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woensdag 28 juni 2017

Nature contents: 29 June 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 546 Issue 7660
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorials  
 
 
 
Image doctoring must be halted
Researchers and journals need to do more to counter inapropriately manipulated figures in science.
Intuition harnessed in the name of particle packing
From avalanches to pharmaceuticals, the physics of powders relies on a much-maligned talent.
The secrets of a top salary in science
The highest-earning academics aren’t necessarily those who do the most research.
 
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World View  
 
 
 
Let science be a springboard for politics
Governing well demands the same mindset as doing good research, says James Martin
 
Seven Days  
 
 
 
Pirate sites, grizzly bears and a cholera outbreak
The week in science: 23–29 June 2017.
Research Highlights  
 
 
 
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
 
 
News in Focus
 
Success of gravity-wave satellite paves way for three-craft mission
Technology far exceeded expectations in LISA Pathfinder test.
Davide Castelvecchi
  Scientists in limbo as US Supreme Court allows modified travel ban
Justices overturn lower-court rulings on policy targeting people from six majority-Muslim countries.
Sara Reardon
Overlooked water loss in plants could throw off climate models
Errors could cause researchers to overestimate the rate of photosynthesis when water is scarce.
Heidi Ledford
  Air guns used in offshore oil exploration can kill tiny marine life
Lethal effects from pulses of sound used to probe the sea floor can travel over a kilometre.
Jeff Tollefson
Modified viruses deliver death to antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Engineered microbes turn a bacterium's immune response against itself using CRISPR.
Sara Reardon
 
Features  
 
 
 
How quantum trickery can scramble cause and effect
Logic-defying experiments in quantum causality can twist the notion of time itself.
Philip Ball
 
 
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Comment
 
Three years to safeguard our climate
Christiana Figueres and colleagues set out a six-point plan for turning the tide of the world’s carbon dioxide by 2020.
Christiana Figueres, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Gail Whiteman et al.
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
Astrobiology: Hunting aliens
Ramin Skibba enjoys a profile of the woman heading the search for life off Earth.
Ramin Skibba
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Medicine: Heroes of global health
Amy Maxmen assesses a documentary on medical pioneer Paul Farmer and colleagues round the world.
Amy Maxmen
Correspondence  
 
 
 
Clean energy: 'Flammable ice' — extract with caution
Haoran Dong, Guangming Zeng
  Developing countries: Growing threat of urban waste dumps
Huabo Duan, Jinhui Li, Gang Liu
Taxonomy: naming algae, fungi, plants
Vicki A. Funk, Patrick Herendeen, Sandra Knapp
  Taxonomy: use the red list as a registry
Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra
Taxonomy: avoid extra bureaucracy
Peter M. Hollingsworth
  Taxonomy: retain scientific autonomy
Markus Lambertz
Taxonomy: swallow the costly medicine
John Buckeridge
  Taxonomy: the IUBS responds
Hiroyuki Takeda
Bibliometrics: An obituary for the impact factor
Richard J. Roberts
 
 
 
Specials
 
TECHNOLOGY FEATURE  
 
 
 
The architecture of structured DNA
Researchers are exploiting the structural properties of DNA to build nanoscale models for use in medicine and materials science.
XiaoZhi Lim
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
Cancer genomics: Less is more in the hunt for driver mutations
An analysis of 360 breast-cancer genomes has identified cancer-driving mutations in 9 non-coding DNA sequences called promoters, which regulate gene expression. The result hints at the prevalence of non-coding drivers.
Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution
Results of fine-mapping 94 inflammatory bowel disease loci using high-density genotyping in 67,852 individuals and several new fine-mapping methods.
Climate change drives expansion of Antarctic ice-free habitat
Permanently ice-free areas, home to almost all of Antarctica’s biodiversity, are projected, in the worst case, to expand by over 17,000 km2 as a result of climate change by the end of this century, with potentially deleterious consequences for the continent’s biodiversity.
Recurrent and functional regulatory mutations in breast cancer
High-depth sequencing of targeted regions in primary breast cancer identifies mutated promoter elements with recurrent mutations at specific and/or nearby bases, suggesting selection of certain non-coding events.
RNase III nucleases from diverse kingdoms serve as antiviral effectors
RNase III from all three domains of life elicits RNA-targeting antiviral activity that is independent of, and possibly predates, other known eukaryotic antiviral systems.
Tracing the origins of relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia to stem cells
Identification of the cell types from which relapse arises in acute myeloid leukaemia, by following leukaemia propagation from patient-derived leukaemia samples.
mTORC1-dependent AMD1 regulation sustains polyamine metabolism in prostate cancer
mTOR complex 1 signalling regulates polyamine metabolism and thereby promotes tumorigenesis, through regulation of the stability of a key enzyme, AMD1.
Unique roles for histone H3K9me states in RNAi and heritable silencing of transcription
Corrigendum: Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance
Brief Communications Arising  
 
