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woensdag 22 maart 2017

Nature contents: 23 March 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 543 Issue 7646
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorials  
 
 
 
Trump faces backlash on health-agency cuts
Crippling the US National Institutes of Health might increase resistance to other attacks on science.
The FDA chief must not be a proxy for industry
Trump's pick for the US regulatory agency will bring experience and a clear vision — as well as ties to industry.
Birds of play demonstrate the infectious power of emotion
New Zealand parrots provide the latest support for a popular theory of crowd behaviour.
 
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World View  
 
 
 
Europe can build on scientific intuition
Carlos Moedas sees a bold future for the European Research Council and more projects that copy its approach.
 
Seven Days  
 
 
 
Nuclear-test films, smoking declines and five new particles
The week in science: 17–23 March 2017.
Research Highlights  
 
 
 
Materials: Graphene layers give colourful warning | Virology: Viruses switch hosts to evolve | Fatty bones weaken with age | Astronomy: Star orbits close to black hole | Energy: Sodium battery packs a punch | Climate-change biology: Heat could lead to tiny mammals | Animal behaviour: Kingsnakes go for the big squeeze | Evolution: Oldest algal fossils found | Drug discovery: CRISPR finds drug synergy
 
 
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News in Focus
 
US science agencies face deep cuts in Trump budget
The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institutes of Health are big losers — but planetary science at NASA stands to gain.
Sara Reardon, Jeff Tollefson, Alexandra Witze et al.
  Mathematicians create warped worlds in virtual reality
Immersive experience set to become accessible to all.
Davide Castelvecchi
South Korea's scientists seek change amid political chaos
President's impeachment creates opportunity to shift how nation supports basic research.
Mark Zastrow
  South Africa's San people issue ethics code to scientists
The indigenous people — known for their click languages — are the first in Africa to draft guidelines for researchers.
Ewen Callaway
'Wavelet revolution' pioneer scoops top maths award
Yves Meyer wins the Abel Prize for role in theory with data applications from digital cinema to pinpointing gravitational waves.
Davide Castelvecchi
 
Features  
 
 
 
How to hunt for a black hole with a telescope the size of Earth
Astronomers hope to grab the first images of an event horizon — the point of no return.
Davide Castelvecchi
Multimedia  
 
 
Nature Podcast: 23 March 2017
This week, peering into a black hole, reorganising the dinosaur family tree and finding drug combos for cancer.
Correction  
 
 
Corrections
 
 
Nature Reviews Immunology and Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology: Poster on Bone marrow niches and HSC fates
This poster shows the signalling pathways between stromal and haematopoietic cells of the bone marrow niche that direct the fate of haematopoietic stem cells.
Produced with support from
 
 
Comment
 
Predatory journals recruit fake editor
An investigation finds that dozens of academic titles offered 'Dr Fraud' — a sham, unqualified scientist — a place on their editorial board. Katarzyna Pisanski and colleagues report.
Piotr Sorokowski, Emanuel Kulczycki, Agnieszka Sorokowska et al.
Don't link carbon markets
A global network of cap-and-trade systems would deliver greater complexity and fewer emissions cuts, warns Jessica F. Green.
Jessica F. Green
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
Environmental sciences: Troubled waters on the Great Lakes
Anna M. Michalak on the taming and invasion of Earth's largest fresh-water system.
Anna M. Michalak
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Evolution: Four takes on the evolution of art
Nurin Veis tours a show on theories of creativity, curated by a quartet of scientists.
Nurin Veis
Correspondence  
 
 
 
Corporate culture: protect idea factories
Ralf Buckley
  Renewable energy: Commercial hurdles to wave power
Bent Sørensen
Politics: Listen to accused Turkish scientists
A. Mesut Erzurumluoglu
  Environment: China's decadal pollution census
Qing Hu, Xuetao Zhao, Xiao Jin Yang
Chromatography: Shirts off to boost separation methods
Min-Liang Wong
 
Obituary  
 
 
 
Eugene Garfield (1925–2017)
Inventor of the Science Citation Index.
Paul Wouters
 
 
Specials
 
Outline  
 
 
 
