenjuan Pu, Xiuzhen Huang et al.
doi:10.1038/nm.4437
Genetic cell-lineage tracing studies in mice are crucial for delineating the contribution of stem and progenitor cells to different cell types, both in disease states and after regenerative therapy. He et al. have developed new genetic lineage-tracing systems that provide more definitive results than the commonly used Cre-based system and show that this new technology can resolve current controversies in the field, as demonstrated by lineage-tracing studies in the heart and liver.

Corrigenda

Top

Corrigendum: Persisting positron emission tomography lesion activity and Mycobacterium tuberculosis mRNA after tuberculosis cure   p1499
Stephanus T Malherbe, Shubhada Shenai, Katharina Ronacher, Andre G Loxton, Gregory Dolganov et al.
doi:10.1038/nm1217-1499a

Corrigendum: ADAM10-mediated ephrin-B2 shedding promotes myofibroblast activation and organ fibrosis   p1499
David Lagares, Parisa Ghassemi-Kakroodi, Caroline Tremblay, Alba Santos, Clemens K Probst et al.
doi:10.1038/nm1217-1499b

Top
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Nature Reviews Collection — The obesity epidemic: molecular and clinical considerations 

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