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Nature Neuroscience Contents: May 2017 Volume 20 Number 5, pp 629 - 759

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Nature Neuroscience


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

May 2017 Volume 20, Issue 5

News and Views
Review
Articles
Technical Report
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News and Views

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Showing transmitters the door: synucleins accelerate vesicle release   pp629 - 631
Dennis J Selkoe
doi:10.1038/nn.4551
α-Synuclein is present at high levels in all neurons and their synapses. We now learn that this protein helps dilate the fusion pore, which forms transiently during vesicle exocytosis, promoting release of certain neurotransmitters.

See also: Article by Logan et al.

Upstream current for a downstream flow   pp631 - 633
Jessica A Filosa
doi:10.1038/nn.4542
Capillary endothelial cells sense neuronal activity-evoked increases in extracellular K+ via KIR2.1 inwardly rectifying K+ channels. The ensuing hyperpolarization travels upstream along the vascular network, reaching arterioles and evoking vasodilation.

See also: Article by Longden et al.

Cerebellar granule cells expand their talents   pp633 - 634
Matthew I Becker and Abigail L Person
doi:10.1038/nn.4552
Technical advances in calcium imaging enable the first tests of classic theories of cerebellar learning. Two independent groups reveal dense representation of surprising modalities in cerebellar granule cells.

See also: Article by Giovannucci et al.

Monkeys face face distortions   pp635 - 636
Guy A Orban
doi:10.1038/nn.4556
A study combines monkey behavioral testing with electrical stimulation of face patches, located with functional MRI and studied electrophysiologically, to probe the behavioral relevance of the face patches' selectivity.

See also: Article by Moeller et al.

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Review

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Cell transplantation therapy for spinal cord injury   pp637 - 647
Peggy Assinck, Greg J Duncan, Brett J Hilton, Jason R Plemel and Wolfram Tetzlaff
doi:10.1038/nn.4541
The consequences of spinal cord injury are often severe and irreversible; cell transplantation has emerged as a potential treatment. In this Review, the authors highlight mechanisms through which cell transplantation is thought to promote functional improvements and the obstacles to making cell transplantation a viable therapy.

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Portable fNIRS System

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Articles

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Developmental alterations in Huntington's disease neural cells and pharmacological rescue in cells and mice   pp648 - 660
The HD iPSC Consortium:  Ryan G Lim, Lisa L Salazar, Daniel K Wilton, Alvin R King, Jennifer T Stocksdale, Delaram Sharifabad, Alice L Lau, Beth Stevens, Jack C Reidling, Sara T Winokur, Malcolm S Casale, Leslie M Thompson, Monica Pardo, A Gerardo Garcia Diaz-Barriga, Marco Straccia, Phil Sanders, Jordi Alberch, Josep M Canals, Julia A Kaye, Mariah Dunlap, Lisa Jo, Hanna May, Elliot Mount, Cliff Anderson-Bergman, Kelly Haston, Steven Finkbeiner, Amanda J Kedaigle, Theresa A Gipson, Ferah Yildirim, Christopher W Ng, Pamela Milani, David E Housman, Ernest Fraenkel, Nicholas D Allen, Paul J Kemp, Ranjit Singh Atwal, Marta Biagioli, James F Gusella, Marcy E MacDonald, Sergey S Akimov, Nicolas Arbez, Jacqueline Stewart, Christopher A Ross, Virginia B Mattis, Colton M Tom, Loren Ornelas, Anais Sahabian, Lindsay Lenaeus, Berhan Mandefro, Dhruv Sareen and Clive N Svendsen
doi:10.1038/nn.4532
The Huntington's disease (HD) induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) consortium describe the combined use of differentiated patient-derived iPSCs and systems biology to discover underlying mechanisms in HD. They identify neurodevelopmental deficits in HD cells that can be corrected in cells and in vivo with a small molecule.

Purine synthesis promotes maintenance of brain tumor initiating cells in glioma   pp661 - 673
Xiuxing Wang, Kailin Yang, Qi Xie, Qiulian Wu, Stephen C Mack et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4537
Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) utilize high-affinity glucose uptake, which is normally active in neurons to maintain energy demands and self-renew. Leveraging metabolomic and genomic analyses, Wang et al. report that de novo purine biosynthesis reprograms BTIC metabolism, revealing a potential point of fragility amenable to targeted cancer therapy.

Regulatory T cells promote myelin regeneration in the central nervous system   pp674 - 680
Yvonne Dombrowski, Thomas O'Hagan, Marie Dittmer, Rosana Penalva, Sonia R Mayoral et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4528
Regeneration of myelin is a dynamic, yet enigmatic process. Dombrowski et al. uncover a central role for regulatory T (Treg) cells in driving oligodendrocyte differentiation, in part via CCN3, a novel factor in Treg function and oligodendrocyte biology. This identifies Treg cells as key cellular players in efficient remyelination.