Quantum computing: towards reality
Andreas Trabesinger
  Quantum leaps, bit by bit
Andreas Trabesinger
Sponsor
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NATURE INDEX  
 
 
 
Striving for a research renaissance
Nicky Phillips
What price will science pay for austerity?
Japan's stagnated research output corresponds with a deteriorating situation for young researchers
Ichiko Fuyuno
Q&A: Branching out in tough times
Juichi Yamagiwa
Profile: Yoshinori Ohsumi: The rise and rise of a biology superstar
Nobel laureate Yoshinori Ohsumi's persistent study of baker's yeast spawned an exciting new field, and proves the value of supporting scientists in pursuit of their passion
Tim Hornyak
Comment: Drawing a new bottom line
'Abenomic' plans to make Japan's universities compete for private funding lie at the heart of reforms to kickstart a struggling sector
Atsushi Sunami
Dusting off outdated patterns
Japan's efforts to encourage innovation and an international outlook face significant obstacles
Ian Munroe
World news: A beacon in the bush becomes an astronomy powerhouse
South Africa's University of the Western Cape has exceeded expectations
Linda Nordling
World news: Comment: Research needs more competence, less 'excellence'
There is much talk about the need for excellence, but is it really what science needs, asks Adrian Barnett
Adrian Barnett
World news: Comment: A call to action for equality
It's time for the academic community to convert words into workplace practice and policy, writes Tim Wess
Tim Wess
World news: Engineering a gender bias
Female researchers cite their own work less than men. If citations are the currency of science, women are being short-changed
Flynn Murphy
A guide to the Nature Index
A description of the terminology and methodology used in this supplement, and a guide to the functionality available free online at natureindex.com
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
Marine conservation: How to heal an ocean
Marine protected areas are being implemented at an accelerating pace, and hold promise for restoring damaged ecosystems. But glaring shortfalls in staffing and funding often lead to suboptimal outcomes.
Structural biology: Receptors grease the metabolic wheels
Structural insights into adiponectin receptors provide evidence that these proteins have an inherent enzymatic activity, which gives them the ability to propagate signalling by their ligand, the hormone adiponectin.
Biochemistry: A wine-induced breakdown
A polysaccharide called rhamnogalacturonan II is a major component of some fruits, but humans rely on their gut microbiota to digest it. The microbes and processes responsible for this digestion have now been revealed.
Materials science: Chain mail reverses the Hall effect
The sign of a material's charge carriers is usually reflected in the sign of the 'Hall voltage'. But for a structure inspired by chain mail, altering its geometry inverts the Hall voltage, even if the charge carriers are unchanged.
LACTB is a tumour suppressor that modulates lipid metabolism and cell state
LACTB modulates mitochondrial lipid metabolism and changes the differentiation state of breast cancer cells, thereby negatively affecting the growth of various tumorigenic, but not non-tumorigenic, cells both in vitro and in vivo.
Functional materials discovery using energy–structure–function maps
Energy–structure–function maps that describe the possible structures and properties of molecular crystals are developed, and these maps are used to guide the experimental discovery of porous materials with specific functions.
Neural ensemble dynamics underlying a long-term associative memory
Use of a head-mounted miniature microscope in awake, behaving mice reveals that neural ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in a way that matches models of supervised learning.
Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally
Although 71% of marine protected areas are benefiting fish populations, their effects are highly variable, with staff capacity proving to be the most important explanatory variable.
Complex pectin metabolism by gut bacteria reveals novel catalytic functions
The hierarchical deconstruction of the complex pectic glycan rhamnogalacturonan-II by the human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveals seven new families of glycoside hydrolases and three catalytic functions not previously observed.
Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy
By switching shell growth on and off on the (0001) facet of wurtzite CdSe cores to produce a built-in biaxial strain that lowers the optical gain threshold, we achieve continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot films.
Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens
Evidence for the abundant presentation of class II neoantigens by a human B-cell lymphoma.
Low-temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol using Pt/α-MoC catalysts
As an alternative vehicle fuel, hydrogen can be generated in situ from methanol and water—a process that is shown here to occur under mild conditions using a catalyst that comprises platinum atomically dispersed on an α-molybdenum carbide substrate.
Effective combinatorial immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer
A new chimaeric mouse model of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer to efficiently test combination therapies in an autochthonous setting.
Ancient evolutionary origin of vertebrate enteric neurons from trunk-derived neural crest
Whereas the enteric nervous system of jawed vertebrates is derived largely from the vagal neural crest, that of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is populated by trunk-derived neural crest cells that may be homologous to Schwann cell precursors.
The allosteric inhibitor ABL001 enables dual targeting of BCR–ABL1
The selective allosteric ABL1 inhibitor ABL001 (asciminib) represents a new inhibitory mechanism for BCR–ABL1-driven malignancies, and its efficacy and evolving mechanisms of resistance do not overlap with those of other BCR–ABL1 kinase inhibitors.
Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo
Whole-genome sequencing of normal blood cells sampled from 241 adults is used to infer mosaic point mutations that are likely to have arisen during early embryogenesis, providing insight into how early cellular dynamics may affect adult tissues.
The lung is a site of platelet biogenesis and a reservoir for haematopoietic progenitors
Direct imaging of the lung microcirculation in mice indicates that it is a major site of mature platelet production from megakaryocytes.
Structural insights into adiponectin receptors suggest ceramidase activity
Structures of the adiponectin receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 combined with molecular dynamics simulations and enzymatic assays suggest that both receptors have intrinsic ceramidase activity.
Cerebellar granule cells encode the expectation of reward
A sizable fraction of granule cells convey information about the expectation of reward, with different populations responding to reward delivery, anticipation and omission, with some responses evolving over time with learning.
Corrigendum: Mobile genes in the human microbiome are structured from global to individual scales
Corrigendum: Sliding sleeves of XRCC4–XLF bridge DNA and connect fragments of broken DNA
Corrigendum: Cell death by pyroptosis drives CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infection
News and Views  
 