 
 
Contesting the evidence for limited human lifespan
Nicholas J. L. Brown, Casper J. Albers, Stuart J. Ritchie
Dong et al. reply
Xiao Dong, Brandon Milholland, Jan Vijg
Many possible maximum lifespan trajectories
Bryan G. Hughes, Siegfried Hekimi
Dong et al. reply
Xiao Dong, Brandon Milholland, Jan Vijg
Is there evidence for a limit to human lifespan?
Maarten P. Rozing, Thomas B. L. Kirkwood, Rudi G. J. Westendorp
Dong et al. reply
Xiao Dong, Brandon Milholland, Jan Vijg
Questionable evidence for a limit to human lifespan
Adam Lenart, James W. Vaupel
Dong et al. reply
Xiao Dong, Brandon Milholland, Jan Vijg
Maximum human lifespan may increase to 125 years
Joop de Beer, Anastasios Bardoutsos, Fanny Janssen
Dong et al. reply
Xiao Dong, Brandon Milholland, Jan Vijg
News and Views  
 
 
 
Optical physics: A larger quantum alphabet
Roberto Osellame
Infectious diseases: Predictions of virus spillover across species
James O. Lloyd-Smith
Materials science: A light-fuelled wave machine
Yanlei Yu
 
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50 & 100 Years Ago
 
Immunology: Gut sensor halts viral attack
Pedro H. V. Saavedra, Mohamed Lamkanfi
Physical chemistry: The fingerprints of reaction mechanisms
Claire Vallance
 
Metastasis: Lymphatic detours for cancer
Ayuko Hoshino, David Lyden
Articles  
 
 
 
Structure of a pre-catalytic spliceosome
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the yeast spliceosome in a pre-catalytic state provides insights into the molecular events leading to formation of the spliceosome active site.
Clemens Plaschka, Pei-Chun Lin, Kiyoshi Nagai
Homeostatic circuits selectively gate food cue responses in insular cortex
A combination of microprism-based cellular imaging to monitor insular cortex visual cue responses in behaving mice across hunger states with circuit mapping and manipulations reveals a neural basis for state-specific biased processing of motivationally relevant cues.
Yoav Livneh, Rohan N. Ramesh, Christian R. Burgess et al.
Letters  
 
 
 
