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donderdag 7 december 2017

Nature contents: 07 December 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 552 Issue 7683
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorials  
 
 
 
Great mentoring is key for the next generation of scientists
The Nature Awards for Mentoring in Science show that it is crucial to support researchers in leading their groups well.
Grows well in sun and warmth — and shade and cold
Trees and shrubs could be less fussy about the climate than scientists thought. That might be good news as the planet warms.
Gene-drive technology needs thorough scrutiny
Scientists must continue to play their part in pointing out the potential environmental dangers.
 
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World View  
 
 
 
Wanted: academics wise to the needs of government
Funders should not support policy-relevant work that treats policy impact as an afterthought, advises Chris Tyler.
 
Seven Days  
 
 
 
Arctic fishing, robot explorers and Chinese medicines
The week in science: 1–7 December 2017.
Research Highlights  
 
 
 
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
 
 
Advertising.
 
 
News in Focus
 
Huge haul of rare pterosaur eggs excites palaeontologists
Embryos found in some fossil eggs suggest that hatchlings struggled to fly.
John Pickrell
  Archaeologists uneasy as Trump shrinks Bears Ears monument lands
Thousands of ancient Native American sites to lose protections.
Cally Carswell
Bat cave solves mystery of deadly SARS virus — and suggests new outbreak could occur
Chinese scientists find all the genetic building blocks of SARS in a single population of horseshoe bats.
David Cyranoski
  Scientists want in on humanity's next big space station
Space agencies are planning a Deep Space Gateway to orbit the Moon.
Elizabeth Gibney
Hundreds of German universities set to lose access to Elsevier journals
Negotiations to reduce journal prices and promote open access are progressing slowly.
Quirin Schiermeier
   
Features  
 
 
 
The labs that forge distant planets here on Earth
High-pressure experiments explore what it might take to make exoplanets habitable
Shannon Hall
Multimedia  
 
 
Nature Podcast, 07 December 2017
This week, exoplanet geology, and a dual-terrain, duck-like dinosaur.
Correction  
 
 
Muscle-cell manoeuvres
 
 
Advertising.
 
 
Comment
 
Use machine learning to find energy materials
Artificial intelligence can speed up research into new photovoltaic, battery and carbon-capture materials, argue Edward Sargent, Alán Aspuru-Guzikand colleagues.
Phil De Luna, Jennifer Wei, Yoshua Bengio et al.
Six principles for energy innovation
Decades of experience must inform future initiatives for energy innovation, urge Gabriel Chan and colleagues.
Gabriel Chan, Anna P. Goldstein, Amitai Bin-Nun et al.
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
The doubly dextrous physics of Enrico Fermi
Catherine Westfall lauds a candid life of a Manhattan Project scientist at home in theory and experimentation.
Catherine Westfall
How Viennese scientists fought the dogma, propaganda and prejudice of the 1930s
Jordi Cat on a history of empirical thinkers whose world view was a beacon in an irrational era.
Jordi Cat
Correspondence  
 
 
 
Save Iran’s cheetah from extinction
Jamshid Parchizadeh, Samual T. Williams
  Scrap very useless qualifiers in research papers
Stephen K. Donovan
Celebrate results of German excellence initiative
Inna Sokolova
  Gauging the risk from US nuclear waste
Rodney C. Ewing
Obituary  
 
 
 
Frank Brown (1943-2017)
Geologist who helped to build the timeline for the origins of humankind.
Bernard Wood
 
 
Specials
 
TOOLBOX  
 
 
 
A test drive of a DNA-analysis toolkit in the cloud
The Bioconductor project gathers genomics tools and data into a handy package that can run in the cloud.
W. Wayt Gibbs
SPOTLIGHT  
 
 
 
India’s commitment to science begins to pay off
A push to reverse its brain drain is providing the expertise to tackle its domestic problems.
T. V. Padma
Carbon belts and chains aid nanotech resurgence
Private-sector cash and technological innovation are helping Japan regain its lead in nanocarbon research.
Tim Hornyak
INDEX  
 
 
 