 
 
Hiv: Finding latent needles in a haystack
Douglas D. Richman
Microbiology: Bacterial transmission tactics
Michael Strong, Rebecca M. Davidson
Ecology: A helping habitat for bumblebees
Jeffrey D. Lozier
 

npj Precision Oncology is a new open access, online-only, peer-reviewed journal committed to publishing cutting-edge scientific research in all aspects of precision oncology from basic science to translational applications, to clinical medicine. The journal is part of the Nature Partner Journals series and published in partnership with The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota.
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Palaeontology: Dividing the dinosaurs
Kevin Padian
 
Condensed-matter physics: Vibrations mapped by an electron beam
Christian Colliex
Articles  
 
 
 
Complex multi-enhancer contacts captured by genome architecture mapping
A technique called genome architecture mapping (GAM) involves sequencing DNA from a large number of thin nuclear cryosections to develop a map of genome organization without the limitations of existing 3C-based methods.
Robert A. Beagrie, Antonio Scialdone, Markus Schueler et al.
Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity
In Arabidopsis thaliana, a genetic network that controls the phosphate stress response also influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions.
Gabriel Castrillo, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Sur Herrera Paredes et al.
A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution
Analysis of a wide range of dinosaurs and dinosauromorphs recovers a sister-taxon relationship between Ornithischia and Theropoda, calling for the redefinition of all the major clades within Dinosauria and the revival of the clade Ornithoscelida.
Matthew G. Baron, David B. Norman, Paul M. Barrett
Autism gene Ube3a and seizures impair sociability by repressing VTA Cbln1
Increasing expression of the autism-associated gene Ube3a, either alone or in combination with seizures, not only impairs sociability in mice but also reduces expression of the synaptic organizer Cbln1 in the ventral tegmental area, thus weakening glutamatergic transmission.
Vaishnav Krishnan, David C. Stoppel, Yi Nong et al.
Letters  
 
 
 
