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Nature Communications -01 February 2017

 
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Evidence of preserved collagen in an Early Jurassic sauropodomorph dinosaur revealed by synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy OPEN
Yao-Chang Lee, Cheng-Cheng Chiang, Pei-Yu Huang, Chao-Yu Chung, Timothy D. Huang, Chun-Chieh Wang, Ching-Iue Chen, Rong-Seng Chang, Cheng-Hao Liao and Robert R. Reisz
Biomolecules are rarely preserved during fossilization. Here, Lee and colleagues provide evidence of collagen preserved within the 195-million-year-old rib of a sauropodomorph dinosaur using in situ analyses and suggest that haematite particles may have contributed to protein preservation.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14220

Archaean zircons in Miocene oceanic hotspot rocks establish ancient continental crust beneath Mauritius OPEN
Lewis D. Ashwal, Michael Wiedenbeck and Trond H. Torsvik
There is growing evidence for the presence of continental fragments within the young oceanic basins, but this is still based on limited geological data. Here, the authors use zircon isotope geochronology to demonstrate the presence of Archaean continental crust beneath the young hotspot volcanoes of Mauritius.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14086

SC83288 is a clinical development candidate for the treatment of severe malaria OPEN
Stefano Pegoraro, Maëlle Duffey, Thomas D Otto, Yulin Wang, Roman Rösemann, Roland Baumgartner, Stefanie K Fehler, Leonardo Lucantoni, Vicky M Avery, Alicia Moreno-Sabater, Dominique Mazier, Henri J Vial, Stefan Strobl, Cecilia P Sanchez and Michael Lanzer
Severe malaria is a life-threatening infection with limited treatment options. Here, using a medicinal chemistry approach starting from amicarbalide, Pegoraro et al. identify a compound that, when delivered intravenously, can cure Plasmodium falciparum infection in a humanized mouse model.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14193

Reconstructing metastatic seeding patterns of human cancers OPEN
Johannes G. Reiter, Alvin P. Makohon-Moore, Jeffrey M. Gerold, Ivana Bozic, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue, Bert Vogelstein and Martin A. Nowak
Tumours frequently metastasize to multiple anatomical sites and understanding how these different metastases evolve may be important for therapy. Here, the authors develop a method—Treeomics—that can construct phylogenies from multiple metastases from next-generation sequencing data.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14114

A bizarre Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird with unique crural feathers and an ornithuromorph plough-shaped pygostyle OPEN
Min Wang, Jingmai K O’Connor, Yanhong Pan and Zhonghe Zhou
Although now extinct, Enantiornithes was the most diverse group of birds in the Mesozoic. Here, Wang and colleagues describe a new species of enantiornithine bird from 131 million years ago with features that suggest extensive diversification had occurred in the enantiornithines by this time.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14141

Convergent recombination suppression suggests role of sexual selection in guppy sex chromosome formation OPEN
Alison E. Wright, Iulia Darolti, Natasha I. Bloch, Vicencio Oostra, Ben Sandkam, Severine D. Buechel, Niclas Kolm, Felix Breden, Beatriz Vicoso and Judith E. Mank
It has been suggested that sex chromosomes arise as a result of sexual conflict, resulting in selection against recombination between chromosomes. Here, the authors resequence laboratory and wild guppy populations with differing levels of sexual antagonism, providing support for this long-held view.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14251

Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels identifies novel loci independent of prostate cancer OPEN
Thomas J. Hoffmann, Michael N. Passarelli, Rebecca E. Graff, Nima C. Emami, Lori C. Sakoda, Eric Jorgenson, Laurel A. Habel, Jun Shan, Dilrini K. Ranatunga, Charles P. Quesenberry, Chun R. Chao, Nirupa R. Ghai, David Aaronson, Joseph Presti, Tobias Nordström, Zhaoming Wang, Sonja I. Berndt, Stephen J. Chanock, Jonathan D. Mosley, Robert J. Klein et al.
Prostate-specific antigen is used as a biomarker of prostate cancer, but levels can be affected by other factors not related to cancer. Here, the authors find genes associated with prostate specific antigen levels in healthy men, which could be used to reduce over-diagnosis and over-treatment.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14248

Synthesis of ketones from biomass-derived feedstock OPEN
Qinglei Meng, Minqiang Hou, Huizhen Liu, Jinliang Song and Buxing Han
Conversion of biomass-derived chemicals to industrially relevant products can allow sustainable production of organic compounds. Here the authors report that aromatic ethers, which can be derived for biomass, can be converted into various cyclohexanones via a bromide salt-modified palladium catalyst.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14190

Pancancer modelling predicts the context-specific impact of somatic mutations on transcriptional programs OPEN
Hatice U. Osmanbeyoglu, Eneda Toska, Carmen Chan, José Baselga and Christina S. Leslie
Cancer genomic data sets contain a wealth of data that can be used to predict prognosis and further understand disease. Here, the authors integrate multiple genomics data types to identify transcriptional dysregulation in response to somatic mutations.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14249

Biomimetically inspired asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-19-dehydroxyl arisandilactone A OPEN
Yi-Xin Han, Yan-Long Jiang, Yong Li, Hai-Xin Yu, Bing-Qi Tong, Zhe Niu, Shi-Jie Zhou, Song Liu, Yu Lan, Jia-Hua Chen and Zhen Yang
Arisandilactone A is a natural product with a complex oxa-bridged tricyclic carbon core, making it a challenging target in total synthesis. Here the authors report an asymmetric total synthesis of its 19-dehydroxy derivative, with homo-Michael and tandem retro-Michael/Michael reactions as key steps.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14233

Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain OPEN
Lakshmi Subramanian, Marina Bershteyn, Mercedes F. Paredes and Arnold R. Kriegstein
The dynamics of progenitor cells in human neocortex development has not been studied directly. Here, the authors timelapse image human neuroepithelial (NE) and radial glial (RG) cells in embryonic brain slices and find properties of NE cells and RG that are mimicked in cerebral organoids.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14167

Ionic thermoelectric gating organic transistors OPEN
Dan Zhao, Simone Fabiano, Magnus Berggren and Xavier Crispin
The design of electronic skin for medical imaging or robotics applications calls for high capability of temperature sensing. Here, Zhao et al. integrate ionic thermoelectric gating to an organic thin-field transistor to detect temperature at sensitivity comparable to that of pyroelectric materials.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14214

Evidence for ACTN3 as a genetic modifier of Duchenne muscular dystrophy OPEN
Marshall W. Hogarth, Peter J. Houweling, Kristen C. Thomas, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Luca Bello, Elena Pegoraro, Eric P. Hoffman, Stewart I. Head, Kathryn N. North, V. Vishwanathan, S. Chidambaranathan, W. Douglas Biggar, Laura C. McAdam, Jean K. Mah, Mar Tulinius, Avital Cnaan, Lauren P. Morgenroth, Robert Leshner, Carolina Tesi-Rocha, Mathula Thangarajh, Tina Duong, Andrew Kornberg, Monique Ryan et al.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a disease caused by a single gene, characterized by progressive muscle weakness, but is variable between patients partly due to interactions of other genes. Here, the authors show that a common ACTN3 polymorphism can modify the clinical phenotype.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14143

Delaying histone deacetylase response to injury accelerates conversion into repair Schwann cells and nerve regeneration OPEN
Valérie Brügger, Mert Duman, Maëlle Bochud, Emmanuelle Münger, Manfred Heller, Sophie Ruff and Claire Jacob
Brügger et al. identify part of the molecular machinery that controls Schwann cell development after peripheral nerve injury. Inhibiting HDAC1/2 early after injury enhances nerve regeneration and promotes functional recovery.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14272

Light controls cerebral blood flow in naive animals OPEN
Ravi L Rungta, Bruno-Félix Osmanski, Davide Boido, Mickael Tanter and Serge Charpak
Combination of optogenetics and BOLD fMRI is routinely used to map neuronal activity upon photostimulation. Here the authors show that light, shone at intensities used in optogenetic studies, dilates vessels and increases blood flow independently of exogenous light-sensitive proteins in the mouse brain.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14191

Direct observation of spin-layer locking by local Rashba effect in monolayer semiconducting PtSe2 film OPEN
Wei Yao, Eryin Wang, Huaqing Huang, Ke Deng, Mingzhe Yan, Kenan Zhang, Koji Miyamoto, Taichi Okuda, Linfei Li, Yeliang Wang, Hongjun Gao, Chaoxing Liu, Wenhui Duan and Shuyun Zhou
Spin polarization in non-magnetic solids has mainly been limited to non-centrosymmetric materials. Here, the authors identify a helical spin texture in the centrosymmetric semiconductor platinum diselenide, and suggest it arises from a local dipole induced Rashba effect rather than the usual spin-splitting.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14216

Graphene-based mid-infrared room-temperature pyroelectric bolometers with ultrahigh temperature coefficient of resistance OPEN
U. Sassi, R. Parret, S. Nanot, M. Bruna, S. Borini, D. De Fazio, Z. Zhao, E. Lidorikis, F.H.L. Koppens, A. C. Ferrari and A. Colli
There is emerging interest in photodetectors in the mid-infrared driven by increasing need to monitor the environment for security and healthcare purposes. Sassi et al. show a thermal photodetector, based on the coupling between graphene and a pyroelectric crystal, which shows high temperature sensitivity.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14311

Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia OPEN
Renaud Jardri, Sandrine Duverne, Alexandra S Litvinova and Sophie Denève
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions. Here the authors report a novel probabilistic inference task in which compared to healthy subjects, schizophrenia patients show greater degree of circular inference that matches the severity of their clinical symptoms.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14218

Articulation points in complex networks OPEN
Liang Tian, Amir Bashan, Da-Ning Shi and Yang-Yu Liu
An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Here the authors develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in arbitrary complex networks.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14223

Climate change reduces extent of temperate drylands and intensifies drought in deep soils OPEN
Daniel R. Schlaepfer, John B. Bradford, William K. Lauenroth, Seth M. Munson, Britta Tietjen, Sonia A. Hall, Scott D. Wilson, Michael C. Duniway, Gensuo Jia, David A. Pyke, Ariuntsetseg Lkhagva and Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav
Future stress on water resources, and on temperate drylands in particular, remains uncertain. Here, the authors show that climate in the late twenty first century may reduce the extent of temperate drylands, dry deep soils, and create intra-regional and intercontinental differences in ecological drought.
31 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14196

Dietary fatty acid metabolism of brown adipose tissue in cold-acclimated men OPEN
Denis P. Blondin, Hans C. Tingelstad, Christophe Noll, Frédérique Frisch, Serge Phoenix, Brigitte Guérin, Éric E Turcotte, Denis Richard, François Haman and André C. Carpentier
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) takes up and burns fatty acids for thermogenesis in mice. Here the authors use PET to show that, in humans, cold stimulation increases BAT dietary fatty acid uptake from plasma and oxidative metabolism, although, unlike mice, human BAT takes up less fatty acids than other metabolic tissues.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14146

