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woensdag 2 augustus 2017

Nature Climate Change Contents: August 2017 Volume 7 Number 8 pp 535-610

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

August 2017 Volume 7, Issue 8

Editorial
Correspondence
Commentaries
Feature
Research Highlights
News and Views
Letters
Articles

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KAUST Discovery: Research into sustainable agriculture

Plant Scientist Mark Tester's research into growing crops on poor-quality soils or on otherwise barren land is discovering some ground-breaking findings.

Find out more on how Tester's research could one day help feed the world. 

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Chatham House Climate Change conference 
9-10 October 2017

Major political changes have impacted global action on climate change. In this context, the ambitions of policy-makers to tackle this issue needs to be reassessed. In the lead-up to the 'global stocktake' in 2018, the challenges of emissions reductions persist and a step change is needed to achieve the Paris Agreement.
 
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Focus on sustainable materials

To ensure the sustainable development of our planet, we need to consider the implications of the materials we use on the ecosystem and society. This Focus from Nature Materials discusses strategies to assess the life-cycle environmental impact of materials and to make the production of key commodities more sustainable.

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Springer Nature offers a free open access funding support service to enable authors to discover and apply for article processing charge funding available to them.

Visit our website for further advice on the funding options available, and guidance in approaching funders and institutions, or email openaccess@nature.com for more information.
 
 

Editorial

Top

Choices to be made p535
doi:10.1038/nclimate3367
Local and regional authorities are making climate-conscious choices, whilst climate change impacts will soon mean individuals need to make choices to survive.

Correspondence

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Pragmatic disaster loss assessment p536
J. Handmer, M. A. Ladds and L. Magee
doi:10.1038/nclimate3349

Commentaries

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Cities spearhead climate action pp537 - 538
Mark Watts
doi:10.1038/nclimate3358
Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

Stop preaching to the converted pp538 - 540
Asheley R. Landrum and Robert B. Lull
doi:10.1038/nclimate3355
Traditional moral arguments fail to persuade conservative climate sceptics. Pope Francis' gifting of his climate encyclical to President Trump prior to his leaving the Paris Agreement shows that even a religious leader's persuasive power is constrained by how his message resonates with conservative moral values.

Impacts of the Larsen-C Ice Shelf calving event pp540 - 542
Anna E. Hogg and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
doi:10.1038/nclimate3359
A giant iceberg has calved off the Larsen-C Ice Shelf, the largest remaining ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula, reducing its total area by ~10%. Whilst calving events are a natural phenomenon and thus not necessarily indicative of changing environmental conditions, such events can impact ice-shelf stability.

Feature

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Businesses lead where US falters pp543 - 546
Erica Gies
doi:10.1038/nclimate3360
The Paris Agreement requires commitments from countries to take action and reduce emissions, but the corporate world is also looking at its contribution to mitigation.

Research Highlights

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Glaciology: Cloud loss melts Greenland | Mental health: Flood-induced displacement | Biogeochemistry: Primary production uncertainty | Media: Mitigation focus

News and Views

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Sea-level-rise impacts: Questioning inevitable migration pp548 - 549
Dominic Kniveton
doi:10.1038/nclimate3346
It is assumed that sea-level rise due to climate change will be so severe that those living near sea level will be forced to relocate. However, new research around a series of islands that have suffered subsidence due to a recent earthquake suggests that instead, island residents remain and use a range of strategies to adapt to regular flooding.
See also: Article by Ma. Laurice Jamero et al.

Climate dynamics: Land warming revives monsoon pp549 - 550
Mathew Koll Roxy
doi:10.1038/nclimate3356
A weakening land–ocean temperature difference, owing to a rapidly warming Indian Ocean, has seen the Indian monsoon trending downward since the 1950s. New research gives hope for a revival in monsoon rainfall as land warming catches up with, and exceeds, ocean warming.
See also: Article by Qinjian Jin et al.

Nature Climate Change
JOBS of the week
University Professor for Climate Change and Health
The Charité Center 1 for Health and Human Sciences and the Berlin School of Public Health (BSPH) in a joint appointment with the Potsdam Institute for Climate
Senior Lecturer / Associate Professor in Plant Biology
Macquarie University
Earth System Dynamics and Trajectories in Past and Future (work location Germany)
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)
Earth System Dynamics and Trajectories in Past and Future (work location Sweden)
Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University
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26.10.17
Bologna, Italy
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Nature Insight 
Biodiversity

Rotation 1: Highlighting the origins of Earth's biodiversity and how rapid increases in the human population are putting it to the test.