Remote site-selective C–H activation directed by a catalytic bifunctional template
A method is described for selectively activating remote C–H bonds in heterocycles by using a catalytic template that binds by reversible coordination instead of a covalent linkage, removing the need for specific functional groups on which to attach the template.
Zhipeng Zhang, Keita Tanaka, Jin-Quan Yu
CD32a is a marker of a CD4 T-cell HIV reservoir harbouring replication-competent proviruses
CD32a expression is induced on the surface of HIV-1-infected quiescent CD4 T cells, and could thus be used as a biomarker to facilitate future study of how the virus persists in cellular reservoirs in infected hosts.
Benjamin Descours, Gaël Petitjean, José-Luis López-Zaragoza et al.
Mapping vibrational surface and bulk modes in a single nanocube
Spatial mapping of optical and acoustic, bulk and surface vibrational modes in magnesium oxide nanocubes is demonstrated using a single electron probe.
Maureen J. Lagos, Andreas Trügler, Ulrich Hohenester et al.
Evidence for a Fe3+-rich pyrolitic lower mantle from (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite elasticity data
The authors report single-crystal elasticity data on (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite and show that its elastic behaviour is markedly different from that of the MgSiO3 endmember.
A. Kurnosov, H. Marquardt, D. J. Frost et al.
Simultaneous tracking of spin angle and amplitude beyond classical limits
Simultaneous precise measurement of the non-commuting observables spin angle and spin amplitude is achieved by directing the error due to quantum measurement back-action into an unmeasured spin component.
Giorgio Colangelo, Ferran Martin Ciurana, Lorena C. Bianchet et al.
Mechanical metamaterials at the theoretical limit of isotropic elastic stiffness
Finite-element models are used to identify a material geometry that achieves the theoretical bounds on isotropic elastic stiffness—a combination closed-cell cubic and octet foam.
J. B. Berger, H. N. G. Wadley, R. M. McMeeking
Bumblebee family lineage survival is enhanced in high-quality landscapes
Analysis of three wild-caught bumblebee species shows that family lineage survival and persistence is significantly increased between successive colony cycle stages with the proportion of high-value foraging habitat near the natal colony.
Claire Carvell, Andrew F. G. Bourke, Stephanie Dreier et al.
KRAB zinc-finger proteins contribute to the evolution of gene regulatory networks
Genomic analyses of KRAB-containing zinc-finger proteins and the transposable elements to which they bind show that a co-evolutionary arms race was not the only driver of their evolution.
Michaël Imbeault, Pierre-Yves Helleboid, Didier Trono
Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues
Here, marine phytoplankton are shown to diversify their migratory strategy in response to turbulent cues through a rapid change in shape, thus challenging a fundamental paradigm in oceanography that phytoplankton are passively at the mercy of ocean turbulence.
Anupam Sengupta, Francesco Carrara, Roman Stocker
DND1 maintains germline stem cells via recruitment of the CCR4–NOT complex to target mRNAs
The vertebrate-conserved and germline-specific RNA-binding protein DND1 recruits the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex to destabilize its mRNA targets and is required for the maintenance of germline stem cells.
Masashi Yamaji, Miki Jishage, Cindy Meyer et al.
RNA m6A methylation regulates the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response
Methylation at the 6 position of adenosine (m6A) in RNA is rapidly and transiently induced at DNA damage sites in response to ultraviolet irradiation.
Yang Xiang, Benoit Laurent, Chih-Hung Hsu et al.
Early antibody therapy can induce long-lasting immunity to SHIV
Early administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies in a macaque SHIV infection model is associated with very low levels of persistent viraemia, which leads to the establishment of T-cell immunity and resultant long-term infection control.
Yoshiaki Nishimura, Rajeev Gautam, Tae-Wook Chun et al.
 
 
 
An online-only, open access, multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality original research articles, reviews, editorials, commentaries, and hypothesis generating observations on all areas of breast cancer research. Part of the Nature Partner Journals series, published in partnership with the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.
 
 
 
Careers & Jobs
 
Feature  
 
 
 
Research management: A delicate balance
Jeffrey M. Perkel
Q&AS  
 
 
 
Turning point: Whale watcher
Vijee Venkatraman
Futures  
 
 
Mr Singularity

Norman Spinrad
 
 
 
 
 

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