Single-step ambient-air synthesis of graphene from renewable precursors as electrochemical genosensor OPEN
Dong Han Seo, Shafique Pineda, Jinghua Fang, Yesim Gozukara, Samuel Yick, Avi Bendavid, Simon Kwai Hung Lam, Adrian T. Murdock, Anthony B. Murphy, Zhao Jun Han and Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov
Graphene films are commonly produced by thermal chemical vapour deposition, which is capable of producing high-quality films but still limited by factors such as high cost. Here, the authors report the growth of single-to-few-layer continuous graphene films under ambient-air conditions.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14217

KIF13B establishes a CAV1-enriched microdomain at the ciliary transition zone to promote Sonic hedgehog signalling OPEN
Kenneth B. Schou, Johanne B. Mogensen, Stine K. Morthorst, Brian S. Nielsen, Aiste Aleliunaite, Andrea Serra-Marques, Nicoline Fürstenberg, Sophie Saunier, Albane A. Bizet, Iben R. Veland, Anna Akhmanova, Søren T. Christensen and Lotte B. Pedersen
The ciliary transition zone (TZ) regulates the protein and membrane composition of the primary cilium. Here the authors identify the kinesin-3 motor protein KIF13B as a regulator of TZ membrane composition that controls the ciliary accumulation of Smoothened, which is involved in activation of Sonic hedgehog signalling.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14177

THZ1 targeting CDK7 suppresses STAT transcriptional activity and sensitizes T-cell lymphomas to BCL2 inhibitors OPEN
Florencia Cayrol, Pannee Praditsuktavorn, Tharu M. Fernando, Nicholas Kwiatkowski, Rosella Marullo, M. Nieves Calvo-Vidal, Jude Phillip, Benet Pera, Shao Ning Yang, Kaipol Takpradit, Lidia Roman, Marcello Gaudiano, Ramona Crescenzo, Jia Ruan, Giorgio Inghirami, Tinghu Zhang, Graciela Cremaschi, Nathanael S. Gray and Leandro Cerchietti
T-cell lymphomas are aggressive diseases associated with poor outcome. Here, the authors show that the THZ1, a CDK7 inhibitor, suppresses STAT transcriptional activity leading to apoptosis and sensitization to BCL2 inhibitors in T-cell lymphomas.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14290

Preserving π-conjugation in covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes for optoelectronic applications OPEN
Antonio Setaro, Mohsen Adeli, Mareen Glaeske, Daniel Przyrembel, Timo Bisswanger, Georgy Gordeev, Federica Maschietto, Abbas Faghani, Beate Paulus, Martin Weinelt, Raul Arenal, Rainer Haag and Stephanie Reich
While covalent modification of carbon nanotubes allows their use in a wide range of applications, it often results in disruption of their optoelectronic properties. Here, the authors design a cycloaddition reaction that preserves the nanotubes electronic structure.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14281

Transcriptomic and anatomic parcellation of 5-HT3AR expressing cortical interneuron subtypes revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing OPEN
Sarah Frazer, Julien Prados, Mathieu Niquille, Christelle Cadilhac, Foivos Markopoulos, Lucia Gomez, Ugo Tomasello, Ludovic Telley, Anthony Holtmaat, Denis Jabaudon and Alexandre Dayer
Cortical GABAergic interneurons are highly diverse in their gene expression, electrophysiological properties, and connectivity. Here the authors reveal three distinct subtypes of Htr3a-GFP+ interneurons using the single-cell RNA-seq approach, and identify MEIS2 as a marker for one such subtype.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14219

Specialized interfaces of Smc5/6 control hinge stability and DNA association OPEN
Aaron Alt, Hung Q. Dang, Owen S. Wells, Luis M. Polo, Matt A. Smith, Grant A. McGregor, Thomas Welte, Alan R. Lehmann, Laurence H. Pearl, Johanne M. Murray and Antony W. Oliver
Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complexes maintain genome integrity by regulating the segregation of chromosomes. Here, Alt et al. describe the structure of the heterodimeric Smc5/6-hinge from fission yeast and define functional features critical for Smc5/6’s cellular function.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14011

A Rab5 endosomal pathway mediates Parkin-dependent mitochondrial clearance OPEN
Babette C. Hammerling, Rita H. Najor, Melissa Q. Cortez, Sarah E. Shires, Leonardo J. Leon, Eileen R. Gonzalez, Daniela Boassa, Sébastien Phan, Andrea Thor, Rebecca E. Jimenez, Hong Li, Richard N. Kitsis, Gerald W. Dorn II, Junichi Sadoshima, Mark H. Ellisman and Åsa B. Gustafsson
Damaged mitochondria are normally cleared through canonical and alternative autophagy pathways. Here, the authors report that mitochondria can be cleared through an autophagy-independent endosomal-lysosomal pathway that depends on Parkin-dependent sequestration of mitochondria in Rab5-positive early endosomes.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14050

Orthogonal ubiquitin transfer identifies ubiquitination substrates under differential control by the two ubiquitin activating enzymes OPEN
Xianpeng Liu, Bo Zhao, Limin Sun, Karan Bhuripanyo, Yiyang Wang, Yingtao Bi, Ramana V. Davuluri, Duc M. Duong, Dhaval Nanavati, Jun Yin and Hiroaki Kiyokawa
The transfer of ubiquitin (UB) to cellular targets is mediated sequentially by three groups of enzymes, UB activating enzyme (E1), UB conjugating enzyme (E2) and UB ligase (E3). Here the authors provide evidence that the two mammalian E1 enzymes, Uba1 and Uba6, exert biologically distinct functions.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14286