Rotation 2: Access the Insight online
 

Letters

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Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age pp551 - 556
Mohammad S. Masnadi and Adam R. Brandt
doi:10.1038/nclimate3347
The footprint of oil typically considers combustion emissions, neglecting extraction emissions. This study shows that production declines with depletion for 25 significant oil fields, whilst emissions increase through greater energy expenditure.

Balancing Europe’s wind-power output through spatial deployment informed by weather regimes pp557 - 562
Christian M. Grams, Remo Beerli, Stefan Pfenninger, Iain Staffell and Heini Wernli
doi:10.1038/nclimate3338
Weather regimes drive variability in wind-power generation across Europe, affecting energy security. Strategically deployed wind turbines in regions of contrasting weather regime behaviour can be used to balance wind capacity and minimize output variability.

Importance of the pre-industrial baseline for likelihood of exceeding Paris goals pp563 - 567
Andrew P. Schurer, Michael E. Mann, Ed Hawkins, Simon F. B. Tett and Gabriele C. Hegerl
doi:10.1038/nclimate3345
In order to meet internationally agreed temperature limits, it is important to have a defined baseline. This study shows for low-emission scenarios the likelihood and timing of exceedance are highly dependent on the baseline, as are allowable carbon emissions.

Continued increase of extreme El Niño frequency long after 1.5 °C warming stabilization pp568 - 572
Guojian Wang, Wenju Cai, Bolan Gan, Lixin Wu, Agus Santoso, Xiaopei Lin, Zhaohui Chen and Michael J. McPhaden
doi:10.1038/nclimate3351
CMIP5 simulations reveal that the frequency of extreme El Niño events doubles under the 1.5 °C Paris target, and continues to increase long after global temperatures stabilize due to emission reductions. Extreme La Niña events, however, see little change at either 1.5° or 2 °C warming.

The limits of modifying migration speed to adjust to climate change pp573 - 576
Heiko Schmaljohann and Christiaan Both
doi:10.1038/nclimate3336
Analysis synthesizing 49 tracking studies shows that flexibility in the major determinant of migration duration is insufficient to adjust to ongoing climate change, and is unlikely to explain many of the changes in arrival timing already observed.

Human disturbance and upward expansion of plants in a warming climate pp577 - 580
Matteo Dainese, Sami Aikio, Philip E. Hulme, Alessio Bertolli, Filippo Prosser and Lorenzo Marini
doi:10.1038/nclimate3337
A large proportion of European alpine plants are able to spread upslope faster than current climate velocities. Nevertheless, invasive species tend to be particularly effective dispersers, making them an additional pressure on the vulnerable native flora.

Articles

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Small-island communities in the Philippines prefer local measures to relocation in response to sea-level rise pp581 - 586
Ma. Laurice Jamero, Motoharu Onuki, Miguel Esteban, Xyza Kristina Billones-Sensano, Nicholson Tan, Angelie Nellas, Hiroshi Takagi, Nguyen Danh Thao and Ven Paolo Valenzuela
doi:10.1038/nclimate3344
It is often assumed that increased flooding due to sea-level rise will lead to mass migration. However, this study shows that residents of island communities in the Philippines prefer to implement local adaptation measures in response to frequent severe flooding rather than relocate.
See also: News and Views by Dominic Kniveton

A revival of Indian summer monsoon rainfall since 2002 pp587 - 594
Qinjian Jin and Chien Wang
doi:10.1038/nclimate3348
Since ∼1950, a significant reduction in Indian monsoon rainfall has been observed. Here, it is shown that land–ocean temperature contrasts have produced more favourable monsoon conditions since 2002, reviving summer monsoon rainfall over India.
See also: News and Views by Mathew Koll Roxy

Localized rapid warming of West Antarctic subsurface waters by remote winds pp595 - 603
Paul Spence, Ryan M. Holmes, Andrew McC. Hogg, Stephen M. Griffies, Kial D. Stewart and Matthew H. England
doi:10.1038/nclimate3335
The subsurface waters west of the Antarctic Peninsula are warming rapidly. This study shows that changes in coastal winds in East Antarctica are remotely impacting this region and drive the upwelling of warm deep water.

Arctic sea-ice decline weakens the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation pp604 - 610
Florian Sévellec, Alexey V. Fedorov and Wei Liu
doi:10.1038/nclimate3353
Sea-ice loss has exposed the Arctic Ocean to anomalous heat and freshwater. Climate model experiments suggest that these changes, particularly on multi-decadal timescales, may explain the observed slow-down in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

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Nature Communications sea-level rise collection

An evolving collection of the latest sea-level rise research published in Nature Communications, editorially curated and updated periodically. The collection draws together articles examining different aspects of this field, from observations and drivers of sea-level variability, to ice sheet dynamics and their contribution to sea-level rise, to coastal vulnerability to flooding and extreme sea levels. 

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