Outsourcing discovery
Smriti Mallapaty
A firm shift
Papers to patents
The withdrawal of large US corporations from research is narrowing the scope of innovation.
Ashish Arora, Sharon Belenzon, Andrea Patacconi
Industry links boost research output
New findings suggest corporate collaboration encourages academic productivity.
Neil Savage
Help wanted: industry seeks science alliances
Companies publishing high-quality research are looking to academia for assistance.
Katharine Gammon
Lost opportunities
Life science companies are missing out on the benefits of open innovation.
Phillip Phan, Dean Wong
In good company
Academic life isn’t for everyone. Here we profile scientists who have made the switch from academia to industry, all motivated by a desire to see their discoveries translated into real-world solutions.
Elie Dolgin
First among equals
Exploring complementary strengths is the key to success in industry–academia science partnerships.
Mark Zastrow
Corporates make reluctant partners
The Japanese government wants to lure more industry funding into universities, but companies need to be convinced they’ll get value.
Ichiko Fuyuno
A guide to the Nature Index
A description of the terminology and methodology used in this supplement, and a guide to the functionality available free online at natureindex.com.
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
Electron cryo-microscopy structure of a human TRPM4 channel
The structure of the Ca2+-activated, non-selective ion channel TRPM4 bound to the agonist Ca2+ and a modulator decavanadate, solved using electron cryo-microscopy.
Structures of the calcium-activated, non-selective cation channel TRPM4
Electron cryo-microscopy structures of mouse TRPM4, a calcium-activated, non-selective cation channel, in the apo and ATP-bound states.
Alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram targets cancer via p97 segregase adaptor NPL4
Disulfiram is metabolized into copper–diethyldithiocarbamate, which binds to NPL4 and induces its aggregation in cells, leading to blockade of the p97–NPL4–UFD1 pathway and induction of a complex cellular phenotype that results in cell death.
Enhancing mitochondrial proteostasis reduces amyloid-β proteotoxicity
Amyloid-β peptide proteopathies disrupt mitochondria, and restoring mitochondrial proteostasis reduces protein aggregation in animal models of amyloid-β disease.
Blazar spectral variability as explained by a twisted inhomogeneous jet
The spectral variability of the blazar CTA 102 during a recent extreme outburst could be explained by a twisted, inhomogeneous jet containing regions of different orientations that vary in time.
Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history
Two extremely massive galaxies are seen 800 million years after the Big Bang, showing the rapid growth of early structure and marking the most massive halo known in that era.
Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget
Methane fluxes from the stems of Amazonian floodplain trees indicate that the escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of methane emissions in the Amazon basin.
Force loading explains spatial sensing of ligands by cells
The formation of cellular adhesion complexes is important in normal and pathological cell activity, and is determined by the force imposed by the combined effect of the distribution of extracellular matrix molecules and substrate rigidity.
Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs
The recently discovered theropod Halszkaraptor escuillei reveals a novel basal dromaeosaurid clade, and its adaptations that suggest a semi-aquatic predatory lifestyle add an additional ecomorphology to those developed by non-avian maniraptorans.
Runx3 programs CD8+ T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours
The transcription factor Runx3 is identified as a central regulator of the development of tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells, providing insights into the signals that promote T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours.
KAT2A coupled with the α-KGDH complex acts as a histone H3 succinyltransferase
The histone acetyl transferase KAT2A (also known as GCN5) can also catalyse histone succinylation, with the α-KGDH complex providing a local source of succinyl-CoA.
Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents diabetic retinopathy
A product of the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme, 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-DHDP), is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy; levels of 19,20-DHDP increase in the retinas of mice and humans with diabetes, and inhibition of its production can rescue vascular abnormalities in a mouse model of the disease.
Atmospheric trace gases support primary production in Antarctic desert surface soil OPEN
Metagenomic and biochemical analyses of soil samples from Antarctic desert regions provides evidence that bacteria in these soils derive carbon and energy from atmospheric CO, H2 and CO2.
piRNA-mediated regulation of transposon alternative splicing in the soma and germ line
A new mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing regulation is revealed that is mediated by piRNA pathway components and is dependent on heterochromatin histone modifications.
Moving beyond microbiome-wide associations to causal microbe identification
Triangulation of microbe–phenotype relationships is an effective method for reducing the noise inherent in microbiota studies and enabling identification of causal microbes of disease, which may be applicable to human microbiome studies.
Selective silencing of euchromatic L1s revealed by genome-wide screens for L1 regulators
An 800-million-solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5
News and Views  
 
 
 
Cancer immunotherapy: The dark side of PD-1 receptor inhibition
Aya Ludin, Leonard I. Zon
DNA self-assembly scaled up
Fei Zhang, Hao Yan
A tip of the hat to evolutionary change
Charles R. Marshall
 

A detailed look at structural variation in the human genome
 


Structural variant types, their contribution to disease & detection methods
.
A steamy proposal for Martian clays
Laura Schaefer
 
Vivid views of the PINK1 protein
Salima Daou, Frank Sicheri
50 & 100 years ago
 
Two-dimensional tellurium
Evan J. Reed
Quantum-teleportation experiments turn 20
Nicolas Gisin
   
Articles  
 
 
 
A transfer-RNA-derived small RNA regulates ribosome biogenesis
A 22-nucleotide fragment of a transfer RNA regulates translation by binding to the mRNA of a ribosomal protein and increasing its expression, and downregulation of the fragment in patient-derived liver tumour cells reduces tumour growth in mice.
Hak Kyun Kim, Gabriele Fuchs, Shengchun Wang et al.
Greater future global warming inferred from Earth’s recent energy budget
Models show that several aspects of Earth’s top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming are correlated, enabling us to infer that future warming has been underestimated.
Patrick T. Brown, Ken Caldeira
Structure of PINK1 in complex with its substrate ubiquitin
Stabilization of a transient protein kinase–substrate complex using a nanobody provides molecular details about how the Parkinson's disease-linked protein kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin, and suggests new pharmacological strategies.
Alexander F. Schubert, Christina Gladkova, Els Pardon et al.
Letters  
 
 
 
