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woensdag 15 november 2017

The Lancet: [Comment] Encouraging results but questions remain for dengue vaccine

[Comment] Encouraging results but questions remain for dengue vaccine
Dengue has expanded dramatically over the past several decades, with the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1–4) now co-circulating in most dengue-endemic regions.1 A safe and efficacious vaccine will be a crucial element of comprehensive global prevention and control. In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Xavier Sáez-Llorens and colleagues2 report 18-month interim results from a phase 2 trial of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate, TDV (Takeda, Osaka, Japan). TDV was administered in either one or two doses separated by 3 or 12 months in 1800 participants aged 2–17 years in three dengue-endemic countries: Dominican Republic, Panama, and Philippines.
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[Corrections] Corrections
Gsell P-S, Camacho A, Kucharski AJ, et al. Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; published online October 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30541-8—Mosaka Fallah has been added to the author list, Severine Danmadji has been changed to Séverine Danmadji Nadlaou, and Honora Djidonou has been changed to Djidonou A Honora. The affiliation details and Contributors section have been updated to reflect these changes.
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[Comment] Addressing antimicrobial resistance in the UK and Europe
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has received substantial attention in recent years. Since bacteria evolve to resist the effects of existing antibiotics, infections can become more difficult to treat and subsequently modern medical interventions can become more dangerous for patients. Fear of so-called superbugs has spurred international authorities into action. In 2011, WHO developed a European strategic action plan on antibiotic resistance,1 which set forth strategic objectives to aid European member states in addressing the complex factors that cause AMR.
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[Review] Use of mathematical modelling to assess the impact of vaccines on antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic resistance is a major global threat to the provision of safe and effective health care. To control antibiotic resistance, vaccines have been proposed as an essential intervention, complementing improvements in diagnostic testing, antibiotic stewardship, and drug pipelines. The decision to introduce or amend vaccination programmes is routinely based on mathematical modelling. However, few mathematical models address the impact of vaccination on antibiotic resistance. We reviewed the literature using PubMed to identify all studies that used an original mathematical model to quantify the impact of a vaccine on antibiotic resistance transmission within a human population.
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[Review] Zika virus in French Polynesia 2013–14: anatomy of a completed outbreak
The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays.
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