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donderdag 27 juli 2017

The Lancet: [Comment] Latent tuberculosis infection in rural China: who will develop tuberculosis?

[Comment] Latent tuberculosis infection in rural China: who will develop tuberculosis?
Screening people at risk of developing tuberculosis because of latent infection and offering preventive treatment to those with positive results is now regarded as one of the components of the WHO End TB Strategy.1 In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Lei Gao and colleagues2 present the results of a 2-year follow-up study in four rural regions of China, assessing patients with latent tuberculosis infection, defined by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or a positive interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT), which has been described in previous publications.
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[Articles] Protection against cholera from killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Two kOCV doses provide protection against cholera for at least 3 years. One kOCV dose provides at least short-term protection, which has important implications for outbreak management. kOCVs are effective tools for cholera control.
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[Comment] Oral cholera vaccines: exploring the farrago of evidence
The development of a cheap and effective oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is a remarkable achievement in the field of cholera prevention. A meta-analysis on the efficacy and effectiveness of OCVs by Qifang Bi and colleagues1 updates the estimates of the 2011 Cochrane review.2 Their analysis includes additional studies published since 2011, yet provides estimates that are almost the same.
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[Corrections] Corrections
Charlier C, Perrodeau É, Leclercq A, et al. Clinical features and prognostic factors of listeriosis: the MONALISA national prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; 17: 510–19—A member of the MONALISA study group was incorrectly listed in the appendix. Nicolas Vodovar should have read Dominique Vodovar. This correction has been made to the online version as of July 17, 2017.
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[Review] The basic reproduction number (R) of measles: a systematic review
The basic reproduction number, R nought (R0), is defined as the average number of secondary cases of an infectious disease arising from a typical case in a totally susceptible population, and can be estimated in populations if pre-existing immunity can be accounted for in the calculation. R0 determines the herd immunity threshold and therefore the immunisation coverage required to achieve elimination of an infectious disease. As R0 increases, higher immunisation coverage is required to achieve herd immunity.
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