Bacillus subtilis biofilm extends Caenorhabditis elegans longevity through downregulation of the insulin-like signalling pathway OPEN
Verónica Donato, Facundo Rodríguez Ayala, Sebastián Cogliati, Carlos Bauman, Juan Gabriel Costa, Cecilia Leñini and Roberto Grau
Probiotic bacteria can improve host health, but the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effects are often unclear. Here, the authors show that biofilm formation of the probiotic bacterium B. subtilis extends the lifespan of its host, the nematode C. elegans, by reducing insulin-like signalling.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14332

A general patterning approach by manipulating the evolution of two-dimensional liquid foams OPEN
Zhandong Huang, Meng Su, Qiang Yang, Zheng Li, Shuoran Chen, Yifan Li, Xue Zhou, Fengyu Li and Yanlin Song
Ostwald ripening is thermodynamically favoured in many liquid and gas systems, where small particles tend to dissolve into large ones. Against this effect, Huang et al. use patterned microstructures to guide the evolution of two-dimensional liquid foams as a platform for the assembly of nanoparticles.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14110

Structural basis for ELL2 and AFF4 activation of HIV-1 proviral transcription OPEN
Shiqian Qi, Zichong Li, Ursula Schulze-Gahmen, Goran Stjepanovic, Qiang Zhou and James H. Hurley
The host super elongation complex (SEC) is hijacked by HIV-1 for viral transcription. Here the authors present the structure of RNA polymerase elongation factor ELL2 bound to the intrinsically disordered scaffold protein AFF4, identifying an ELL2 surface important for HIV-1 transcription.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14076

Charge transfer to ground-state ions produces free electrons OPEN
D. You, H. Fukuzawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Takanashi, Y. Ito, G. G. Maliyar, K. Motomura, K. Nagaya, T. Nishiyama, K. Asa, Y. Sato, N. Saito, M. Oura, M. Schöffler, G. Kastirke, U. Hergenhahn, V. Stumpf, K. Gokhberg, A. I. Kuleff, L. S. Cederbaum et al.
Slow electrons, which cause radiation damage, are efficiently produced by interatomic neutralization processes. Here, the authors show experimental evidence for the efficient neutralization of the ionic states produced in Auger decay, using large neon–krypton clusters as a prototype system.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14277

Cellular mechano-environment regulates the mammary circadian clock OPEN
Nan Yang, Jack Williams, Vanja Pekovic-Vaughan, Pengbo Wang, Safiah Olabi, James McConnell, Nicole Gossan, Alun Hughes, Julia Cheung, Charles H. Streuli and Qing-Jun Meng
Circadian clocks regulate physiological and behavioural rhythms. Here, the authors show that the stiffness of the extracellular environment regulates circadian clocks in murine breast epithelium via Rho signalling, and explain how extracellular matrix stiffening in aging affects circadian rhythm, with implication in disease.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14287

The tumour suppressor APC promotes HIV-1 assembly via interaction with Gag precursor protein OPEN
Kei Miyakawa, Mayuko Nishi, Satoko Matsunaga, Akiko Okayama, Masaki Anraku, Ayumi Kudoh, Hisashi Hirano, Hirokazu Kimura, Yuko Morikawa, Naoki Yamamoto, Akira Ono and Akihide Ryo
The tumour suppressor APC is a multifunctional protein implicated in intracellular localization of mRNAs and WNT signalling. Here, Miyakawa et al. show that, via interaction with the HIV Gag precursor protein, APC promotes membrane targeting of viral components and cell-to-cell spread of HIV.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14259

A quantized mechanism for activation of pannexin channels OPEN
Yu-Hsin Chiu, Xueyao Jin, Christopher B. Medina, Susan A. Leonhardt, Volker Kiessling, Brad C. Bennett, Shaofang Shu, Lukas K. Tamm, Mark Yeager, Kodi S. Ravichandran and Douglas A. Bayliss
Pannexins are oligomeric plasma membrane channels that allow permeation of ions and large molecules. Here the authors show that human Pannexin 1 activation is a multistep event, where modification of each monomer opens the channel to a unique conductance state and fine tunes its activity.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14324

Edge reactivity and water-assisted dissociation on cobalt oxide nanoislands OPEN
J. Fester, M. García-Melchor, A. S. Walton, M. Bajdich, Z. Li, L. Lammich, A. Vojvodic and J. V. Lauritsen
Earth abundant transition metal oxides show great promise as catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction. Here, the authors reveal a self-assisted water dissociation mechanism and favourable theoretical adsorption energetics for water oxidation at the edge sites of cobalt oxide nano-islands.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14169

Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation OPEN
Ravi K. Lokareddy, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ankoor Roy, Pavel V. Afonine, Tina Motwani, Carolyn M. Teschke, Kristin N. Parent and Gino Cingolani
Tailed bacteriophages assemble empty precursor capsids known as procapsids that are subsequently filled with viral DNA by a genome-packaging motor. Here the authors present a structure-based analysis that suggests the signal for termination of genome packaging is achieved through a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14310

Highly efficient frequency conversion with bandwidth compression of quantum light OPEN
Markus Allgaier, Vahid Ansari, Linda Sansoni, Christof Eigner, Viktor Quiring, Raimund Ricken, Georg Harder, Benjamin Brecht and Christine Silberhorn
In quantum information technology the output of one element often does not match the required frequency and bandwidth of the input of the next element. Here, Allgaier et al. demonstrate simultaneous frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons without changing their quantum statistics.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14288

