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vrijdag 11 augustus 2017

The Lancet: [Review] Human toxocariasis

[Review] Human toxocariasis
Parasitic nematodes of the genus Toxocara are socioeconomically important zoonotic pathogens. These parasites are usually directly transmitted to the human host via the faecal–oral route and can cause toxocariasis and associated complications, including allergic and neurological disorders. Although tens of millions of people are estimated to be exposed to or infected with Toxocara spp, global epidemiological information on the relationship between seropositivity and toxocariasis is limited. Recent findings suggest that the effect of toxocariasis on human health is increasing in some countries.
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[Comment] The challenges of cholera at the 2017 Hajj pilgrimage
In September, 2017, up to 2 million pilgrims from all continents will arrive in Saudi Arabia for the annual Hajj pilgrimage.1 Living and worshipping together in crowded conditions will expose the pilgrims and the local Saudi Arabian community to a range of imported and local infections.1 Over the past 5 years the Hajj has focused attention on new and re-emerging infectious diseases with epidemic potential such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Zika virus, and pan-antibiotic-resistant bacteria—global health security threats that are ongoing and under active surveillance.
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[Articles] Measles immunity gaps and the progress towards elimination: a multi-country modelling analysis
Future vaccination strategies in high-fertility countries should focus on increasing childhood immunisation rates, either by raising first-dose coverage or by making erratic SIAs more frequent and regular. Immunisation campaigns targeting adolescents and adults are required in low-fertility countries, where the susceptibility in these age groups will otherwise sustain measles circulation.
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[Comment] What will it take to end human suffering from measles?
In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Filippo Trentini and colleagues1 presented the results of a comprehensive modelling analysis that examined the transmission of measles in nine countries with diverse demographic and vaccination histories. The results emphasised that to achieve and maintain measles elimination, countries will need to focus immunisation efforts on reaching different age groups and improving immunisation coverage.1 Specifically, in low-income (and high-fertility) countries, susceptibility remains concentrated in early childhood, and periodic Supplementary Immunization Activities continue to contribute substantially to population immunity.
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[Grand Round] Vertebral alveolar echinococcosis—a case report, systematic analysis, and review of the literature
Alveolar echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus multilocularis is an infrequent zoonosis with a high degree of disability, morbidity, and mortality, especially in disease clusters of the northern hemisphere. The diagnosis is complicated by extended incubation time, diverse clinical manifestations, and mimicking of differential diagnoses. The primary organ affected is the liver, but extrahepatic disease is possible, with vertebral involvement in only a few dozen cases described worldwide. Although vertebral alveolar echinococcosis seems to be rare, it might be under diagnosed, and it might be seen more often as the number of people with immunocompromised conditions increases.
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