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maandag 21 augustus 2017

The Lancet: [Comment] Spreading the knowledge on the epidemiology of sepsis

[Comment] Spreading the knowledge on the epidemiology of sepsis
Notwithstanding the definition we choose, sepsis-associated short-term and long-term mortality and morbidity remain a major public health concern. From a high-income country perspective, the half-full glass (as shown by a sustained decline in mortality1,2) is counterbalanced by the half-empty glass in which the high burden of long-term cognitive and functional decline seen in survivors of long-term sepsis3 is increasingly recognised. However, in low-income and middle-income countries, the growing evidence base obtained from recent epidemiological studies of sepsis leaves us far from optimistic.
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[Historical Review] Revisiting Jenner's mysteries, the role of the Beaugency lymph in the evolutionary path of ancient smallpox vaccines
In 1796, Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine consisting of pustular material obtained from lesions on cows affected by so-called cow-pox. The disease, caused by cowpox virus, confers crossprotection against smallpox. However, historical evidence suggests that Jenner might have used vaccinia virus or even horsepox virus instead of cowpox virus. Mysteries surrounding the origin and nature of the smallpox vaccine persisted during the 19th century, a period of intense exchange of vaccine strains, including the Beaugency lymph.
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[Articles] A score to predict and stratify risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases: a prospective derivation and external validation cohort study
Our externally validated risk score could predict and stratify 10-year risk of developing tuberculosis in adult contacts, and could be used to prioritise tuberculosis control interventions for people most likely to benefit.
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[Comment] Tuberculosis—making predictions, especially about the future
The End TB Strategy aims to reduce the burden of tuberculosis worldwide until global prevalence reaches that already attained by many developed countries. The goal amounts to 90% reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis and 95% reduction in tuberculosis deaths.1 The strategy focuses on early detection and treatment and preventive therapy. In 2015, 4·3 million patients with tuberculosis are estimated to have gone undetected and untreated globally,2 which highlights the need for expanding case finding among those most at risk.
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[Articles] Effect of acute Zika virus infection on sperm and virus clearance in body fluids: a prospective observational study
Semen alterations early after acute Zika virus infection might affect fertility and could be explained by virus effects on the testis and epididymis. Frequency of shedding and high viral load in semen, together with the presence of replicative virus in a motile spermatozoa fraction, can lead to Zika virus transmission during sexual contact and assisted reproduction procedures. Whole blood seems to be the best specimen for Zika virus RNA detection, diagnosis, and follow-up.
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