A strong diffusive ion mode in dense ionized matter predicted by Langevin dynamics OPEN
P. Mabey, S. Richardson, T. G. White, L. B. Fletcher, S. H. Glenzer, N. J. Hartley, J. Vorberger, D. O. Gericke and G. Gregori
Studying the properties of dense plasmas is challenging due to strong interactions between electrons and ions, and numerical methods overcome this difficulty using a static thermostat. Here the authors predict a strong diffusive ion mode at low energy by including dissipative processes in the model.
30 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14125

A mechanosensory receptor required for food texture detection in Drosophila OPEN
Juan Antonio Sánchez-Alcañiz, Giovanna Zappia, Frédéric Marion-Poll and Richard Benton
The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying food texture detection are poorly understood. Here the authors show that Drosophila can discriminate food texture when feeding, and that this ability depends on NOMPC, a mechanosensory channel expressed in gustatory sensilla neurons.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14192

Sub-wavelength modulation of χ(2) optical nonlinearity in organic thin films OPEN
Yixin Yan, Yakun Yuan, Baomin Wang, Venkatraman Gopalan and Noel C. Giebink
Materials with spatially modulated nonlinear optical properties are used for quasi-phase matching. Here, Yan et al. exploit the nonlinearity of intermolecular charge transfer states together with oblique-angle deposition to achieve nanoscale modulation of the second-order susceptibility.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14269

A critical role of DDRGK1 in endoplasmic reticulum homoeostasis via regulation of IRE1α stability OPEN
Jiang Liu, Ying Wang, Lizhi Song, Linghua Zeng, Weiwei Yi, Ting Liu, Huanzhen Chen, Miao Wang, Zhenyu Ju and Yu-Sheng Cong
DDRGK1 is an ER membrane protein that is subject to Ufm1 modification, but its function in ER homeostasis is unknown. Here, the authors show that ufmylated DDRGK1 interacts with and stabilizes the ER-stress sensor protein IRE1a, in turn repressing ER stress and apoptosis.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14186

Probing dark exciton diffusion using photovoltage OPEN
Tyler K. Mullenbach, Ian J. Curtin, Tao Zhang and Russell J. Holmes
Exciton diffusion plays a role in many optoelectronic devices. In some materials, this migration cannot be detected using photoluminescence. Mullenbach et al. use photovoltage measurements to extract the diffusion length in organic photovoltaic cells, and examine a series of non-luminescent materials.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14215

mTORC2 signalling regulates M2 macrophage differentiation in response to helminth infection and adaptive thermogenesis OPEN
R. W. Hallowell, S. L. Collins, J. M. Craig, Y. Zhang, M. Oh, P. B. Illei, Y. Chan-Li, C. L. Vigeland, W. Mitzner, A. L. Scott, J. D. Powell and M. R. Horton
mTORC1 and mTORC2 are alternatively required for differentiation of T cells into Th1/Th17 or Th2 cells. Here the authors show mTORC2 signalling is also needed for IL-4-induced M2 activation with functional evidence provided by a N. brasiliensis infection model and cold challenge to model adaptive thermogenesis.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14208

BCAS2 is involved in alternative mRNA splicing in spermatogonia and the transition to meiosis OPEN
Wenbo Liu, Fengchao Wang, Qianhua Xu, Junchao Shi, Xiaoxin Zhang, Xukun Lu, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Zheng Gao, Huaixiao Ma, Enkui Duan, Fei Gao, Shaorong Gao, Zhaohong Yi and Lei Li
Breast cancer amplified sequence 2 (BCAS2) is involved in pre-mRNA splicing but its physiological role is unclear. Here, the authors find BCAS2 enriched in mice spermatogonia in the testes, and BCAS2 deletion in germ cells alters alternative splicing of spermatogenesis-related genes, causing male infertility.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14182

A tachykinin-like neuroendocrine signalling axis couples central serotonin action and nutrient sensing with peripheral lipid metabolism OPEN
Lavinia Palamiuc, Tallie Noble, Emily Witham, Harkaranveer Ratanpal, Megan Vaughan and Supriya Srinivasan
Serotonin is a potent stimulator of fat loss and energy expenditure in several species, including C. elegans. Here, Palamiuc et al. identify the neuropeptide, FP-7, and its receptor in the intestine, NRP-22 as mediators of serotonergic body fat loss in worms.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14237

Unravelling raked linear dunes to explain the coexistence of bedforms in complex dunefields OPEN
Ping Lü, Clément Narteau, Zhibao Dong, Olivier Rozier and Sylvain Courrech du Pont
Raked linear dunes are a rare dune type, but the mechanisms for growth have not been constrained. Here, the authors show that a tridirectional wind regime is required to enable this extremely rare dune type to develop, where the raked pattern may develop preferentially on the leeward side.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14239

A redox-neutral catechol synthesis OPEN
Qian Wu, Dingyuan Yan, Ying Chen, Ting Wang, Feng Xiong, Wei Wei, Yi Lu, Wei-Yin Sun, Jie Jack Li and Jing Zhao
Catechols are common structural motifs in bioactive molecules and synthetic building blocks. Here the authors report a method to convert phenol derivatives into catechols via an iridium-catalysed redox-neutral C–H hydroxylation, giving diversely substituted products under mild conditions.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14227