α-Synuclein promotes dilation of the exocytotic fusion pore   pp681 - 689
Todd Logan, Jacob Bendor, Chantal Toupin, Kurt Thorn and Robert H Edwards
doi:10.1038/nn.4529
The authors used knockout mice to demonstrate the normal function of the protein α-synuclein, which has a central role in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases. The presynaptic protein promoted dilation of the exocytotic fusion pore, and mutations that cause Parkinson's disease specifically impaired this normal function.

See also: News and Views by Selkoe

Activity-induced histone modifications govern Neurexin-1 mRNA splicing and memory preservation   pp690 - 699
Xinlu Ding, Sanxiong Liu, Miaomiao Tian, Wenhao Zhang, Tao Zhu et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4536
Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that preserve memories during long-term storage. The authors found that neural activation during learning triggers long-lasting transcription of a specific neurexin-1 splice isoform, enabling retention of hippocampus-dependent memory. This process was mediated by signaling through the AMPK pathway leading to histone modifications.

C1 neurons mediate a stress-induced anti-inflammatory reflex in mice   pp700 - 707
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Mabel A Inglis, Kenneth E Viar, Liping Huang et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4526
Acute stress elicits physiological and behavioral responses that enhance survival. This study in mice shows that stress reduces tissue injury in a model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by activating an anti-inflammatory response via the sympathetic system and the spleen. C1 neurons located in the brainstem mediate this protective effect of stress.

GLP-1 acts on habenular avoidance circuits to control nicotine intake   pp708 - 716
Luis M Tuesta, Zuxin Chen, Alexander Duncan, Christie D Fowler, Masago Ishikawa et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4540
Nicotine has rewarding effects that motivate its consumption. In addition to these rewarding effects, nicotine also has aversive properties that motivate its avoidance. Here the authors identify a pathway in the brain that regulates nicotine avoidance. Adaptive responses in this and other aversion-related pathways may contribute to the development of tobacco addiction.

Capillary K+-sensing initiates retrograde hyperpolarization to increase local cerebral blood flow   pp717 - 726
Thomas A Longden, Fabrice Dabertrand, Masayo Koide, Albert L Gonzales, Nathan R Tykocki et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4533
Longden et al. demonstrate that brain capillaries function as a vast sensory web, monitoring neuronal activity by sensing K+ and translating this into a KIR-channel-mediated regenerative retrograde hyperpolarizing signal that propagates to upstream arterioles to drive vasodilation and an increase in blood flow into the capillary bed.

See also: News and Views by Filosa

Cerebellar granule cells acquire a widespread predictive feedback signal during motor learning   pp727 - 734
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4531
Granule cells constitute half of the cells in the brain, yet their activity during behavior is largely uncharacterized. The authors report that granule cells encode multisensory representations that evolve with learning into a predictive motor signal. This activity may help the cerebellum implement a forward model for action.

See also: News and Views by Becker & Person

Dopamine transients are sufficient and necessary for acquisition of model-based associations   pp735 - 742
Melissa J Sharpe, Chun Yun Chang, Melissa A Liu, Hannah M Batchelor, Lauren E Mueller et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4538
Learning to predict reward is thought to be driven by dopaminergic prediction errors, which reflect discrepancies between actual and expected value. Here the authors show that learning to predict neutral events is also driven by prediction errors and that such value-neutral associative learning is also likely mediated by dopaminergic error signals.

The effect of face patch microstimulation on perception of faces and objects   pp743 - 752
Sebastian Moeller, Trinity Crapse, Le Chang and Doris Y Tsao
doi:10.1038/nn.4527
Scientists have long debated the extent to which different brain regions are specialized for specific tasks. Here the authors show that electrical microstimulation of face-selective brain regions in the temporal lobe of monkeys distorts the animal's percept not just of faces but also of certain non-face objects including round objects.

See also: News and Views by Orban

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Technical Report

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Differentiation of human and murine induced pluripotent stem cells to microglia-like cells   pp753 - 759
Hetal Pandya, Michael J Shen, David M Ichikawa, Andrea B Sedlock, Yong Choi et al.
doi:10.1038/nn.4534
Pandya et al. describe a protocol to differentiate human and mouse iPSCs into cells with the phenotype, transcriptional profile and functional properties of microglia. The treatment of murine intracranial malignant gliomas with these cells demonstrates their potential clinical use. These microglia-like cells will enable further studies into the role of microglia in health and disease.

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