Genetically programmed chiral organoborane synthesis
A genetically encoded platform can produce chiral organoboranes in bacteria with high turnover, enantioselectivity and chemoselectivity, and can be tuned and configured through DNA manipulation.
S. B. Jennifer Kan, Xiongyi Huang, Yosephine Gumulya et al.
Fractal assembly of micrometre-scale DNA origami arrays with arbitrary patterns
Simple assembly rules applied recursively in a multistage assembly process enable the creation of DNA origami arrays with sizes of up to 0.5 square micrometres and with arbitrary patterns.
Grigory Tikhomirov, Philip Petersen, Lulu Qian
Reconciling taxon senescence with the Red Queen’s hypothesis
Focusing attention on the expansion of taxa, rather than their survival, resolves the apparent contradiction between seemingly deterministic patterns of waxing and waning of taxa over time and the randomness of extinction implied by the Red Queen’s hypothesis.
Indrė Žliobaitė, Mikael Fortelius, Nils C. Stenseth
Immune evasion of Plasmodium falciparum by RIFIN via inhibitory receptors
Proteins expressed on the surfaces of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum help the parasite to evade the host immune system by acting as ligands for immune inhibitory receptors and thereby downregulating the immune response.
Fumiji Saito, Kouyuki Hirayasu, Takeshi Satoh et al.
Biotechnological mass production of DNA origami
All necessary strands for DNA origami can be created in a single scalable process by using bacteriophages to generate single-stranded precursor DNA containing the target sequences interleaved with self-excising DNA enzymes.
Florian Praetorius, Benjamin Kick, Karl L. Behler et al.
IL-11 is a crucial determinant of cardiovascular fibrosis
Fibroblast-specific IL-11 expression causes heart and kidney fibrosis and organ failure, whereas IL-11 inhibition prevents fibroblast activation and organ fibrosis, indicating that IL-11 inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy to treat fibrotic diseases.
Sebastian Schafer, Sivakumar Viswanathan, Anissa A. Widjaja et al.
Promoter-bound METTL3 maintains myeloid leukaemia by m6A-dependent translation control
The methyltransferase METTL3 promotes the leukaemic state in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) by catalysing the m6A RNA modification through its recruitment on the transcription start sites of AML-associated genes.
Isaia Barbieri, Konstantinos Tzelepis, Luca Pandolfini et al.
Direct detection of a break in the teraelectronvolt cosmic-ray spectrum of electrons and positrons
A direct measurement of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons with unprecedentedly high energy resolution reveals a spectral break at about 0.9 teraelectronvolts, confirming the evidence found by previous indirect measurements.
DAMPE Collaboration
Programmable self-assembly of three-dimensional nanostructures from 10,000 unique components
DNA bricks with binding domains of 13 nucleotides instead of the typical 8 make it possible to self-assemble gigadalton-scale, three-dimensional nanostructures consisting of tens of thousands of unique components.
Luvena L. Ong, Nikita Hanikel, Omar K. Yaghi et al.
Gigadalton-scale shape-programmable DNA assemblies
By using DNA sequence information to encode the shapes of DNA origami building blocks, shape-programmable assemblies can be created, with sizes and complexities similar to those of viruses.
Klaus F. Wagenbauer, Christian Sigl, Hendrik Dietz
Primordial clays on Mars formed beneath a steam or supercritical atmosphere
Many Martian clays formed when Mars’ primary crust reacted with a water/carbon dioxide steam or supercritical atmosphere and subsequent impacts and volcanism caused the distribution of clay exposures seen today.
Kevin M. Cannon, Stephen W. Parman, John F. Mustard
Genetic diversity of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae
Genome sequencing analyses from 765 specimens of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii from 15 locations across Africa characterize patterns of gene flow and variations in population size, and provide a resource for studying the evolution of natural malaria vector populations.
The Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Consortium
Maternal age generates phenotypic variation in Caenorhabditis elegans
Maternal age is found to be a major source of phenotypic variation in isogenic C. elegans populations living in a controlled environment, with the progeny of young mothers impaired for multiple fitness traits.
Marcos Francisco Perez, Mirko Francesconi, Cristina Hidalgo-Carcedo et al.
Inactivation of DNA repair triggers neoantigen generation and impairs tumour growth
The inactivation of DNA mismatch repair in cancer cells produces dynamic mutational profiles and generates neoantigens, which result in improved immune surveillance against these cells.
Giovanni Germano, Simona Lamba, Giuseppe Rospo et al.
PD-1 is a haploinsufficient suppressor of T cell lymphomagenesis
Loss of the PD-1 receptor promotes the development of T cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas by modulating oncogenic signalling pathways, and blocking these pathways reduces tumourigenesis.
Tim Wartewig, Zsuzsanna Kurgyis, Selina Keppler et al.
 
 
Careers & Jobs
 
Feature  
 
 
 
A celebration of Spain’s exemplary lab leaders
Alison Abbott
Career Briefs  
 
 
 
US science gender gap unpicked
Futures  
 
 
Please consider my science-fiction story
The art of writing.
David G. Blake
 
 
 
 
 

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