Highly tensile-strained Ge/InAlAs nanocomposites OPEN
Daehwan Jung, Joseph Faucher, Samik Mukherjee, Austin Akey, Daniel J. Ironside, Matthew Cabral, Xiahan Sang, James Lebeau, Seth R. Bank, Tonio Buonassisi, Oussama Moutanabbir and Minjoo Larry Lee
Self-ordered heterogeneous nanostructures are of broad interest for both fundamental studies and technological applications. Here authors show that segregation in a multicomponent system during growth can yield highly strained germanium nanowire arrays embedded within a ternary semiconductor matrix.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14204

Disruption of cardiac cholinergic neurons enhances susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias OPEN
Christiane Jungen, Katharina Scherschel, Christian Eickholt, Pawel Kuklik, Niklas Klatt, Nadja Bork, Tim Salzbrunn, Fares Alken, Stephan Angendohr, Christiane Klene, Janos Mester, Nikolaj Klöcker, Marieke W. Veldkamp, Udo Schumacher, Stephan Willems, Viacheslav O. Nikolaev and Christian Meyer
Catheter ablation is a common therapy for atrial fibrillation but disrupts cardiac cholinergic neurons. Here the authors report that cholinergic neurons innervate heart ventricles and show that their ablation leads to increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in mouse models and in patients.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14155

Enzyme I facilitates reverse flux from pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in Escherichia coli OPEN
Christopher P. Long, Jennifer Au, Nicholas R. Sandoval, Nikodimos A. Gebreselassie and Maciek R. Antoniewicz
Enzyme I, a component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS), converts phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. Here, the authors show that Enzyme I facilitates also the reverse reaction during both gluconeogenic and glycolytic growth in E. coli.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14316

A Lin28 homologue reprograms differentiated cells to stem cells in the moss Physcomitrella patens OPEN
Chen Li, Yusuke Sako, Akihiro Imai, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Kari Thompson, Minoru Kubo, Yuji Hiwatashi, Yukiko Kabeya, Dale Karlson, Shu-Hsing Wu, Masaki Ishikawa, Takashi Murata, Philip N. Benfey, Yoshikatsu Sato, Yosuke Tamada and Mitsuyasu Hasebe
Land plants and metazoans are both able to reprogram differentiated cells to stem cells under certain circumstances. Here the authors show that the moss CSP1 protein, which shares conserved domains with the mammalian pluripotent stem cell factor Lin28, promotes reprogramming of leaf cells to apical stem cells.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14242

Microwave photon Fock state generation by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage OPEN
Shavindra P. Premaratne, F. C. Wellstood and B. S. Palmer
Precise quantum state preparation plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, Premaratne et al. use stimulated Raman adiabatic passage to transfer population from a superconducting transmon qubit to a cavity Fock state.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14148

Rhomboid family member 2 regulates cytoskeletal stress-associated Keratin 16 OPEN
Thiviyani Maruthappu, Anissa Chikh, Benjamin Fell, Paul J. Delaney, Matthew A. Brooke, Clemence Levet, Angela Moncada-Pazos, Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto, Diana Blaydon, Ahmad Waseem, Irene M. Leigh, Matthew Freeman and David P. Kelsell
Keratin 16 is an epithelial protein highly expressed at pressure bearing sites and during wound healing and cancer. Here the authors show that K16 interacts with the inactive protease Rhbdf2, associated with Tylosis with oesophageal cancer, and that this interaction drives increased keratinocyte proliferation.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14174

Proton pumping accompanies calcification in foraminifera OPEN
Takashi Toyofuku, Miki Y. Matsuo, Lennart Jan de Nooijer, Yukiko Nagai, Sachiko Kawada, Kazuhiko Fujita, Gert-Jan Reichart, Hidetaka Nomaki, Masashi Tsuchiya, Hide Sakaguchi and Hiroshi Kitazato
Despite their role in oceanic CaCO3 production, the physiological processes responsible for calcification in foraminifera are poorly understood Here, the authors show that calcification is driven by rapid transformation of bicarbonate to carbonate inside the cytoplasm, achieved by active outward proton pumping.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14145

High-throughput automated microfluidic sample preparation for accurate microbial genomics OPEN
Soohong Kim, Joachim De Jonghe, Anthony B. Kulesa, David Feldman, Tommi Vatanen, Roby P. Bhattacharyya, Brittany Berdy, James Gomez, Jill Nolan, Slava Epstein and Paul C. Blainey
Shotgun DNA sequencing experiments for microbial genomic analysis are often impractical due to minimum sample input requirements. Here the authors develop a microfluidic sample preparation platform that reduces sample input requirements 100-fold and enables high throughput sequencing from low numbers of cells.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13919

Rapid evolution of dispersal ability makes biological invasions faster and more variable OPEN
Brad M. Ochocki and Tom E. X. Miller
Theory suggests that spatial sorting by dispersal ability can generate evolutionarily accelerated range expansions. Using the bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, this study shows that evolution not only increases the speed of range expansion, as predicted, but also increases variability.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14315

The immunoreceptor NKG2D promotes tumour growth in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma OPEN
Sam Sheppard, Joana Guedes, Anna Mroz, Anastasia-Maria Zavitsanou, Hiromi Kudo, Stephen M. Rothery, Panagiotis Angelopoulos, Robert Goldin and Nadia Guerra
Expression of NKG2D immunoreceptor ligands on tumour cells is believed to inhibit tumour growth through engaging NKG2D-expressing immune cells. Here, the authors show that in a model of liver cancer the NKG2D/NKG2D-ligand pathway can also promote tumour formation by sustaining an inflammatory environment.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13930

