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woensdag 23 augustus 2017

The Lancet: [Comment] Zika virus infection in semen: effect on human reproduction

[Comment] Zika virus infection in semen: effect on human reproduction
Unique among vector-borne flaviviruses, Zika virus can infect testis and male genital tract, can persist in semen for months after symptoms onset, and be sexually transmitted.1–3 In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Guillaume Joguet4 and colleagues report alterations of sperm and testicular function in men with Zika virus infection, with potential effect on human reproduction. In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors detected viral RNA in the semen of 11 of 15 tested men, including five with persistent seminal shedding after viral clearance in blood.
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[Review] Infectious causes of microcephaly: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management
Microcephaly is an important sign of neurological malformation and a predictor of future disability. The 2015–16 outbreak of Zika virus and congenital Zika infection brought the world's attention to links between Zika infection and microcephaly. However, Zika virus is only one of the infectious causes of microcephaly and, although the contexts in which they occur vary greatly, all are of concern. In this Review, we summarise important aspects of major congenital infections that can cause microcephaly, and describe the epidemiology, transmission, clinical features, pathogenesis, management, and long-term consequences of these infections.
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[Comment] Measuring progress on preventing pneumonia deaths: are we there yet?
In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, the GBD 2015 LRI Collaborators provide estimates of the burden of illnesses and deaths from lower respiratory tract infections as a group and specific numbers for four common aetiologies—Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal pneumonia), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).1 According to the models presented, lower respiratory tract infections remain a top cause of mortality for all ages—the fifth leading cause of deaths overall and second in children younger than 5 years.
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[Articles] Effect of HSV-2 infection on subsequent HIV acquisition: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
We found evidence that HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition. This finding has important implications for management of individuals diagnosed with HSV-2 infection, particularly for those who are newly infected. Interventions targeting HSV-2, such as new HSV vaccines, have the potential for additional benefit against HIV, which could be particularly powerful in regions with a high incidence of co-infection.
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[Comment] A fresh look at an old problem
The incidence of HIV infection has not changed in a decade. Since 2005, about 2·6 million people have become newly infected with HIV annually.1 Young women, particularly adolescent girls, account for a disproportionate number of new HIV infections. Development of successful strategies to prevent HIV acquisition might require more creative approaches to meet the needs of the most susceptible populations, including exploration of the role of sexually transmitted infections, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), in HIV infection.
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