On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control
The on-chip generation of high-dimensional frequency-entangled states and their spectral-domain manipulation are demonstrated, introducing a powerful and practical platform for quantum information processing.
Michael Kues, Christian Reimer, Piotr Roztocki et al.
Observation of three-component fermions in the topological semimetal molybdenum phosphide
A new type of fermion, corresponding to a three-fold degeneracy in the electronic band structure of crystalline molybdenum phosphide, is observed, which lies conceptually between Dirac and Weyl fermions.
B. Q. Lv, Z.-L. Feng, Q.-N. Xu et al.
Making waves in a photoactive polymer film
Illumination of thin liquid-crystal polymer films that contain azobenzene derivatives with short thermal relaxation times induces a continuous wave motion throughout the films, owing to a feedback loop driven by material self-shadowing.
Anne Helene Gelebart, Dirk Jan Mulder, Michael Varga et al.
Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation
A phase-separation mechanism is proposed for the dominance of the surface tension effect over the solute effect in the observed activation of ultrafine cloud condensation nuclei.
Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Andreas Zuend, Ari Laaksonen et al.
Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals
Analysis of a comprehensive database of mammalian host–virus relationships reveals that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable and that this enables identification of mammalian species and geographic locations where novel zoonoses are likely to be found.
Kevin J. Olival, Parviez R. Hosseini, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio et al.
Hidden morphological diversity among early tetrapods
Detailed micro-computed tomography analysis of the skull of Lethiscus stocki places it much earlier in the tetrapod lineage that was previously thought, showing that early tetrapods were more morphologically diverse than has been believed.
Jason D. Pardo, Matt Szostakiwskyj, Per E. Ahlberg et al.
Trans-kingdom mimicry underlies ribosome customization by a poxvirus kinase
The poxvirus vaccinia virus phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit RACK1, converting it to a plant-like state to favour translation of poxvirus mRNAs
Sujata Jha, Madeline G. Rollins, Gabriele Fuchs et al.
T cells from patients with Parkinson’s disease recognize α-synuclein peptides
Epitopes derived from two regions of α-synuclein elicit immune responses in patients with Parkinson’s disease, involving IL-5-secreting CD4+ T cells, as well as IFNγ-secreting CD8+ cytotoxic T cells.
David Sulzer, Roy N. Alcalay, Francesca Garretti et al.
Human fetal dendritic cells promote prenatal T-cell immune suppression through arginase-2
Prenatal immune suppression is regulated by fetal arginase-2-expressing dendritic cells which respond normally to toll-like receptor stimulation but, in contrast to adult dendritic cells, induce regulatory T cells and repress TNF-α secretion by effector T cells.
Naomi McGovern, Amanda Shin, Gillian Low et al.
Nlrp9b inflammasome restricts rotavirus infection in intestinal epithelial cells
The inflammasome receptor Nlrp9b defends against enteric viruses by interacting with double-stranded viral RNA-bound helicase Dhx9, triggering gasdermin-D-dependent pyroptotic cell death of infected cells and secretion of Il-18.
Shu Zhu, Siyuan Ding, Penghua Wang et al.
ERF mutations reveal a balance of ETS factors controlling prostate oncogenesis
In prostate cancer, the oncogenicity of transcription factor ERG is mediated, in part, by competition with another member of the ETS family, ERF.
Rohit Bose, Wouter R. Karthaus, Joshua Armenia et al.
Whole-body imaging of lymphovascular niches identifies pre-metastatic roles of midkine
Genetically engineered ‘lymphoreporter’ mouse strains are used to track melanoma dissemination in vivo, identifying midkine as a tumour-secreted factor that acts at a distance, preparing pre-metastatic niches and serving as an indicator of poor prognosis in patients.
David Olmeda, Daniela Cerezo-Wallis, Erica Riveiro-Falkenbach et al.
Crystal structure of the potassium-importing KdpFABC membrane complex
The crystal structure of the bacterial potassium import complex KdpFABC shows how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to potassium transport to maintain cellular homeostasis under low potassium conditions.
Ching-Shin Huang, Bjørn Panyella Pedersen, David L. Stokes
Corrigenda  
 
 
 
Corrigendum: CD32a is a marker of a CD4 T-cell HIV reservoir harbouring replication-competent proviruses
Benjamin Descours, Gaël Petitjean, José-Luis López-Zaragoza et al.
Corrigendum: Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks
Andre Esteva, Brett Kuprel, Roberto A. Novoa et al.
Corrigendum: Common genetic variation drives molecular heterogeneity in human iPSCs
Helena Kilpinen, Angela Goncalves, Andreas Leha et al.
 
 
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Careers & Jobs
 
Feature  
 
 
 
Networking: High fliers
Amber Dance
Q&AS  
 
 
 
Turning point: Tumour tactician
Virginia Gewin
News  
 
 
 
Gender bias: Citation lag in astronomy
Virginia Gewin
Futures  
 
 
Jurassic jaws jones
Artistic licence.
Hal Y. Zhang
 
 
 
 
 

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University of Cambridge 

 
 
 
 
 

Chair of Excellence in Biology at UGA

 
 

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Assistant or Associate Professor

 
 

University of Pittsburgh 

 
 
 
 
 

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Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) 

 
 
 
 

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Starving for truth: Nutrition myths and controversies

 
 

06.11.17 London, UK

 
 
 
 

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