Interfacial Ca2+ environments in nanocrystalline apatites revealed by dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced 43Ca NMR spectroscopy OPEN
Daniel Lee, César Leroy, Charlène Crevant, Laure Bonhomme-Coury, Florence Babonneau, Danielle Laurencin, Christian Bonhomme and Gaël De Paëpe
Solid-state NMR can in principle be used to study calcium environments in biomaterials such as bones/teeth, but 43Ca lacks receptivity. Here the authors present an approach to acquire 43Ca data for hydroxyapatite at its natural isotopic abundance, distinguishing between core and surface Ca sites.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14104

αV-class integrins exert dual roles on α5β1 integrins to strengthen adhesion to fibronectin OPEN
Mitasha Bharadwaj, Nico Strohmeyer, Georgina P. Colo, Jonne Helenius, Niko Beerenwinkel, Herbert B. Schiller, Reinhard Fässler and Daniel J. Müller
Interaction of fibronectin with αv-class and α5β1 integrins results in formation of cell adhesion complexes, but the initial events (<120 s) remain unclear. Here, the authors show that αv-class integrins bind fibronectin faster than α5β1 integrins and subsequently signal to α5ß1 integrins to strengthen the adhesion.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14348

A non-canonical mismatch repair pathway in prokaryotes OPEN
A. Castañeda-García, A. I. Prieto, J. Rodríguez-Beltrán, N. Alonso, D. Cantillon, C. Costas, L. Pérez-Lago, E. D. Zegeye, M. Herranz, P. Plociński, T. Tonjum, D. García de Viedma, M. Paget, S. J. Waddell, A. M. Rojas, A. J. Doherty and J. Blázquez
Despite the importance of mismatch repair for genome stability, many Archaea and almost all Actinobacteria lack MutS and MutL proteins. Here the authors, using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a model, report that NucS/EndoMS endonuclease acts in a distinct mismatch repair pathway.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14246

A-FABP mediates adaptive thermogenesis by promoting intracellular activation of thyroid hormones in brown adipocytes OPEN
Lingling Shu, Ruby L. C. Hoo, Xiaoping Wu, Yong Pan, Ida P. C. Lee, Lai Yee Cheong, Stefan R Bornstein, Xianglu Rong, Jiao Guo and Aimin Xu
The protein A-FABP is secreted from adipocytes and known to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Here the authors show A-FABP enhances thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of thyroxine T4 to the bioactive form, T3, in brown adipocytes, and by enhancing fatty acid uptake of brown fat.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14147

Deformation-resembling microstructure created by fluid-mediated dissolution–precipitation reactions OPEN
Liene Spruzeniece, Sandra Piazolo and Helen E. Maynard-Casely
Microstructural features of deformed rocks are used to reveal deformation stresses and temperatures. Here, the authors conduct experiments showing that misleading microstructures form during fluid-mediated mineral reactions under static conditions, and propose new criteria for microstructure identification.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14032

Glia-derived ATP inversely regulates excitability of pyramidal and CCK-positive neurons OPEN
Zhibing Tan, Yu Liu, Wang Xi, Hui-fang Lou, Liya Zhu, Zhifei Guo, Lin Mei and Shumin Duan
Astrocyte in the brain regulates synaptic transmission by releasing gliotransmitters. Here, Tan and colleagues use optogenetic stimulation of astrocytes to show differential neuronal subtype-specific purinoceptor responses to astrocytic ATP release to affect network excitability.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13772

Cell-like pressure sensors reveal increase of mechanical stress towards the core of multicellular spheroids under compression OPEN
M. E. Dolega, M. Delarue, F. Ingremeau, J. Prost, A. Delon and G. Cappello
Quantifying the propagation of mechanical stress in multicellular tissues remains challenging. Here the authors develop polyacrylamide microbeads as sensors that accurately report on stress within spheroids and show that external compression results in a rise in pressure towards the core.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14056

Stimulated emission from nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond OPEN
Jan Jeske, Desmond W. M. Lau, Xavier Vidal, Liam P. McGuinness, Philipp Reineck, Brett C. Johnson, Marcus W. Doherty, Jeffrey C. McCallum, Shinobu Onoda, Fedor Jelezko, Takeshi Ohshima, Thomas Volz, Jared H. Cole, Brant C. Gibson and Andrew D. Greentree
Here Jeske et al. show both theoretical and experimental evidence for stimulated emission from negatively charged nitrogen vacancy centres using light in the phonon sidebands around 700 nm, demonstrating its suitability as a laser medium.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14000

Rapid trait evolution drives increased speed and variance in experimental range expansions OPEN
Christopher Weiss-Lehman, Ruth A Hufbauer and Brett A Melbourne
Spatial structure provides unique opportunities for evolution during range expansions. Here, the authors show experimentally using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, that dispersal and growth can evolve through spatial processes, increasing expansion speed and its variance.
27 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14303

Optical gating and streaking of free electrons with sub-optical cycle precision OPEN
M. Kozák, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, H. Deng, N. Schönenberger, A. Ruehl, I. Hartl, J. S. Harris, R. L. Byer and P. Hommelhoff
Pulsed electron beams with ultrafast duration are desirable to study atomic processes occurring over the natural time scales of electronic motion. Here the authors demonstrate the generation of electron pulses down to attosecond time scales by using optical gating and streaking method.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14342

Multiplexed single-mode wavelength-to-time mapping of multimode light OPEN
Harikumar K Chandrasekharan, Frauke Izdebski, Itandehui Gris-Sánchez, Nikola Krstajić, Richard Walker, Helen L. Bridle, Paul A. Dalgarno, William N. MacPherson, Robert K. Henderson, Tim A. Birks and Robert R. Thomson
Photonic lanterns are made by merging several single-mode cores into one multimode core. Here, the authors show this type of structure can both perform wavelength-to-time mapping of multimode states of light and couple such light to an array of single-photon avalanche detectors.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14080

[Au]/[Ag]-catalysed expedient synthesis of branched heneicosafuranosyl arabinogalactan motif of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall OPEN
Shivaji A. Thadke, Bijoyananda Mishra, Maidul Islam, Sandip Pasari, Sujit Manmode, Boddu Venkateswara Rao, Mahesh Neralkar, Ganesh P. Shinde, Gulab Walke and Srinivas Hotha
Arabinogalactan forms parts of the cellular envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, however due to its size chemical synthesis is a massive task. Here the authors report the synthesis of branched heneicosafuranosyl arabinogalactan fragment by repeated use of a Au/Ag-catalysed glycosylation methodology.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14019

Ice sheets as a missing source of silica to the polar oceans OPEN
Jon R. Hawkings, Jemma L. Wadham, Liane G. Benning, Katharine R. Hendry, Martyn Tranter, Andrew Tedstone, Peter Nienow and Rob Raiswell
Glacial runoff often has relatively low dissolved silica concentrations and therefore ice sheets have been thought insignificant in the global silicon cycle. Here, the authors show that ice sheets likely play an important role in the production and export of dissolved and dissolvable amorphous silica downstream.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14198

Deep eutectic-solvothermal synthesis of nanostructured ceria OPEN
Oliver S. Hammond, Karen J. Edler, Daniel T. Bowron and Laura Torrente-Murciano
Synthesis of nanostructured ceria on green deep eutectic solvent reline is one of the less energy-intensive routes to date. Here, the authors show that the reline solvent plays the role of a latent supramolecular catalyst driving the pre-organization of the reactants, allowing morphology and porosity control.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14150

Highly active and efficient catalysts for alkoxycarbonylation of alkenes OPEN
Kaiwu Dong, Xianjie Fang, Samet Gülak, Robert Franke, Anke Spannenberg, Helfried Neumann, Ralf Jackstell and Matthias Beller
The carbonylation of alkenes is tremendously important industrial process, but many substrates are highly challenging. Here the authors report a highly active catalytic system for the alkoxycarbonylation of alkenes that is also general across the range of alkene substitution patterns.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14117

Design principles for shift current photovoltaics OPEN
Ashley M. Cook, Benjamin M. Fregoso, Fernando de Juan, Sinisa Coh and Joel E. Moore
Above band-gap photovoltage could be achieved in materials with a net polarization. Here, Cook et al. compute the contribution to the shift current from the band edge and identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics materials, GeS and ferroelectric polymer films.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14176

Super-Coulombic atom–atom interactions in hyperbolic media OPEN
Cristian L. Cortes and Zubin Jacob
Dipole-dipole interactions give rise to a number of physical phenomena, but they are typically limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here authors demonstrate the existence of a class of real- and virtual-photon interactions which have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14144

A polychromatic ‘greenbeard’ locus determines patterns of cooperation in a social amoeba OPEN
Nicole Gruenheit, Katie Parkinson, Balint Stewart, Jennifer A. Howie, Jason B. Wolf and Christopher R. L. Thompson
Cooperation can be stabilized against exploitation if cooperators can reliably recognize each other. Here, Gruenheit and colleagues show that different alleles of the Tgr locus of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum underlie the ability of different strains to recognize and cooperate with socially compatible individuals.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14171

Identical folds used for distinct mechanical functions of the bacterial flagellar rod and hook OPEN
Takashi Fujii, Takayuki Kato, Koichi D. Hiraoka, Tomoko Miyata, Tohru Minamino, Fabienne F. V. Chevance, Kelly T. Hughes and Keiichi Namba
The bacterial flagellum is a motile organelle that enables bacterial movement. Here the authors explain how the structurally similar flagellum components FlgG and FlgE can give rise to distinct macrostructures—the rod and hook—through subtle differences in domain orientation attributable to a short N-terminal insertion in FlgG.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14276

DNA copy number changes define spatial patterns of heterogeneity in colorectal cancer OPEN
Soulafa Mamlouk, Liam Harold Childs, Daniela Aust, Daniel Heim, Friederike Melching, Cristiano Oliveira, Thomas Wolf, Pawel Durek, Dirk Schumacher, Hendrik Bläker, Moritz von Winterfeld, Bastian Gastl, Kerstin Möhr, Andrea Menne, Silke Zeugner, Torben Redmer, Dido Lenze, Sascha Tierling, Markus Möbs, Wilko Weichert et al.
The contribution of intra-tumour heterogeneity is increasingly associated with resistance to therapy. Here, the authors use genomic analyses to study heterogeneity in colorectal cancer and perform in-depth reconstruction of heterogeneity in one sample.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14093

Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials OPEN
Yang Zhao, Amir N. Askarpour, Liuyang Sun, Jinwei Shi, Xiaoqin Li and Andrea Alù
Here Zhao et al. use twisted metamaterials to drastically enhance chiral responses through strong near-field interactions, and sense the chirality down to zeptomoles of molecules, orders of magnitude smaller than what is detectable with conventional circular dichroism spectroscopy.
25 January 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14180
 
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